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  • The Dutch are Low German

    91 60.26%
  • The Low Germans are Dutch

    23 15.23%
  • Neither

    26 17.22%
  • Other

    11 7.28%
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Thread: Are the Dutch Low German or Are the Low Germans Dutch? / Should the Netherlands Join Germany?

  1. #1
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    Are the Dutch Low German or Are the Low Germans Dutch? / Should the Netherlands Join Germany?

    What do you think?

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    Funding Member Zyklop's Avatar
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    Post AW: Are the Netherlands part of Großdeutschland?

    Depends on if they wish to join the Reich again. I would welcome them back.
    Tolerance is a proof of distrust in one's own ideals. Friedrich Nietzsche


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    Post Re: Are the Netherlands part of Großdeutschland?

    Well, they are distinct, so I do believe they should never be forced into anything, though if they want to join the Reich they would be accepted with ope arms
    Death is nothing, but to live defeated and inglorious is to die daily.

    NAPOLEON BONAPARTE

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    Senior Member Aragorn's Avatar
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    Post Re: Are the Netherlands part of Großdeutschland?

    I vote for yes, certainly the Netherlands aswell Flanders are an part of the German reich. I live in the border region near nortrhein-westfalen, and on both sides of the border you can discover the same Germanic language ( our dialects are quite identical), same caunts for folklore, surnames, architecture, saints, customs, etc... Besides the words Deutsch, Dutch and Diets means the same: people. The only reason that the low lands became sepperated from the reich, is because it came under French-Bourgindian-Spanish political influence. The Diets people should unite with the German people and reich again, not necesarry to become assimilated, but something like an autonomous gau inside the German reich. Just like today in Germany there lives Slavic Sorbians in the Lausits, and Germanic Danes and frisians in Schleswig-Holstein, so can our regions be come an part of Germany, but stil to remain its own culture and language. Iam very much Deutsch-freundlich, probably as an result as iam an inhabitant of the border region.

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    Post Re: Are the Netherlands part of Großdeutschland?

    I think the Greater Germanic Reich could be split into 3 autonomous regions, a North gremanic, Lowland Germanic and High Germanic regions.
    The north Germanic region would be the Scandinavian nations,
    Lowland region would be the low German speaking regions of Germany, Hamburg, Saxony etc as well as the Netherlands and Flanders,
    and a High German region comprising of the rest of Germany and Austria and Switzerland. That way each region would retain its own linguistic and cultural identity while remaning a part of the Reich without being under the hegemony of high German.
    But what do i know?
    A! Fredome is a noble thing
    Fredome mays man to haiff liking.
    Fredome all solace to man giffis,
    He levys at es that frely levys.
    A noble hart may haiff nane es
    Na ellys nocht that may him ples
    Gyff fredome failyhe, for fre liking
    Is yharnyt our all other thing.
    Na he that ay has levyt fre
    May nocht knaw weill the propyrte
    The angyr na the wrechyt dome
    That is couplyt to foule thyrldome,
    Bot gyff he had assayit it.
    Than all perquer he suld it wyt,
    And suld think fredome mar to prys
    Than all the gold in warld that is.
    Thus contrar thingis evermar
    Discoveryngis off the tother ar,


    Scots is our mither tung; an gin we dinna hain it,
    thare naebody gaun tae hain it for us.


    Scots is our mother tongue; and if we do not preserve it,
    nobody will preserve it for us.

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    Post Re: Are the Netherlands part of Großdeutschland?

    According to the C.I.A.

    Ethnic groups

    Dutch 83%, other 17% (of which 9% are non-Western origin mainly Turks, Moroccans, Antilleans, Surinamese, and Indonesians) (1999 est.)

    and Belgium...

    Ethnic groups

    Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

    So I'd say in order to determine if the Netherlands is part of Großdeutschland, you'd have to figure out what "Dutch" is. Does anyone know what the average Dutch person looks like, subrace?

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    Yes, but then we wouldn't recognise them anymore, when blocking our motorways.
    Die schlechtesten Früchte sind es nicht, woran die Wespen nagen.

    Gottfried August Bürger


    Wo die Gefahr wächst, wächst das Rettende auch.
    F. Hölderlin

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    Post AW: Re: Are the Netherlands part of Großdeutschland?

    Yes,
    in old Times Netherlands was a Part of the "Heilige römische Reich deutscher Nation".
    Dont ask me when, but it was.

  10. #9
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    Post AW: Are the Netherlands part of Großdeutschland?

    A guide for the Thread title for a better understanding!

    3. The high and the late Middle Ages - national streiflichter 3.1. Central Europe: The holy Roman realm the Franconia, Alemannen, Saxonia and Bavaria, which lived in the karolingischen realm and after 840 in its eastern partial realm, was first strange the conception of a common nationality. It became only since the 70's of the 11. Century in the argument between the reform papacy and the Koenigtum develops. 1074 requested Pope Gregor VIITH king Heinrich IV., which 1073 (like occasionally already his father) as Rex Romanorum had tituliert himself, its rule on regnum the Teutonicorum, to limit i.e. to the part of the realm inhabited by Germans. Heinrich V. called itself 1111 Teutonicorum rex et Romanorum imperator. The emperor title had been provided since the government of Otto II. (973-983) with the attribute "Roman". The German word "realm" refers both to rule range of the emperor (imperium) and the king (regnum). although these did not cover themselves geographically. As "holy" the realm became - in resumption of antiker traditions - since designates 1157. By the contract of Verdun (843) Ludwig (the German) had, who second survivors son of Ludwig of the pious one, whom receive East part of the karolingischen realm. After the death of his nephew Lothar it had the eastern half of its by the contract of Meerssen (870) is enough (Lorraine) to gain to be able. After Ludwig's death (876) its sphere of influence among the sons Karl man (Bavaria, died 880) was divided, Ludwig III. (Main Franconia, Thuringia, Saxonia) and Karl III. (Alemannien). Emperor Karl (the bald one), owners of the west realm, tried, to recover Lorraine however with other oh one from Ludwig III. was struck (876). This won the west half of Lorraine by the contract of Ribémont also still in addition (880). Karl III. (the thickness), in February 881 to the emperor crowned, beerbte its brothers and was therefore since 882 exclusive ruler in the east realm. At short notice it could gain also the west realm and re-establish so again the realm of Karl of the large one nearly completely (885). Since an illness made it government unable, it was forced however 887 to the resignation. In the east realm Arnulf, an illegitimate son of his brother Karl man, who was crowned 896 to the emperor, followed it. In consideration of self-consciousness the Lotharingian one created Arnulf 894 for it a Unterkoenigtum, which he occupied with its illegitimate son Zwentibold. This fell in August 900; Lorraine was integrated the east realm, kept however a privileged position. After Arnulfs death (dec. 899) was selected his in February 900 son Ludwig (the child) to the successor. Internal arguments and the ideas that Hungary fell the realm into a heavy crisis. With the death of Ludwig in September 911 from Ludwig the line of the Karolinger descending expired to the German.

