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Thread: Today in Germanic History

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    Lightbulb Today in Germanic History

    November 25th
    [A few selected events of this date -Arc]

    1120 - The White Ship sinks in the English Channel, drowning William Adelin, son of Henry I of England.
    1177 - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard.
    1491 - The siege of Granada, last Moorish stronghold in Spain, begins.
    1542 - Battle of Solway Moss. The English army defeats the Scottish.
    1783 - American Revolutionary War: The last British troops leave New York City three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
    1905 - Haakon VII arrives in Norway.
    1936 - In Berlin, Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, thus agreeing to consult on what measures to take "to safeguard their common interests" in case of an unprovoked attack by the Soviet Union against either nation.
    1952 - Agatha Christie's murder-mystery play The Mousetrap opens at the Ambassadors Theatre in London and eventually becomes the longest continuously-running play in history.
    1963 - President John F. Kennedy is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
    1975 - Suriname gains independence from the Netherlands.
    1992 - The Czechoslovakia Federal Assembly votes to split the country into the Czech Republic and Slovakia from January 1, 1993.
    2002 - US President George W. Bush signs the Homeland Security Act into law.

    Birth: 1960 - John F. Kennedy, Jr., American publisher (d. 1999) is born on the same day his father is buried three years later.

    Death: 1881 - Theobald Boehm, German inventor of the modern flute (b. 1794)

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    November 28th

    November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 33 days remaining.

    1095 - On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the to the Holy Land.
    1582 - In Stratford-upon-Avon, William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway pay a £40 bond for their marriage licence.
    1660 - At Gresham College, 12 men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray decide to found what is later known as the Royal Society.
    1895 - The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago's Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately 10 hours.
    1905 - Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Féin as a political party whose goal is the independence of Ireland.
    1920 - The Mark of Zorro, starring Douglas Fairbanks opens.
    1943 - World War II: Tehran Conference - US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy.
    1958 - Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community.
    1960 - Mauritania becomes independent of France.
    1990 - Margaret Thatcher formally tenders her resignation to The Queen and leaves Downing Street for the last time. John Major is elected her successor.
    1994 - Voters in Norway reject European Union membership (see Norwegian EU referendum, 1994).
    1994 - In Portage, Wisconsin, convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is clubbed to death by an inmate in the Columbia Correctional Institute gymnasium.

    Birth:
    1757 - William Blake, British poet and artist (d. 1827)
    1967 - Anna Nicole Smith, American model and television personality
    Death:
    1968 - Enid Blyton, British children's author (b. 1897)
    1994 - Jeffrey Dahmer, American serial killer (b. 1960)

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    November 29th

    1781 - The slave ship Zong dumps its living cargo into the sea in order to claim insurance.
    1830 - November Uprising: An armed rebellion against Russia's rule in Poland begins.
    1847 - Whitman Massacre: Missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 others are killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, causing the Cayuse War.
    1872 - Indian Wars: The Modoc War begins with the Battle of Lost River.
    1877 - Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph for the first time.
    1929 - U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd becomes the first person to fly over the South Pole.
    1943 - The second session of AVNOJ, the Anti-fascist council of national liberation of Yugoslavia, is held in Jajce, Bosnia and Herzegovina, determining the post-war ordering of the country.
    1947 - The United Nations General Assembly votes to partition Palestine.
    1950 - Korean War: North Korean and Chinese troops force United Nations forces to retreat from North Korea.
    1963 - U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
    1975 - The name "Micro-soft" (for "microcomputer software") is first used in a letter from Bill Gates to Paul Allen.
    1982 - Soviet invasion of Afghanistan: The United Nations General Assembly passes United Nations Resolution 37/37, stating that Soviet Union forces should withdraw from Afghanistan.
    1990 - Gulf War: The United Nations Security Council passes UN Security Council Resolution 678, authorizing military intervention in Iraq if that nation did not withdraw its forces from Kuwait and free all foreign hostages by January 15, 1991.

