German Bohemia (German: Deutschböhmen; Czech: Německé Čechy) is a region in Czech Republic established, for a short period of time, after the World War I. It includes parts of northern and western Bohemia once largely populated by ethnic Germans. Important population centers are Liberec (Reichenberg), Ústí nad Labem (Aussig), Teplice (Teplitz-Schönau), Duchcov (Dux) , Cheb (Eger), Mariánské Lázne (Marienbad), Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad), Jablonec nad Nisou (Gablonz an der Neiße), Litoměřice (Leitmeritz), Most (Brüx) and, Žatec (Saaz).


Lands constituting German Bohemia were historically an integral part of the Habsburg constituent Kingdom of Bohemia but, with the imminent collapse of Habsburg Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, areas of the Czech-majority Bohemia with an ethnic German majority began to take actions to avoid joining a new Czechoslovak state. On 27 October 1918, the Egerland region declared independence from Bohemia and a day later the independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed in the Bohemian capital of Prague.

On 11 November 1918, Emperor Charles I of Austria relinquished power and, on 12 November, the ethnic German areas of the empire were declared the Republic of German Austria with the intent of unifying with Germany. The Province of German Bohemia (German: Provinz Deutschböhmen) was formed from the part of Bohemia containing the most ethnic Germans (however, ethnic German areas of southwestern Bohemia in the Bohemian Forest Region were added to Lower Austria instead of German Bohemia). The capital of the province was Liberec.

In late November 1918, the Czechoslovak army began an invasion of German Bohemia and during December it occupied whole area of the region with Liberec falling on 16 December and the last major city, Litoměřice, falling on 27 December 1918.

The status of German areas in Bohemia and Moravia was definitively settled by the 1919 peace treaties of Versailles and Saint-Germain-en-Laye that declared that the areas belong to Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovak Government then granted amnesty for all activities against the new state.

The region was then reintegrated into the Bohemian Land of the First Republic of Czechoslovakia and remained a part of it until the Nazi dismemberment of Czechoslovakia when it was added to Sudetenland. After World War II, the area was returned to the new country of Czechoslovakia. All of the remaining German population living in the region following the War were driven out of their homes; many of these persons were killed or died during their flight from the attacking Czech and Soviet armies. The region was part of the Soviet coalition government with Communist ministers from 1945-1948. From 1948 - 1990 it was part of the Communist country Czechoslovkia; in 1990-1992, the country broke into the two federal Democratic governments of the Czech Republik and the Sloak Republik, and is now part of Czech Republic.

The provinces of German Austria with German Bohemia in brown