    The weakness of the Koenigtums had already in the last decades 9. Century led to the fact that the neglected tasks of regional Gewalten were noticed. Under Ludwig the child prominent families climbed to herzoglicher position within the trunks (Bavaria, Franken, Swabia and Saxonia). The large ones of these trunks raised in November 910 unanimously the Franconia duke Konrad to the king. The Lotharingian ones followed the westFrankish Karolinger Karl (the Einfaeltigen). One tried to replace the gebluetsrechtliche authentication, which was missing to Konrad, by up to then the church Salbung not usual in the east realm. The reign of Konrad is from arguments with the prominent families in Swabia and Saxonia pulled through. It found in Swabia support by the church. Its rule nevertheless remained limited to the own master duchy Franconia essentially. Attempts for the recuperation of Lorraine remained unsuccessful. The ideas that Hungary faced the realm helplessly. Political farsightedness Konrad proved, as it before its death (dec. 918) the duke Heinrich of Saxonia as a successor recommended. In May 919 Franconias and Saxonia Heinrich I. selected to the king. The Swabia stayed away from the choice; Bavaria raised the own master duke. By concessions it succeeded to Heinrich to attain also the acknowledgment of these trunks and to actually bind their dukes. Thus the power bases of the Koenigtums shifted in the north and the east of the realm. Heinrich I. began in the resort to karolingische traditions to place the church into the service of the royal policy. This policy continued by the successors led to the emergence of the realm church system. Differently than into the Nachbarlaenderrn exercised from now on in the realm the archbishops, bishops and some abbotts lay rule. Their efficiency, also in military area, became a substantial support of the Koenigtums. This system presupposed however that the kings exerted influence on the occupation of the bishop chairs.

    These were often occupied with men, who had served before in the environment of the king, in particular in the yard chapel concerned with the production of the documents. Internal arguments offered Heinrich I. the opportunity to intervene in Lorraine. he attained 921 against the renouncement of Lorraine von Karl the Einfaeltigen the acknowledgment as a king of east Franconias (rex Francorum orientalium). By confusions in the west realm favoured, he could attach 925 Lorraine in the long term nevertheless to the east realm and put its sphere of influence forward up to 843 the specified west border of the central realm. The relations with the kings of (high -) Burgund was strengthened 935 by an alliance. Heinrich rendered large services with the defense that Hungary; in March 933 it could strike it with the ride castle (to the Unstrut). Raids served the border safety device against the Slaven over the Elbe and the establishment of the castle Meissen. Heinrich I. its son petrol designated 936 to the exclusive successor. The karolingische custom of the handing hurrying was given up. On 2 July 936 Heinrich I. in Memleben died to the Unstrut. Petrol I. was selected in August 936 in Aachen by the large ones of the realm to the king; Coronation/culmination and Salbung followed. From these procedures proceeded standard screen end an effect for the future. The first phase of the government of the new king was fulfilled of arguments with the Stammesgewalten. The Frankish duke Eberhard fell on 2 October 939 in the battle of other oh one; the king used no successor, but kept the duchy in the own hand. The assignment of other duchies to the next relatives did not solve the problems; also these indignant itself against the king. After death king Lothar of (down -) Burgund breaking out arguments caused the king 950 to the intervention in upper Italy. In September 951 it received the Huldigung of the large ones as a king of the Langobarden. Following the title led by Karl the large one petrol called rex in the future et itself Langobardorum Francorum. He married the widow Lothar, who played an important role in the next decades also politically in second marriage Adelheid. On 10 August 955 petrol with an army, which consisted of quantities of all trunks with exception of the Lotharingian ones, on the Lechfeld could strike south Augsburg the Hungary destroying. The realm remained in the future exempted from their ideas. In August the king, from the Pope to assistance called, applied 961 again to Italy. On 2 February 962 it was crowned and gesalbt together with its wife to the emperor. Petrol occurred also in this point the karolingische tradition. The border defense to the east was fundamentally again organized. Several marks were furnished, begun with the Missionierung under the Slaven. Also the church organization was adapted to these new requirements: 967 the ore diocese Magdeburg was created, to which the dioceses Brandenburg and Havelberg as well as the likewise again created Meissen, Merseburg and Zeitz (later shifted after Naumburg), already existing, were assigned. 966 the emperor a third time had to intervene in Italy. It came 969 also to a military argument with the Byzantine emperor. Its successor Johannes Tzimiskes recognized finally the Kaisertum of Otto on and gave its niece Theophanu the son and successor petrol II. to the woman (April 972).

    On 7 May 973 is petrol I. - like its father in Memleben to the Unstrut - died. Petrol II., already since 967 Mitkaiser, was faced with 974 of a rebellion of its uncle Heinrich, the duke of Bavaria, that with the princes of Boehmen and Poland allied was 977 penetrated troops of the westFrankish king Lothar until Aachen; the retaliation campaign led petrol II. to before Paris. to 980 Lothar in all form did without Lorraine. In South Italies petrol operated IITH, also under the influence its wife Theophanu, a more offensive policy than the father. It suffered on 13 July 982 with Capo Colonne a destroying defeat against the Sarazenen. 983 ran over the Slaven, possibly by the message encouraged by the defeat of the emperor, the border system at the middle Elbe. The area between Elbe and or was lost - with exception of the marks Lausitz and Meissen -. On 7 December 983 the emperor in Rome succumbed to the consequences of the malaria. Its of the same name, still no four years old son in December 983 to the king one selected. Before the nut/mother from Italy arrived, duke Heinrich of Bavaria of the child had seized. Easter 984 could be selected Heinrich to the king. This caused the resistance of a party among the princes, who forced it, on 29 July 984 into pipe into south Thuringia the child to its nut/mother to hand over, now, supported from the archbishop of Mainz, the regency took over. After Theophanus death (June 991) followed the grandmother Adelheid, widow of Otto I., in this function. For September petrol III. governed 994 independently. It pulled in the spring 996 to Italy, found however the Pope, who had called it to assistance, no longer living. Therefore it intended a cousin for the successor, that mounted as first Germans the papal throne and on 21 May 996 to the emperor crowned petrols. This placed itself consciously into the tradition of Karl of the large one, whose grave in Aachen he let open in the year 1000 solemnly. Supported of the Pope and from his diocese refugee bishop Adalbert of Prague erstrebte petrol III. the Christian renewal of the Roman realm (Renovatio imperii Romanorum). The guidance of the title Romanorum served that imperator Augustus and the establishment of a Pfalz on the Palatin in Rome for the establishment of an ore diocese, whose patron became its personal friend Adalbert, which had suffered 997 with the mission of the Pruzzen the Martyrertod, went the emperor at the beginning of the yearly 1000 after Gnesen into the sphere of influence of the Poland prince Boleslav Chrobry. The emperor cooperated likewise with the Pope like 1001 with the establishment of the ore diocese Gran, with which Hungary its own church structure was given. On 24 January 1002 petrol III. died unexpectedly. For the throne several candidates applied. On 7 June 1002 duke Heinrich of Bavaria, a great-grandchild king Heinrichs I., of Bavaria, Franken and Lothringern to the king was selected. Heinrich II. found within fewer months in the entire realm acknowledgment. It concentrated first on the consolidation of conditions in Germany. In Swabia, Bavaria and Kaernten he could successfully intersperse its requirement on the right for the installation of the dukes. Likewise it made successfully the efficiency of the church for the realm servable. 1004 became the diocese Merseburg again -, 1007 the diocese Bamberg establish again. With the Poland prince Boleslav Chrobry came it several times to armed arguments. 1006 closed Heinrich II. a hereditary contract with the king of (high -) Burgund, which became effective after its death however only (1033). The king intervened several times in conditions in Italy. In February 1014 Heinrich II. was crowned together with his Mrs. Kunigunde from the Pope to the emperor. 1021 he could strike back the attack of a Byzantine army. On 13 July 1024 Heinrich II. died childless. Among the throne candidates were two cousins named Konrad, who belonged to the sex of the Salier wealthy around Worms and Speyer and descended from a daughter of Otto I.. On 4 September 1024 on operation of the archbishop of Mainz Konrad the older one to the king one selected. At first it gave some resistances. The rule of Konrad II., which placed itself consciously into the tradition of the Ottonen, was however never endangered. It could recover also the positions in Italy, partly broken down after the death of its predecessor.