    Birth:
    1898 - C. S. Lewis, Irish writer (d. 1963)
    1971 - Gena Lee Nolin, American actress

    Death:
    1981 - Natalie Wood, American actress (b. 1938)
    1986 - Cary Grant, British-born American actor (b. 1904)
    2001 - George Harrison, British rock musician (b. 1943)

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    December 2nd

    1409 - The University of Leipzig opens.
    1804 - At Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned as the first Emperor of France in a thousand years.
    1805 - Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Austerlitz - French troops under Napoleon defeat a joint Russo-Austrian force.
    1823 - Monroe Doctrine: US President James Monroe delivers a speech establishing American neutrality in future European conflicts. [!!!- Arc]
    1848 - Franz Josef I becomes Emperor of Austria.
    1851 - Newly-elected French President Charles Louis Bonaparte overthrows the Second Republic.
    1852 - Napoleon III becomes Emperor of France.
    1859 - Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16th raid on Harper's Ferry.
    1867 - In a New York City theater, British author Charles Dickens gives his first public reading in the United States.
    1927 - Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile.
    1942 - Manhattan Project: A team led by Enrico Fermi initiate the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
    1947 - Jerusalem Riots of 1947: Riots break out in Jerusalem in response to the approval of the 1947 UN Partition Plan.
    1954 - Red Scare: The United States Senate votes 65 to 22 to condemn Joseph McCarthy for "conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute."
    1961 - In a nationally-broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.
    1970 - The United States Environmental Protection Agency begins operations.
    1971 - Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, and Umm Al Quwain form the United Arab Emirates.
    1982 - At the University of Utah, Barney Clark, becomes the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart.
    1988 - Benazir Bhutto is sworn in as Prime Minister of Pakistan, becoming the first woman to head the government of an Islam-dominated state.
    1990 - A coalition led by Chancellor Helmut Kohl wins the first free all-German elections since 1932.
    1999 - The United Kingdom devolves political power in Northern Ireland to the Northern Ireland Executive.
    2000 - The Smashing Pumpkins play their final gig, at The Metro in Chicago.
    2001 - Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
    2005 - Microsoft's Xbox 360 is launched in Europe.
    2005 - Kenneth Boyd becomes the 1,000th person to be executed in the United States since capital punishment was reinstated in 1976.

    Birth:
    1946 - Gianni Versace, Italian fashion designer (d. 1997)
    1981 - Britney Spears, American singer

    Death:
    1849 - Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Queen of William IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1792)
    1957 - Harrison Ford, American actor (b. 1884) [Heh! -Arc]
    1986 - Desi Arnaz, Cuban-born actor, musician, band leader, and composer (b. 1917)

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    December 3rd

    1818 - Illinois becomes the 21st U.S. state.
    1828 - In the U.S. Presidential election, challenger Andrew Jackson beats incumbent John Quincy Adams and is elected President of the United States.
    1854 - Eureka Stockade: In what is claimed by many to be the birth of Australian democracy, more than 20 goldminers at Ballarat, Australia are killed by state troopers in an uprising over mining licences.
    1901 - US President Theodore Roosevelt delivers a 20,000-word speech to the House of Representatives asking Congress curb the power of trusts "within reasonable limits".
    1904 - The Jovian moon Himalia is discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at California's Lick Observatory.
    1912 - Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (the Balkan League) sign an armistice with Turkey, ending the two-month long First Balkan War.
    1937 - The Dandy, the world's longest-running comic, is first published.
    1944 - The Greek Civil War breaks out in a newly-liberated Greece, between communists and royalists.
    1947 - Tennessee Williams' play A Streetcar Named Desire opens on Broadway.
    1953 - The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, between the United States and the Republic of China, is signed in Washington, DC.
    1964 - Berkeley Free Speech Movement: Police arrest over 800 students at the University of California, Berkeley, following their takeover and sit-in at the administration building in protest at the UC Regents' decision to forbid Vietnam War protests on UC property.
    1967 - At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, a transplant team headed by Christiaan Barnard carries out the first heart transplant on a human (53-year-old Louis Washkansky).
    1970 - October Crisis: In Montreal, Quebec, kidnapped British Trade Commissioner James Cross is released by the Front de Libération du Québec terrorist group after being held hostage for 60 days. Police negotiate his release and in return the Canadian government grants five terrorists from the FLQ's Chenier Cell their request for safe passage to Cuba.
    1971 - Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: After Pakistan launches airstrikes on Indian airfields, India retaliates by invading East Pakistan.
    1973 - Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter.
    1976 - Patrick Hillery becomes the sixth President of Ireland.
    1984 - Bhopal Disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000-600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.
    1989 - Cold War: In a meeting off the coast of Malta, US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev release statements indicating that the cold war between their nations may be coming to an end (some commentators from both nations exaggerated the wording and independently declared the Cold War over).
    1992 - The Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, carrying 80,000 tonnes of crude oil, runs aground in a storm while approaching La Coruña, Spain, and spills much of its cargo.
    1997 - In Ottawa, Canada, representatives from 121 countries sign a treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines. The United States, People's Republic of China, and Russia do not sign the treaty, however.
    1999 - NASA loses radio contact with the Mars Polar Lander moments before the spacecraft enters the Martian atmosphere.

