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Thread: Khoisans - The Most Ancient Race of Humans

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    Exclamation Khoisans - The Most Ancient Race of Humans

    ............Increasing international interest in ancient African genes

    A number of international pharmaceutical companies are rapidly realising the vast medical potential ancient Khoi-San DNA holds.

    Scientifically confirmed as the oldest surviving members of the human race, the Khoi-San have almost all of the most ancient markers in their genes. This is > especially significant when seen in light of the Human Genome Project - the international academic effort to understand human genes. A consortium of companies and governments are currently in the process of mapping the variation of all human DNA sequence. This process will unveil more of the secrets within our genome, enabling scientists to pinpoint exactly where along the long string of our DNA problems occur, allowing them to create cures and vaccines for many of the diseases which plague the human race. By analysing the Khoi-San DNA it will be possible to provide medical drugs specifically developed for and effective on Africans.

    According to Dr Winston Hide, who heads up the South African National Bioinformatics Institute (SANBI), many international pharmaceutical companies have already invested in international consortia of variation analysis. "But this is only the beginning. We in Africa could benefit from the analysis immediately by working with these companies to 'mine' African genes with the condition that results were to benefit African communities directly."

    Locally efforts to unravel Khoi-San DNA are already underway. At the South African Institute of Medical Research Dr Himla Soodyal, principal investigator, is working with international scientists to analyse data on the Khoi-San. SANBI, based at the University of Western Cape, is engaged in analysing African gene samples, the placing of the anonymous isolates of genes in databases and the capturing of expressed human genes.

    Also on an international level the importance of African DNA is being recognised and acted upon. Several companies in the U.S. and Europe have recently approached Dr Hide to express its interest. "Many overseas companies may in the near future look towards African DNA for drug discovery reasons. This requires that we carefully manage our genetic heritage and provide access to it carefully. We should endeavour to benefit from the biotechnology and commercial aspects of working on the human genome properly in an international context without being isolationist."

    A sign of age

    DNA is the long string of instructions inside every cell that determines the shape and function of our bodies. It is passed from generation to generation, leaving a trail of clues for geneticists to follow. Our ancient ancestors had DNA that was more closely related to the Khoi-San than any other 'human' existing today. Says Dr Hide: "Khoi-San are basically made up of the Khoi-Khoi and San people. They represent a unique group, for they are both ancient and modern Africans.

    "When you look at the Khoi-San genome and compare it broadly with a group of Xhosa or any other population group, they always have the oldest signature. They bear the most common denominators of all other groups. The reason being that they have had less opportunity to interbreed with other humans for many generations. The ancient Khoi-San sequences and motifs still co-exist in thier genomes, along with some more recent modern markers.

    "In contrast, other humans genes, who have ancestors that migrated away from Africa and later returned, have changed as a result of migrating and interbreeding with subsequent populations. That is why Africans have far more genetic diversity than modern Europeans and Asians.

    "The latter have paid a genetic 'price' for their travels away from Mother Africa. They have become founders' in different parts of the globe, and evolved there locally, with less genetic diversity resulting. This means, that if you went to a village in Africa, you could capture 90% of all forms of human genes, whereas if you went to a village in Holland, you would capture as little as 30%.

    "If a drug was developed based on the last mentioned research findings, the drug would only be able to help 30% of the population. It is therefore only logical that medical research processes are far more effective when they are applicable to large portions of the population."

    It is well known fact that people respond differently to drugs - some well and others not at all. "That response is a genetic phenomenon. If a drug company finds a variation in DNA that 'marks' the phenomenon of response to a certain drug, they can make the drug far more effective. Access to ancient DNA sequence allows the drug maker to know which variations are 'modern' (possible drug sensitive) or 'ancient' (possibly not susceptible)," he says.

    Future medical benefits

    Once the Khoi-San DNA has been analysed and sequenced it will be possible to generate African-centric drugs for Africans. "We will be able to make medicines that are for example more effective in African women than non-Africans, in actuality developing 'tribe' specific drugs. This will lead to massive savings in drug delivery. It will be possible to prescribe more efficient drugs, more cheaply, that are required in smaller amounts, with fewer side effects. This will result in a drop in prescription of expensive drugs to people who will not be able to respond to them. We will also be able to identify alternate therapies from the start, instead of wasting valuable time, searching months for the right combination of drugs."


    http://www.sanbi.ac.za/argus.html

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    Post Re: Khoisan -the most ancient race of humans

    Quote Originally Posted by Euclides
    ............Increasing international interest in ancient African genes

    A number of international pharmaceutical companies are rapidly realising the vast medical potential ancient Khoi-San DNA holds.

