This work features the first district-by-district analysis of all provinces in the Iberian Peninsula with an autochthonous Basque population, and indicates the existence of genetic heterogeneity. The populations cluster in three groups arising from processes of genetic drift which probably occurred in pre-Mesolithic times, and were probably those which repopulated the southern areas of the Basque Country after the Last Glacial Maximum. It seems that from that period onwards, the population settled in three major groups (West Basques, Central Basques, and East Basques), along geographical axes which appear substantial in the maintaining of each population unit. This genetic structure is probably reflected in other aspects such as the existence of ancient tribes and the dialects of the Basque language, the boundaries of which may be related at origin and which are quite similar to those detected in this work. Our results indicate that the populations of the Basque Country are genetically close to other neighboring populations, such as that of Aragon, which may indicate an outgoing gene flow from the Basque area down the River Ebro towards the Mediterranean seaboard. While our short tandem repeat data suggest that population structure within the Basques dates back to the Mesolithic, our findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that patterns of modern European genetic diversity have been shaped mainly during the Neolithic.