    Birth:
    1826 - George McClellan, U.S. Civil War general (d. 1885)
    1930 - Jean-Luc Godard, French film director
    1948 - Ozzy Osbourne, British singer
    1960 - Daryl Hannah, American actor
    1960 - Julianne Moore, American actor

    Death:
    1154 - Pope Anastasius IV
    1894 - Robert Louis Stevenson, British writer (b. 1850)
    1919 - Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French impressionist painter (b. 1841)
    1980 - Oswald Mosley, British politician (b. 1896)
    1999 - Scatman John, American singer (lung cancer) (b. 1942)

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    December 4th

    771 - Austrasian King Carloman dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne King of the now complete Frankish Kingdom.
    1110 - First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon.
    1259 - Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.
    1619 - 38 colonists from Berkeley Parish in England disembark in Virginia and give thanks to God (this is considered to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas).
    1639 - Jeremiah Horrocks made the first observation of a transit of Venus. (November 24 under the Julian calendar.)
    1674 - Father Jacques Marquette founds a mission on the shores of Lake Michigan to minister to the Illiniwek (the mission would later grow into the city of Chicago, Illinois).
    1676 - Battle of Lund: A Danish army under the command of King Christian V of Denmark engages the Swedish army commanded by Field Marshal Simon Grundel-Helmfelt.
    1791 - The first issue of The Observer, the world's first Sunday newspaper, is published.
    1829 - In the face of fierce opposition, British Lord William Bentinck carries a regulation declaring that all who abetted suttee in India were guilty of culpable homicide.
    1864 - American Civil War: Sherman's March to the Sea - At Waynesboro, Georgia, forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevent troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William T. Sherman's campaign of destroying a wide swath of the South on his march to the Gulf of Mexico (Union forces did suffer more than three times the casualties as the Confederates, however).
    1872 - The crewless American ship Mary Celeste is found by the British brig Dei Gratia (the ship was abandoned for 9 days but was only slightly damaged).
    1906 - Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc., the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity in the United States established for men of African descent, was founded at Cornell University.
    1918 - US President Woodrow Wilson sails for the World War I peace talks in Versailles, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.
    1921 - The Virginia Rappe manslaughter trial against Roscoe 'Fatty' Arbuckle ends in a hung jury.
    1942 - Holocaust: In Warsaw, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Filipowicz set up Żegota.
    1943 - The Great Depression ends in the United States: With unemployment figures falling fast due to war-related employment, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes the Works Progress Administration.
    1945 - By a vote of 65 to 7, the United States Senate approves United States participation in the United Nations (the UN was established on October 24, 1945).
    1952 - Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing up to 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
    1969 - Black Panther members Fred Hampton and Mark Clark are shot and killed in their sleep during a raid by 14 Chicago police officers.
    1969 - Surfer Greg Noll rides a 65-foot wave on the North Shore of Oahu, still the highest ever recorded.
    1977 - Jean-Bédel Bokassa, president of the Central African Republic, crowns himself Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire.
    1981 - South Africa grants "homeland" Ciskei independence (not recognized outside South Africa).
    1998 - Unity, the second module of the International Space Station, is launched.