    Easter 1027 it was crowned in presence of the kings by Hochburgund and Denmark in Rome from the Pope to the emperor. At the east border it gave some setbacks to the government at the beginning; only 1033 could be closed with king Miezko of Poland peace. In the same year the IITH acquisition prepared by Heinrich (high -) succeeded to Burgunds. Under Heinrich III., which followed the father in June 1039, reached the realm a high point of its power. The king could make its influence valid in Boehmen, Poland and Hungary. In December 1046 it intervened in Rome and let the bishop von Bamberg to the Pope raise, who crowned it together with its wife at Christmas to the emperor. Close co-operation continued among the next Popes. The influencing control on the occupation of the chair Petri tightened however the Unwillen of the church reform party, which saw the liberty of the church threatened by the interferences by laymen in the core to the emperor. During the practice of his rule in the realm the emperor, like already its father, supported himself increasingly on service people of unfree origin (Ministerialen), which were obligated only to it. This led to discontent in far circles of the aristocracy, which laid claim on participation in the rule. In several Herzoegtuemern it came to rebellions. The monastische reform movement expenditure-maturing from reform centers in Lorraine over the entire realm was supported by the emperor; 1055 he organized a large Reformsynode together with the Pope in Florenz. The fact that also the interferences continued by it had to apply the advocates of the reform in the case of the occupation of the bishop chairs ever more against it became probably not conscious the emperor. On 5 October 1056 Heinrich III. died unexpectedly. Its son Heinrich IV., 1054 to the king selected, was first still minor. Its nut/mother Agnes, which led the regency for it, acted unfortunately. 1062 were kidnapped the young king by the archbishop Anno of Cologne, which, due to the order across the person of the king, led from now on in fact the regency. Beside it won occasionally different clergyman at influence. At the same time it came to the alienation in relation to the church reform party, which won the influence of king increasingly to the Kurie in influence and in the Papal election decree of 1059 and emperor back-pushed in favor of since then the cardinals dominating the choice. Because of the occupation of the ore diocese Milan it came to the conflict. At the same time the attempts of the young king solved, by means of use - besides landstranger - Reichsministerialen the possessions and right which was lost in the last years in Thuringia and Saxonia again into the hand to get, in these regions a rebellion out. In peacetime of Gerstungen (Febr. 1074) the king had to make concessions. In June 1075 it could strike the Saxonia however with Homburg to the Unstrut (with bath Langensalza). While this rebellion Heinrich had had itself to hold back IV. because of the occupation of the ore diocese Milan. The new, since April 1073 governing Pope Gregor VII. had been for years the engine of the reform party to the Kurie. Its discord with the emperor became obvious in January 1076 (so-called Investiturstreit). A majority in the realm episcopacy quit the Pope the obedience. In February 1076 the Pope avoided the king and loosened its subjects from the oath of loyalty. An increasing prince opposition in connection with the Pope-faithful bishops operated the joggle Heinrichs. It invited the Pope to come over the alps in order to decide their controversy with the king. In order to prevent this, the king pulled for his part to the Pope against. On 28 January 1077 it reached the solution of the spell in Canossa, after it had obligated itself to settle and to the Pope for the far journey escort grant the conflicts with the princes. Regardless of its in March in presence papal legaten a Gegenkoenig (Rudolf of Rheinfelden) was selected. Despite several battles it did not come to a decision.

