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Thread: Human Y-Chromosome Variation in the Western Mediterranean Area

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    Post Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area

    A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area

    P. MALASPINA1, M. TSOPANOMICHALOU2, T. DUMAN3, M. STEFAN4, A. SILVESTRI1, B. RINALDI1, O. GARCIA5, M. GIPARAKI6, E. PLATA6, A. I. KOZLOV7, G. BARBUJANI8, C. VERNESI8, F. PAPOLA9, G. CIAVARELLA10, D. KOVATCHEV11, M. G. KERIMOVA12, N. ANAGNOU13, L. GAVRILA4, L. VENEZIANO14, N. AKAR3, A. LOUTRADIS6, E. N. MICHALODIMITRAKIS2, L. TERRENATO1 and A. NOVELLETTO15

    In this work we focus on a microsatellite-defined Y-chromosomal lineage (network 1.2) identified by us and reported in previous studies, whose geographic distribution and antiquity appear to be compatible with the Neolithic spread of farmers. Here, we set network 1.2 in the Y-chromosomal phylogenetic tree, date it with respect to other lineages associated with the same movements by other authors, examine its diversity by means of tri- and tetranucleotide loci and discuss the implications in reconstructing the spread of this group of chromosomes in the Mediterranean area. Our results define a tripartite phylogeny within HG 9 (Rosser et al. 2000), with the deepest branching defined by alleles T (Haplogroup Eu10) or G (Haplogroup Eu9) at M172 (Semino et al. 2000), and a subsequent branching within Eu9 defined by network 1.2. Population distributions of HG 9 and network 1.2 show that their occurrence in the surveyed area is not due to the spread of people from a single parental population but, rather, to a process punctuated by at least two phases. Our data identify the wide area of the Balkans, Aegean and Anatolia as the possible homeland harbouring the largest variation within network 1.2. The use of recently proposed tests based on the stepwise mutation model suggests that its spread was associated to a population expansion, with a high rate of male gene flow in the Turkish-Greek area.

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    Post Human Y-Chromosome Variation in the Western Mediterranean Area

    Abstract

    Y-chromosome variation was analyzed in a sample of 1127 males from the Western Mediterranean area by surveying 16 biallelic and 4 multiallelic sites. Some populations from Northeastern Europe and the Middle East were also studied for comparison. All Y-chromosome haplotypes were included in a parsimonious genealogic tree consisting of 17 haplogroups, several of which displayed distinct geographic specificities. One of the haplogroups, HG9.2, has some features that are compatible with a spread into Europe from the Near East during the Neolithic period. However, the current distribution of this haplogroup would suggest that the Neolithic gene pool had a major impact in the eastern and central part of the Mediterranean basin, but very limited consequences in Iberia and Northwestern Europe. Two other haplogroups, HG25.2 and HG2.2, were found to have much more restricted geographic distributions. The first most likely originated in the Berbers within the last few thousand years, and allows the detection of gene flow to Iberia and Southern Europe. The latter haplogroup is common only in Sardinia, which confirms the genetic peculiarity and isolation of the Sardinians. Overall, this study demonstrates that the dissection of Y-chromosome variation into haplogroups with a more restricted geographic distribution can reveal important differences even between populations that live at short distances, and provides new clues to their past interactions.

    http://home.ripway.com/2004-1/62802/westmed.pdf

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