    Scientifically confirmed as the oldest surviving members of the human race, the Khoi-San have almost all of the most ancient markers in their genes. This is > especially significant when seen in light of the Human Genome Project - the international academic effort to understand human genes. A consortium of companies and governments are currently in the process of mapping the variation of all human DNA sequence. This process will unveil more of the secrets within our genome, enabling scientists to pinpoint exactly where along the long string of our DNA problems occur, allowing them to create cures and vaccines for many of the diseases which plague the human race. By analysing the Khoi-San DNA it will be possible to provide medical drugs specifically developed for and effective on Africans.

    According to Dr Winston Hide, who heads up the South African National Bioinformatics Institute (SANBI), many international pharmaceutical companies have already invested in international consortia of variation analysis. "But this is only the beginning. We in Africa could benefit from the analysis immediately by working with these companies to 'mine' African genes with the condition that results were to benefit African communities directly."

    Locally efforts to unravel Khoi-San DNA are already underway. At the South African Institute of Medical Research Dr Himla Soodyal, principal investigator, is working with international scientists to analyse data on the Khoi-San. SANBI, based at the University of Western Cape, is engaged in analysing African gene samples, the placing of the anonymous isolates of genes in databases and the capturing of expressed human genes.

    Also on an international level the importance of African DNA is being recognised and acted upon. Several companies in the U.S. and Europe have recently approached Dr Hide to express its interest. "Many overseas companies may in the near future look towards African DNA for drug discovery reasons. This requires that we carefully manage our genetic heritage and provide access to it carefully. We should endeavour to benefit from the biotechnology and commercial aspects of working on the human genome properly in an international context without being isolationist."

    A sign of age

    DNA is the long string of instructions inside every cell that determines the shape and function of our bodies. It is passed from generation to generation, leaving a trail of clues for geneticists to follow. Our ancient ancestors had DNA that was more closely related to the Khoi-San than any other 'human' existing today. Says Dr Hide: "Khoi-San are basically made up of the Khoi-Khoi and San people. They represent a unique group, for they are both ancient and modern Africans.

    "When you look at the Khoi-San genome and compare it broadly with a group of Xhosa or any other population group, they always have the oldest signature. They bear the most common denominators of all other groups. The reason being that they have had less opportunity to interbreed with other humans for many generations. The ancient Khoi-San sequences and motifs still co-exist in thier genomes, along with some more recent modern markers.

    "In contrast, other humans genes, who have ancestors that migrated away from Africa and later returned, have changed as a result of migrating and interbreeding with subsequent populations. That is why Africans have far more genetic diversity than modern Europeans and Asians.

    "The latter have paid a genetic 'price' for their travels away from Mother Africa. They have become founders' in different parts of the globe, and evolved there locally, with less genetic diversity resulting. This means, that if you went to a village in Africa, you could capture 90% of all forms of human genes, whereas if you went to a village in Holland, you would capture as little as 30%.

    "If a drug was developed based on the last mentioned research findings, the drug would only be able to help 30% of the population. It is therefore only logical that medical research processes are far more effective when they are applicable to large portions of the population."

    It is well known fact that people respond differently to drugs - some well and others not at all. "That response is a genetic phenomenon. If a drug company finds a variation in DNA that 'marks' the phenomenon of response to a certain drug, they can make the drug far more effective. Access to ancient DNA sequence allows the drug maker to know which variations are 'modern' (possible drug sensitive) or 'ancient' (possibly not susceptible)," he says.

    Future medical benefits

    Once the Khoi-San DNA has been analysed and sequenced it will be possible to generate African-centric drugs for Africans. "We will be able to make medicines that are for example more effective in African women than non-Africans, in actuality developing 'tribe' specific drugs. This will lead to massive savings in drug delivery. It will be possible to prescribe more efficient drugs, more cheaply, that are required in smaller amounts, with fewer side effects. This will result in a drop in prescription of expensive drugs to people who will not be able to respond to them. We will also be able to identify alternate therapies from the start, instead of wasting valuable time, searching months for the right combination of drugs."


    http://www.sanbi.ac.za/argus.html
    If this is so (and it appears that their research is taking us to this conclusion), where do the other races 'spring' from? How are the distinct features of the other human races to be seen as possibly coming from the black, and the negroid features that we are familiar with (large lips, broad nose, among others)?
    Perhaps I am being to novice in this -- I have not done extensive research on the subject to any extent (!) --- and maybe this is not where the thread leads, but ................ ......hmmmmmm
    O.A.
    Norman-Cimmerian

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    Post Re: Khoisan -the most ancient race of humans

    Quote Originally Posted by old aryan
    If this is so (and it appears that their research is taking us to this conclusion), where do the other races 'spring' from? How are the distinct features of the other human races to be seen as possibly coming from the black, and the negroid features that we are familiar with (large lips, broad nose, among others)?
    Perhaps I am being to novice in this -- I have not done extensive research on the subject to any extent (!) --- and maybe this is not where the thread leads, but ................ ......hmmmmmm
    It's called evolution(change in time)...unless you beleive in evolution, I honestly don't see how you can make and statements about so called "specific pure races" that popped out of thin air?

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