    In October 1080 Rudolf died, after he had lost the right hand in the fight. Briefly a successor selected on it (Hermann of Salm) found only small appendix. After Gregor VIITH at the beginning of had again gebannt March 1080 the king, it came to the open break. The majority of the episcopacy on both sides the alps stood far to Heinrich IV., which the archbishop from Ravenna to (approximately -) the Pope nominated, with it after several futile attempts to Rome advanced, it there to the Pope (Clemens III.) to select and afterwards from it to the emperor crown left itself (31 March 1084). Clemens found also in other countries of Europe acknowledgment. The resistance in Saxonia broke down. 1087 could let Heinrich IV. its son Konrad select to the king. 1090 succeeded it to Pope Urban II. to unite the South German and Italian opponents emperors. Its intervention in Italy was necessary. The crossing of the young king Konrad the papal party (1093), which 1094 the escape the second wife of the emperor followed, not possibly made Heinrich IV. a return over the alps. It was enclosed the next years in Venetien. Only 1097 succeeded the return. 1098 were set off Konrad, its younger brother Heinrich to the king was selected. The emperor remained to a large extent recognized in Germany. The 1102 against it expressed spell left it steadfastly again. At the beginning of of 1105 dropped the young king Heinrich V. of the father. Numerous large ones stepped on its side and separated in such a way from the party of the gebannten emperor. The Pope freed the son from that the father sworn oaths. Christmas 1105 came the emperor into the shank of the son; on 31 December 1105 he did without the throne. Since Heinrich IV. had still trailers, it came to military conflicts; Heinrich V. suffered a heavy defeat in March. In this situation Heinrich IV. died on 7 August 1106 in Luettich. In the disputations of the past decades the positions of the parties had been worked out. Disputed was above all the Investitur of the bishops. The conceptual distinction between the religious office and the lay sovereignty rights pointed the way to a solution. The king should lend in the future only the goods and to material rights (regalia). Similar solutions had been found also in England and France. First however the negotiations failed. Heinrich V. pulled over the alps, took prisoner the Pope and forced it to concessions. On 13 April 1111 it could be crowned to the emperor. Only a change on the Pope throne brought the negotiations back in course. In presence of the emperor and papal legaten in Worms a compromise was obtained (Wormser concordat, 23rd Sept. 1122). The free choice of bishops and abbotts according to the canonical right was entitled. It should take place in presence of the king, who should belehnen the selecting still before the Weihe. The bishops became thus leaning people of the king. The conditions of the religious realm princes so characteristic of the realm formed. Since Heinrich continued the policy begun by the father and itself thereby on the Reichsministerialen and the city middle class supported, also it came into contrast to the princes, these these activities as competition to its territorial politics felt. At their point the duke of Saxonia and the archbishop of Mainz stood. 1115 had to leave Heinrich Saxonia escape-like. At the time of his death (23 May 1125) the emperor in parts of the realm had lost each influence. Heinrich V. had remained childless. From the king choice in Mainz (30 August 1125) followed duke Lothar of Saxonia as a winner, who allied itself with the duke of Bavaria. Duke Friedrich of Swabia and its brother Konrad from the house high baptism, the nephews Heinrichs V., were not ready however to publish the realm property that with the salischen house property, their inheritance, closely interlaced were 1127 let themselves Konrad to (approximately -) the king be proclaimed. Lothar organized intimate landscapes the king rule again in him. In this connection the creation of a land county Thuringia belongs (1129). Duke Friedrich (1134) and its brother Konrad (1135) had to submit to it. By its in the controversy of two Popes breaking out after a double choice reached Lothar of IIITH concessions opposite the Wormser concordat. On 4 June 1133 it was crowned to the emperor. Opposite the neighbours in the north and in the east he could re-establish the Vormacht of the realm. 1136 it undertook a second Italy course. On the way back it died on 4 December 1137. On the dying bed the emperor the duchy Saxonia its son-in-law, duke Heinrich of Bavaria from the house of the Welfen, had transferred, which became in such a way the most powerful man in the realm and the potential successor. As date for the king choice Whitsuntide was intended 1138. Those pilotfishes a party selected however on 7 March 1138 Konrad III. to the king, who was crowned briefly on it in Aachen of papal legaten. Since duke Heinrich refused the Huldigung, Saxonia and Bavaria were extracted from it; 1139 it died. After military conflicts 1142 the still minor son Heinrich (the lion) received to Saxonia back; its uncle Welf continued the resistance in Bavaria. Conditions in Italy required an intervention of the king, who allied itself 1146 with the Byzantine emperor. Since Konrad III. 1147 participated in the second crusade, both met also personally. The regulation of complicated conditions in Unteritalien the busy king also in the following years. On 15 February 1152 it died. On 9 March 1152 his nephew, duke Friedrich of Swabia (Barbarossa) to the king was selected; the son of the same name of the king was ignored. The new king obviously already prepared a reconciliation with the Welfen in connection with the choice. With the Pope Friedrich Ith obtained concerning the future Italy politics likewise agreement. On 18 June 1155 it was crowned in Rome to the emperor. The intended campaign against the Normannen did not take place however. 1156 received Heinrich the lion the duchy Bavaria. The territory of the past owner, the Mark county Austria, was separated from Bavaria and converted into a duchy. The new duke received descendant extensive rights (so-called Privilegium minus, 8th Sept for itself and its. 1156). The emperor gave in particular in Northern Germany in the future plenty of rope to Heinrich the lion. It concentrated in the next years on the Italy politics; during its government it six times over longer time beyond the alps was. 1158 let state the emperor by the realm day of Roncaglia that all rule functions in realm Italy came in the long run from it. Similar requirements raised also different kings of Europe in their realms. In many cities of upper Italy, in particular in Milan, this met however on resistance. When after the death of the Pope the cardinals, who disintegrated into a Sicily and a emperor-friendly group, could agree not on a successor, it came on 7 September 1159 to a double choice. The emperor supported Pope Viktor IV. and fought the trailers Alexanders II.; in these fights in March 1162 Milan was taken. Friedrich I. tried in vain to draw over also the kings of France and England on the page Viktors. Into this time the holy speaking of Karl of the large one falls briefly after Christmas 1165. This new realm-holy should demonstrate the direct God proximity of the Kaisertums. When 1166 in the Kingdom of Sicily the still minor William II. followed on the throne, the emperor tried to use this weakness. It succeeded to it to take the city Rome; Pope Alexander could escape however. Since the imperial army was dezimiert by an epidemic, this Italy course meant a disaster for the emperor, in the long run the crucial turn in its politics. The city federations, which had formed in upper Italy against the emperor, became power factors, on which one had to count in the future. 1174 a tried military decision in upper Italy could not force the emperor.