    Birth:
    1612 - Samuel Butler, English poet (d. 1680)
    1849 - Crazy Horse, Oglala Sioux chief (d. 1877)
    1963 - Sergei Bubka, Soviet-born Ukrainian pole-vaulter, IAAF World Champion, Olympic gold medalist and current world-record holder

    Death:
    1214 - William I of Scotland
    1334 - Pope John XXII (b. 1249)
    1679 - Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (b. 1588)
    1993 - Frank Zappa, American musician and composer (b. 1940)

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    December 5th

    1484 - Pope Innocent VIII issues the Summis desiderantes, a papal bull that deputizes Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany and leads to one of the severest witchhunts in European history.
    1492 - Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to set foot on the island of Hispaniola.
    1560 - Francis II of France dies and is succeeded by Charles IX of France.
    1590 - Niccolò Sfondrati becomes Pope Gregory XIV.
    1766 - In London, James Christie holds his first sale.
    1926 - Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin is premiered.
    1932 - German-born Swiss physicist Albert Einstein is granted an American visa.
    1933 - Prohibition ends: Utah becomes the 36th U.S. state to ratify the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution, thus establishing the required 75% of states needed to enact the amendment (this overturned the 18th Amendment which had outlawed alcohol in the United States).
    1936 - The Soviet Union adopts a new constitution and the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic is established as a full Union Republic of the USSR.
    1945 - Flight 19, a squadron of five U.S. Navy TBF Avenger bombers on a training flight out of Fort Lauderdale, is lost in the Bermuda Triangle.
    1952 - The Abbott and Costello Show, starring comedians Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, debuts on American television.
    1964 - Vietnam War: For his heroism in battle earlier in the year, Captain Roger Donlon of Saugerties, New York is awarded the first Medal of Honor of the war.
    1974 - Party Political Broadcast, the final episode of Monty Python's Flying Circus, is broadcast on BBC 2.
    1978 - The Soviet Union signs a 'friendship treaty' with the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

    Birth:
    1443 - Pope Julius II (d. 1513)
    1901 - Walt Disney, American animated film producer (d. 1966)
    1932 - Little Richard (Richard Wayne Penniman), American singer and pianist

    Death:
    749 - Saint John of Damascus, theologian
    1560 - King Francis II of France (b. 1544)
    1791 - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer (b. 1756)
    1870 - Alexandre Dumas père, French writer (b. 1802)
    1926 - Claude Monet, French impressionist painter (b. 1840)
    1963 - Karl Amadeus Hartmann, German composer (b. 1905)
    1991 - Richard Speck, American mass murderer (b. 1941)

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    December 6th

    963 - Leo VIII is elected Pope.
    1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev under Danylo of Halych and Voivode Dmytro falls to the Mongols under Batu Khan.
    1768 - The first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica is published.
    1849 - American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.
    1865 - The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, banning slavery.
    1877 - The Washington Post newspaper is first published.
    1884 - The Washington Monument in Washington D.C. is completed.
    1917 - Finland declares its independence from Russia. [:fi: -Arc]
    1921 - The Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed in London by British and Irish representatives
    1922 - One year to the day after the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty the Irish Free State comes into existence.
    1969 - Meredith Hunter is killed by Hell's Angels during The Rolling Stones's concert at the Altamont speedway in California.
    1975 - Balcome Street Siege: IRA terrorist gang takes a couple hostage in Balcome Street, London
    1977 - South Africa grants independence to Bophuthatswana - not recognized by any other country

    Birth:

    1421 - King Henry VI of England (d. 1471)
    1792 - King William II of the Netherlands (d. 1849)
    1896 - Ira Gershwin, American lyricist (d. 1983)
    1948 - Keke Rosberg, Finnish race car driver and Formula 1 World Champion