    The reconciliation with Pope Alexander became inevitably. It took place on 24 July 1177 (peace from Venice). In June 1183 the emperor in Konstanz peace with the municipalities of upper Italy closed; he did thereby without the execution of the resolutions of Roncaglia. In Germany Friedrich I. had tried to organize house and realm property again. The duchy Swabia always was in the hand of a Staufers. 1156 were transferred the rheinische Pfalzgrafschaft, whose goods concentrated on the central Rhine, Friedrichs half brother Konrad. When the complaints became negatively concerning of the territorial politics of the Heinrichs of the lion louder and the assistance of this duke did not need Friedrich for his realm-political goals no more, it introduced a process, which dragged on over more than one year in January 1179. The duchies Saxonia and Bavaria were again assigned (latter to the house Wittelsbach). 1181 had to go to Heinrich into banishing. It kept only the possession as owner around Braunschweig and Lueneburg. The old master duchies were smashed thereby. To their place rule things of different extent stepped. Developed realm prince conditions existing made of clergyman and lay one, whose tried member, who displace brought possessions and rights to planar territories to consolidate and the there still existing rights third acquire or. This still led to lifetimes of the emperor to open clashes of interests. The year 1184 brought again political high points to yard day (Whitsuntide) and a meeting with the Pope (autumn) with the Mainzer. Heinrich the lion could return from the exile. The marriage of the emperor son Heinrich with the potential heiress of the Kingdom of Sicily, planned for the follow-up, opened the prospect to nevertheless still acquire this realm on peaceful way. When coronation/culmination of its ruler life regarded the emperor the guidance (third) of the crusade into the holy country, to which it applied 1189. Still on the way it drowned on 10 June 1190 in the river Saleph. 1189 had died unexpectedly the king of Sicilies. Arguments in the realm, then the message of the death of the father prevented king Heinrich VI. to intersperse its requirements on Sicilies locally. The there barons selected the count von Lecce to the king. Only 1191 came Heinrich to Italy; on 14 April it was crowned to the emperor. After the siege of Neapel had failed, it had to return however to Germany. The Pope recognized the count von Lecce as a king from Sicilies. It believed so the combination threatening for it and its rule in central Italy both realms to have prevented. 1194 could bring VI. the Kingdom of Sicily Heinrich however into its hand. Only once (1195/96) it returned to Germany, in order to secure the follow-up of its 1194 born son Friedrich. Whose choice could it reach. Its suggestion, which failed to Koenigtum and all Reichslehen for hereditary to explain (hereditary realm plan), however because of the Pope. Also the princes withdrew their initial agreement again. In this situation the emperor died surprisingly on 28 September 1997 in Messina. Since January 1198 the governing Pope Innocenz III. used this situation to intersperse and with the widow of the emperor a convention meet requirements for rule of its predecessors in central Italy, in which of the follow-up of their son in the Imperium no more was the speech. To Germany transferred duke Philipp of Swabia, the youngest son Barbarossas, the guidance pilotfishes a party. The opponents, who it depended also on a stress of the right to vote of the princes, found the suitable candidate to a son Heinrichs of the lion in the count Otto von Poitou. In Thuringia (Ichtershausen, Muehlhausen) met pilotfishes a party selected in March 1198 Philipp, the welfische on 9 June petrols to the king; Petrol IV. was crowned on 12 July in Aachen. Both kings looked for the military decision and recruited in addition allied. Individual princes changed the party in the following arguments - partly repeated - and let themselves this by transfer of realm rights be paid. In this undecided situation the decision of the Pope in weight won. Innocenz III. required the realm-legal acknowledgment of the measures met by it in central Italy, the petrols IV., even if only hesitating. Accordingly the Pope rejected the Koenigtum Philipps, which seemed to win however, conditionally by the party change of influential princes, in the realm the upper hand. On 21 June 1208 Philipp for private reasons in Bamberg was murdered. Petrol IV. found general acknowledgment. On 4 October 1209 it was crowned in Rome to the emperor. When it took up however immediately after it the traditional Italy politics of its predecessors again, it was gebannt by the Pope, who requested the young Staufer Friedrich, king of Sicilies on the advice of the king of France, to step to the place of Otto. That pulled in the autumn 1212 over the alps, found fast appendix and in December 1212 in Frankfurt to the king was selected. The battle of Bouvines (27 July 1214), in which the king of France the king of England and with this allied petrol IV. defeated, decided also the German throne controversy. Petrol withdrew itself in its master country, where it died in May 1218. The goal of the Popes was it further to prevent the combination of the Imperiums with the Kingdom of Sicily. 1212 had had to leave IITH its son Heinrich the crown Siziliens small therefore to Friedrich. After these 1220 in Frankfurt to the Roman king one had selected, Friedrich II. in the apron of the emperor coronation/culmination (22 November 1220) had to renew its warranties. The government in Germany should be led during the minority Heinrichs by a fuerstlichen regency, at whose point Engelbert of Cologne and after its murder (1225) stepped archbishop duke Ludwig von Bayern. The emperor intervened nevertheless also further from South Italies in the policy beyond the alps. 1220 had had to confirm Friedrich II. to the religious prince in the last decades the won sovereignty rights (Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis).

    Its son Heinrich (VII.), since Christmas the 1228 independently governed, resumed on vermehrung of the realm property particularly concentrated in the southwest arranged, expansive territorial politics of the father. It supported itself particularly by the Reichsministerialen and the cities. Since this encountered the resistance of the princes, he had to do 1231 without the continuation of this politics (Statutum in favorem principum). That was confirmed 1232 by the emperor, who obligated the son formally to obey it in the future and to undertake nothing more against the princes. When it offended against it, the father came in the spring 1235 over the alps, forced the son to subjecting, took to him and left in in dungeons. On one realm day in Mainz in August 1235 the relationship between the emperor and the princes was again described. Friedrich II. issued a realm land peace and created an institutionalized yard court; there a yard judge represented the monarch in his function as highest judges. These concessions become understandable opposite the princes on the background of the argument with the Pope, taking place in Italy, who 1227 the emperor gebannt and whom princes for the choice (approximately -) of a king had requested; only 1230 came it to a reconciliation between Pope and emperor. Heinrich (VII.) to last by the duke by Austria one had supported. Against this therefore the anger of the emperor was directed. 1236 were outlawed duke Friedrich, the duchies Austria and Steiermark was drawn in. In February 1237 in Vienna the minor emperor son Konrad IV. was selected to the king. Later however the emperor needed again the support of the duke. Only after its childless death (1246) he tried, to get whose countries in the long term into the hand. Their possession would have brought important alpine passports under control to pilotfish of the house and would have increased the pressure for the cities of the Lombardei. The marriage of Konrad IV. with a daughter of the duke of Bavaria served the same goal (1246). Since 20 March 1239 the emperor was again in the papal spell. In the next years a papal party in Germany, to which above all religious prince belonged, formed. Also the 1242 Heinrich Raspe, land count of Thuringia, appointed from the emperor to the realm power of attorney gate, crossed 1244 on the side of the Pope. On 17 July 1245, a general council meeting in Lyon explained the emperor for set off. On 22 May 1246 the land count was selected from Thuringia to (approximately -) the king. This could bring IV. Konrad into a difficult situation, died however already on 16 February 1247. On 3 October 1247 the papal party, at the point the archbishop of Cologne, selected the count Wilhelm from Holland to its successor. It could succeed particularly in the northwest of the realm. On 13 December 1250 emperor Friedrich II. died. Its son Konrad IVTH fallow 1251 to Sicilies up, died however already in May 1254. William of Holland fell on 28 January 1256 in the fight against the Friesen. 1254 had already formed on the Rhine after Italian models a standard ware to the safety device of the land peace, which soon also cities, princes, counts and gentlemen in other regions followed. King William had placed itself 1255 at its point. After his death obligated the land peace its members to recognize only an unanimously selected king. When it came at the beginning of of 1257 to the expected double choice, the Mitgieder could not agree however on a candidate; the federation dissolved. As owners of voices with the king choice 1257 the religious and lay princes appeared for the first time, who should in the future monopolize the right to vote as "cure princes" with these elections: the archbishops by Mainz, Cologne and Trier, the king of Boehmen, the Pfalzgraf with Rhine, the duke of Saxonia and the Mark count of Brandenburg. The winners of the argument with pilotfar from, the religious cure princes, dominated these and - into the center 14. Century inside - also the following king elections. The interest of the finally selected candidates, the king Alfons X. of Kastilien and the count Richard von Cornwall, a brother of the king of England, applied above all for the possibilities, which resulted from it for the Mediterranean politics of their houses. Alfons never entered German soil. Richard was up to its death in April 1272 four times in Germany. The Popes concentrated on the regulation of the balance of power in South Italies did not intervene in favor of a selecting. In far parts of the realm the territorial gentlemen acted, as if the throne of the realm was vakant. Already in contemporary sources this time was called "Interregnum". Only few, because of legitimacy of certain requirements for rule was been to which, turned to one of the kings. Thus for instance the king of Boehmen let his access to Austria and the Steiermark confirm by king Richard. After Richards death requested the Pope the cure princes for the choice of a new king. These were guided with this (and the following elections) by own, territorial-political interests. This excluded that a member of a family was selected, to the prominent members of the Kollegiums in territorial-political competition stood.

    A son follow-up corresponded just as little to the interests of the cure princes. Concerning the political proximity to the finally selected kings, whom expressed itself for instance in attendance at the yard, there were large differences in the consequence within the realm: there was king-open and king-far king near, landscapes (P. Moraw). The first kings after the Interregnum came out from count sexes of the kingnear and king-open landscapes. Also in king-far regions (for instance in the north) however the affiliation to the realm was not questioned. On 1 October 1273 in Frankfurt by the six present cure princes count Rudolf von Habsburg was selected to the king. Him condition comrades had supported. It could actually bind soon also the lay cure princes by marriage alliances. A substantial political goal was the Rueckgewinnnung of the realm property alienated in the Interregnum. This had to lead to the conflict with the king of Boehmen, which was forced 1276 to the renouncement of Austria, Steiermark, Kaernten and Krain. When it did not resign itself to it, it came to the renewed military argument. On 26 August 1278 king is Ottokar in the battle with Duernkrut pleases. The king could belehnen in December 1278 its sons with Austria and the Steiermark and help his house thereby to the ascent into the prince conditions. Its attempt was less successful to secure the follow-up of its son. On 15 July 1291 Rudolf died. The cure princes selected the count Adolf von Nassau on 5 May 1292 to the new king. For the model of its predecessor also Adolf looked to extend the own power base by the acquisition from territories to. The purchase of the land county Thuringia excited the Unwillen - as neighbours - of the cure princes concerned. In the country Adolf could not intersperse its requirement also with military means. On 23 June 1298 the majority of the cure princes set the king off and selected Albrecht of having castle. In the battle of Goellheim Adolf lost crown and life on 2 July 1298. On 27 July 1298 Albrecht could a second time be selected - with the voices of all cure princes. The contrasts, which had prevented its choice 1292, applied however soon again. Until 1302 it thrashed the four rheinischen cure princes. After expiring the Przemyliden in Boehmen (1306) it could secure this throne for its son Rudolf. For Albrecht the prospect, a hegemoniales Koenigtum opened after the model of other European monarchies to establish. The son died however already 1307; the king had briefly before suffered a defeat with Lucka against the Wettiner. While it endeavored itself to adjust these setbacks it was murdered on 1 May 1308. Against the brother of the king of France, appearing as candidates, the cure princes selected the count Heinrich VII. from Luxembourg to the new king. Its candidacy became substantially of the two this count house intimate and/or archbishops belonging of Mainz (Peter von Aspelt) and Trier (Balduin of Luxembourg) operated. Because he accepted 1310 the crown offered by a boehmischen party its son Johann, it secured a hereditary for its family and the ascent among the prominent families of Europe. It applied 1310 to Italy and on 29 June 1312 in Rome to the emperor was crowned. On 24 August 1313 it died in the proximity of Pisa. Those the house Luxembourg an intimate party in the Kurfuerstenkollegium set up the duke Ludwig of (waiters -) Bavaria than candidate, who was selected on 20 October 1314 by five cure princes after longer hesitating. At the vortag four different had selected the duke Friedrich of Austria (on the boehmische and the Saxonian voice in each case two men raised requirement). Both kings were grandchild king Rudolfs. Differently than with earlier double elections the Pope did not make a decision. This fell after longer military arguments in September 1322 on the battleground in favor of Ludwig. Only after it the king could turn to conditions in Italy. There it came very fast into a conflict with the Pope, who dragged on up to the end of its life. In October 1323 the process was opened against it; in March 1324 it and its trailers were exkommuniziert. The effects of these measures wore themselves out soon. It became more dangerous the king that the houses having castle and Luxembourg acted occasionally together; the choice (approximately -) of a king threatened several times. In January 1328 Ludwig - first by the people of Rome, then by a for this purpose raised Gegenpapst - let itself be crowned to the emperor. 1330 failed also a einigungsversuch carried of the houses Luxembourg and having castle because of the attitude of the Pope. After also a second such attempt had not led to success, the cure princes in-squeezed between Pope and emperor defended their rights and determined that from them unanimously or with majority selected king no more did not require the papal license to practise medicine, in order rightfully to govern to be able (so-called Rhenser curve-purely, 16 July 1338).

    At the beginning 1337 of the breaking out war between the kings of England and France Ludwig on sides Eduard III. stood, the 1338 for the advertisement from allied one to Germany came 1341 changed he on the side of the king of France, probably in the faith to come in this way a reconciliation with the Pope residing in Avignon more near. The way, in which it brought 1342 the county Tirol to its house, continued to shake its reliability in the realm still: he explained the marriage of the countess Margarete (Maultasch) with a son king Johanns of Boehmen short hand for invalid and married the lady with one of its sons. Thus it lost now also the support of the archbishop Balduin of Trier, which reconciled itself with the Pope. The of Luxembourg party in the Kurfuerstenkollegium selected on 11 July 1346 the Mark count Karl von Maehren, oldest son of the king of Boehmen, to (approximately -) the king. Both sides prepared a military argument, as Ludwig "the Bavarian" (this name - originally as insult name meant - to its opponents owed) on 11 October 1347 died. Karl IV., after the battle death of the father since August 1346 also king of Boehmen, found fast after the death of Ludwig in far parts of the realm acknowledgment. Those the house Wittelsbach intimate cure prince selected first king Eduard III. of England, then, when this did not accept the choice, the Thuringian counts Guenther von Schwarzburg to (approximately -) the king (30 January 1349), who could not endanger however, particularly since he already died on 24 May 1349, Karl IV.. Substantial support of the new king remained always the own house power, which it extended systematically. From the dowry of its wife possessions in the Upper Palatinate originated. 1367 it acquired the Niederlausitz, 1373 the Mark county Brandenburg (and the associated cure voice). In Schlesien it could successfully lock the acquisition politics begun by its father. Karl's yard became the political center of the realm and won also cultural gloss. 1348 it created the University of Prague. 1354 pulled the king to Italy. There it - differently than many predecessors - in there political conditions did not intervene, ran the enterprise briskly and brought to Karl IVTH, who was limited to legitimize in many places the status Quo financial profit and on 5 April 1355 also the emperor crown. it regulated 1356 together with the cure princes on yard days in Nuernberg and Metz important, still open questions of the realm condition, in particular the king choice. The operability of the realm, which had been endangered by the double elections and the following arguments, was restored in the long term. The regulations of the golden ones bull (10 January/25 July 1356) remained determining up to the end of the old realm. Karl IV. did not visit personally regions, a long attendance of a king had more seen (yard day in Metz July 1356; Coronation/culmination to the king of Burgund in Arles, 4 June 1365; Stay in Luebeck, 1375). The interests of the house were represented in the west of the realm by Karl's half brother Wenzel, to which the master territory Luxembourg (since 1354 duchy) was fallen. With his capture in the battle of Baesweiler (1371) the policy of the emperor in this point failed however.