    Death:
    1352 - Pope Clement VI (b. 1291)
    1988 - Roy Orbison, American singer, guitarist and songwriter (b. 1936)

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    December 7th

    1787 - Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the United States Constitution.
    1815 - Michel Ney, Marshal of France, is executed by firing squad, after having been convicted of treason for his support of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    1917 - World War I: The United States declares war on Austria-Hungary.
    1941 - World War II: Attack On Pearl Harbor - The Imperial Japanese Navy attacks the U.S. Pacific Fleet and its defending Army Air Corps and Marine air forces at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
    1965 - Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras simultaneously lift mutual excommunications that had been in place since 1054.
    1972 - Apollo 17, the last Apollo moon mission, is launched. The crew take the photograph known as "The Blue Marble" as they leave the Earth.
    1982 - In Texas, Charles Brooks, Jr. becomes the first person to be executed by lethal injection in the United States.
    1987 - PSA Flight 1771 crashes near Paso Robles, California, killing all 43 on board, after a disgruntled passenger shoots his ex-boss on the flight, then shoots both pilots and himself.
    1988 - Yasser Arafat recognizes the right of Israel to exist.
    1993 - In South Africa, the transitional executive council is established
    1995 - The Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, a little more than six years after it was launched by Space Shuttle Atlantis during Mission STS-34.
    2003 - The Conservative Party of Canada is officially recognized after the merger of the Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative Party of Canada.

    Birth:
    521 - Saint Columba, Irish Christian missionary to Scotland (d. 597)
    1545 - Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, consort of Mary I of Scotland (d. 1567)
    1928 - Noam Chomsky, American linguist and political writer
    2003 - Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands

    Death:
    43 BC - Cicero, Roman politician and author (b. 106 BC)
    283 - Pope Eutychian
    1254 - Pope Innocent IV
    1817 - William Bligh, British naval officer (b. 1745)

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    December 8th
    [A very musical day -Arc]

    1854 - Pope Pius IX proclaims the dogma of Immaculate Conception, which holds that the Virgin Mary was born free of original sin.
    1907 - King Gustav V of Sweden accedes to the Swedish throne.
    1914 - World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands - The Kaiserliche Marine under the command of Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee is engaged by the Royal Navy.
    1941 - World War II: Pacific War - After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour the U.S. Congress passes a declaration of war against Japan.
    1941 - World War II: Pacific War - China officially declares war against Japan, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour.
    1941 - World War II: Battle of Hong Kong - The Japanese invade the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong less than 8 hours after the attack on Pearl Harbour.
    1941 - Holocaust: Gas vans are first used as a means of execution, at the Chelmno concentration camp near Lodz in Poland.
    1976 - The Eagles release the album Hotel California.
    1980 - John Lennon is shot and killed by Mark David Chapman outside the Dakota Building in New York City.
    1987 - The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty is signed.
    1991 - The leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine sign an agreement dissolving the Soviet Union and establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States.
    2004 - Former Pantera guitarist Darrell Abbott is shot and killed on stage by Nathan Gale at the Alrosa Villa nightclub in Columbus, Ohio.

    Birth:
    1542 - Mary Queen of Scots (d. 1587)
    1626 - Queen Christina of Sweden (d. 1689)
    1765 - Eli Whitney, American inventor (d. 1825)
    1865 - Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer (d. 1957)
    1943 - Jim Morrison, American singer (The Doors) (d. 1971)
    1962 - Marty Friedman, American guitarist
    1966 - Sinéad O'Connor, Irish musician

    Death:
    899 - Arnulf of Carinthia (b. 850)
    1859 - Thomas de Quincey, British author (b. 1785)
    1907 - King Oscar II of Sweden (b. 1829)
    1980 - John Lennon, British musician, singer, and songwriter (b. 1940)
    2004 - Dimebag Darrell (Darrell Abbott), American guitarist (b. 1966)

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