    As first ruler since the Staufer period it succeeded Karl IV., also owing to enormous financial efforts to implement toward lifetimes the king choice of a son Wenzel (10 June 1376). With a second Italy course (1368/69) and an attendance with the king of France, Karl IV. demonstrated his reputation to its acquired in the meantime in Europe nephew (1377/78). On 29 November 1378 it died. During the division of the inheritance it had preferred the oldest son Wenzel. For second, Sigmund, he expected the Hungarian and Polish crown. Few months before the large abendlaendische Schisma had broken off. Two Popes (in Avignon and Rome) recruited in completely Europe trailers. The new king Wenzel tried to hold by a federation with the rheinischen cure princes the realm in the obedience opposite the Roman Pope. Crises in Boehmen, which held the king between 1388 and 1396 to visit the Binnenreich brought the collapse of the political system created by the father. At the point of an aristocracy party, which took the king prisoner in May 1394, his cousin, Mark count Jobst von Maehren stood. King Sigmund of Hungary did not refer a clear position. Since 1396/97 the developing, oppositional attitude of the rheinischen cure princes led finally to the joggle of the king; Wenzel, which this accepted never, remained king by Boehmen and died in August 1419. In its place on 21 August 1400 Pfalzgraf Ruprecht with four voices were selected to the king. The new king belonged even to the Kurfuerstenkollegium and was an outstanding national gentleman, whose territories concentrated on the Rhine (Pfalz) and in the north Bayerns (Upper Palatinate). It turned out however soon that this house power under the changed conditions was not sufficient as power base for a king any longer. Ruprecht remained of its voters politically dependent, in particular on the archbishop on Mainz, with which he over-threw himself to 1405. In misjudging, displacement of the actual balance of power of undertaken Intalienzug (1401/02) failed pitifully. The idea to settle the Schisma by a council too rejected Rupecht. On 18 May 1410 it died. Applicants around the throne were king Sigmund of Hungary, which was selected on 20 September 1410 in not correct way, and his cousin Mark count Jobst von Maehren, who achieved the necessary majority on 1 October 1410, to whom also the voice Wenzels contributed. Jobst died however on 18 January 1411. On 21 July 1411 it came to an unanimous (new -) choice Sigmunds. The new king had in the realm first no house power and was besides by conditions in Hungary in such a way stressed that he only 1414 could come into the realm. With the assignment of the freed to the houses Hohenzollern Nuernberg (Brandenburg, 1411/15/17) and/or Wettin (Saxonia, 1423) it shifted at longer term the heavyweight within the Kurfuerstenkollegiums into the east of the realm. Most important achievement Sigmunds is the removal of the abendlaendischen Schismas, which took place on the council from Konstanz (1414-1418). Two (since 1409 three) of the Popes were set off, one withdrew. On 11 November 1417 became unanimous a new Pope (Martin V.) selected. Belonged to the events of the Konstanzer of council also the execution of the Prager of university teacher condemned as Ketzer January Hus (6 July 1415), which led to embittered arguments in Boehmen. If Sigmunds tries to conquer it by death Wenzels and the king choice of 1420 country which was assigned militarily, regardless of the help rendered from the realm, several times failed. After 1426 the Hussiten fell also into the neighboring countries Boehmens a 1433 came off an agreement with the moderate wing of the Hussiten, which defeated the radical wing 1434 militarily. Only 1436 could draw in Sigmund in Boehmen. The threat by the Hussiten led to the fact that under guidance of the cure princes on kingless days and mitttels self obligation the Gegenwehr was organized. 1422 were set up a realm register, which specified the military obligation to perform of the individual - seized for the first time here - members of the realm. 1427 for the first time limits a general tax written out. 1431 an Italy course begun led Sigmund on 31 May 1433 to the emperor coronation/culmination. It on that the council of Basel awarded arbitral position, begun, the reputation, which the emperor had in the meantime acquired himself, marks 1431. On 9 December 1437 it died. Inherits Sigmunds was its son-in-law, duke Albrecht of Austria. He was raised to the successor in Hungary and Boehmen and selected on 18 March 1438 also to the Roman (Germans) king. It however already died at the 27.Oktober 1439, before it could dedicate itself to the challenges of its new office.

    On 2 February 1440 with Albrechts cousin Friedrich was selected again a Habsburger to the king. Also it remained, not least due to the guardianship over Albrechts son, who followed in Boehmen and Hungary, as well as because of the increasing Turk danger on the Balkans to its hereditary countries (Steiermark, Kaernten and Krain) bound; between 1444 and 1471 he did not leave these. Nontheless Friedrich III. was decided to stress all with connected rule rights. On the coronation/culmination journey it issued a general land peace (so-called Reformatio Friderici) on 14 August 1442. The first decade of its government was fulfilled of military conflicts. With the end of the hundred-year war in France "unemployed" become mercenaries (so-called Armagnaken) threatened the southwest of the realm. Into Franconias and into Westphalia it came to arguments around the regional hegemony. In the controversy between Pope and council Friedrich placed itself III. on the side of the Pope, who crowned him on 19 March 1452 to the emperor. Was by Viennese the concordat of 17 already before. Febr. 1448 the relationship to the Kurie in the long term regulated. Around 1470 the situation with regard to foreign policy of the realm worsened. 1471 broke in the Turks into the Steiermark. The dukes of Burgund, since the end the 14. Century between the realm and France had acquired a belt of territories and had almost acquired, tried 1435 by a contract with the king of France one sovereigns position, to develop their positions in the area of the today's Netherlands further. 1473 failed an attempt personally undertaken by the emperor to obtain an agreement. Duke Karl the bold one began 1474 with the siege of Neuss. The emperor successfully appealed to German national consciousness developed in the meantime and forced the duke 1475 to the retreat. After several defeats against the oath comrades Karl fell in January 1477 with Nancy. By the few months later closed marriage of the emperor son Maximilian with the heiress of the duke could begin the house having castle in the majority of the before times burgundischen territories the inheritance. Ore duke Maximilian was selected on 16 February 1486 unanimously to the Roman king - the first son follow-up after more than 100 years. Into his hereditary landing the emperor came however occasionally into a difficult situation. After defeats against the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus (1477 and 1481) had to be occasionally given up Vienna. After Matthias's ' death (1491) its realm broke down however. By contract with the king of France the burgundische inheritance could become secured (peace of Senlis, May 1493). When Friedrich III. died on 19 August 1493, the foundation-stone for the ascent of its house was put to the European great power. The realm conditions, at the point of the Mainzer archbishop Berthold of hen mountain, pushed to take care of the new king Maximilian, the problems of the realm condition lie-let by the father intensively. In the large consent, therefore also very laboriously and incompletely, the institutionalized dualism of realm head and in the future on realm days the together-finding realm conditions developed in the following decades. A central date in this development is the Wormser realm day of 1495, on which an eternal land peace announces, a highest court (realm Court of Appeal) was based and a general tax was not introduced - the latter however not in the long term successfully. The king won in such a way support for the fight against the Turks and its Italy politics. it had to make further concessions for 1500 in a crisis situation the conditions. A realm regiment under a royal governor, consisting of 20 staendischen members, should take the realm government with majority resolutions into the hand. This failed within short time. For the occupation of the regiment and the Court of Appeal the realm area was later divided 1500 and 1512 in six, later ten circles, which also tasks of the realm defense and the internal peace protection took over. Some these circles (Franconia, Swabia) in the future worked satisfactorily. By the marriages of its children with those of the Spanish pair of kings Ferdinand and Isabella Maximilian introduced the accumulation of this realm finally caused by biological coincidences to its house. In February 1508 it took in agreement with the Pope, but without coronation/culmination, the title of a chosen Roman emperor on. This effects of an event of world-historical importance, which took place on 31 October 1517 on the soil of its realm (in Wittenberg), he did not experience no more. On 12 January 1519 Maximilian died. During all Middle Ages to the holy Roman realm also extensive territories belonged, which became in the modern times sovereigns states. The lengthy processes of the detachment already began during the Middle Ages. This concerns among other things the territories in the area of the today's States of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Their regents played an important role in the realm history of the Middle Ages occasionally. Count Wilhelm of Holland was 1247 to 1256 Roman king. From the of Luxembourg count house the kings and emperor Heinrich VII. (1308-1313) followed, Karl IV. (1346-1378), Wenzel (1378-1400) and Sigmund (1411-1437). The most important territories in this area became at the end 14. and at the beginning 15. Century the sphere of influence of the dukes integrated by Burgund, which could make their influence valid also into the religious Principalities of (dioceses Luettich and Utrecht). This continued under the house having castle, the 1477 the inheritance of the house Burgund began themselves and in Belgium and Luxembourg up to the end 18. Century to state could. The northern Netherlands fought for in a eighty-year old war to 1648 their sovereignty. Between the spheres of influence of the counts and/or dukes of Austria, Savoyen and Milan could do itself, beginning in 13. Century and favoured by the traffic conditions at important alpine passports and the favour of the respective realm head (and its occasional policy directed against the house having castle), an alliance more realm-free, of Talschaften inhabited by farmers develop, which soon also neighbouring cities followed. Similar alliance systems developed since late 13. Century in the Bodensee area as well as under guidance of the city Berne. In 14. These approached century each other on. After victories against Austria (1386, 1388) 1415 an authentication took place via king Sigmund. After embittered internal arguments the alliances were strengthened by further victories against Armagnaken and Austrians (1444) and against duke Karl the bold one by Burgund (1467 and 1477). From an alliance network became a commonwealth, which developed by its foot soldiers, who had decided the mentioned battles, also to a military power factor. In the early modern times the way to sovereigns the State of, Swiss confederation was locked. For his person realm prince was since that 13. Century of the high masters of the German knight medal created in the holy country, which acquired extensive possessions and rights by donations soon also in the realm. 1291 were lost the possession in the holy country. 1225/26 had the duke of Masowien (in Poland), which military support against, the heidnischen Prussen settling in the north of its territory needed, the medals called to assistance. This followed, due to a miss in Hungary, the request first only hesitating, could then however between 1231 and 1285 the country of the Prussen conquer and it an administrative and a church structure give. With conquest the medal support received Europe (so-called "Prussia journeys") from" cross drivers "out completely. On favorable conditions in the country gotten German settlers mixed themselves during a longer process with the native Prussen to the German new trunk (east -) Prussia. In 14. Century came it to clashes of interests and soon also to military conflicts with that again erstarkenden Kingdom of Poland, which bordered after the union with Litauen (1386) in the south and the east on the medal country. After the defeat with Grunwald/fir mountain (1410) the medal had to do 1411 without some peripheral areas. Arguments between the high master and the developing conditions led to the fact that latter 1452/53 to the king of Poland submitted. 1466, after 13 years war, had to recognize the medal Pommerellen (the country along the Weichsel between East Prussia and Pommern) to the king of Poland transfer and its sovereignty over the remaining Prussian possession. Also in other areas along the east border of the realm stretched - after first beginnings in the 11. Century - particularly between 12. and 14 century the German settlement and linguistic area around more than one third out. To it were beside German settlers also different land foreigner involved, for whom the emigration from their was made attractive partly already under population of over suffering homeland by assignment from country to favorable conditions, by promise by tax exemption or reduction. In the country they were gotten often by the residents land and basic gentlemen. Also the native population tried to receive entrance to the privileges of the new settlers. A statement to the portions, which had these subpopulations in each case, is not possible. The development ran in some regions peacefully, in others in connection with conquest and Missionierung. Since that 19. Century was often ideologisiert this east settlement; a high point was reached between 1933 and 1945, in particular during the Second World War. After 1945, strengthened after 1989, one strives in all countries involved around a material entrance.

    M.,
    "Ich will den Frieden - und ich werde alles daransetzen, um den Frieden zu schließen. Noch ist es nicht zu spät. Dabei werde ich bis an die Grenzen des Möglichen gehen, soweit es die Opfer und Würde der deutschen Nation zulassen. Ich weiß mir Besseres als Krieg!
    Adolf Hitler nach Beendigung des Frankreich-Feldzuges in einem Gespräch mit seinem Architekten Prof. Hermann Giesler, Giesler: "Ein anderer Hitler", Seite 395



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    Post AW: Are the Netherlands part of Großdeutschland?

    @Mjölnir

    A little bit longer and it was a Book.

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