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Thread: Amud 1

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    Post Amud 1

    From The Paleolithic Site At Douara Cave In Syria by Suzuki and Takai.



    Amud man's skull shows a close fundamental morphological similarity to the European classic Neanderthal in such features as the large-size cranium with platycephalia, the backward sloping of the forehead, the circular contour of the skull in norma occipitalis, the backward shifting of the position of both the bregma and euryon points, and the development of the occipital torus. However, it differs from the European classic Neanderthal in having a higher cranial vault, more strongly curved frontal and parietal bones, less angulated occipital bone with a more inflated nuchal plane, higher squama of the temporal bone with large mastoid process, more progressed separation into two elements of the supraorbital torus, no sphenoprosopic face and a more prominent chin.

    The morphology of the mandible also deserves attention. It is a large mandible with small teeth and a wide gap between M3 and the anterior margin of the mandibular ramus. This gap is also seen in the Skhul population, but generally it is much narrower than on Amud man and is absent on Skhul VIII. The absence of this gap is regarded as non-Neanderthal feature of Skhul man (Coon, 1963).

    Taken together, the skeletal features of Amud man suggest he should be regarded as a transitional form between Neanderthal and Homo sapiens. However, the Skhul population had morphologically more progressive features than Amud man but was found with a Middle Palaeolithic Levalloiso-Mousterian industry rather than an industry transistional between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic (Watanabe, 1970). Furthermore, the Ksar 'Akilman (Ewing, 1947, 1956, 1963) is regarded as Homo sapiens, but he was found with a transitional industry. Stewart (1958, 1959,1961,1962.1963) in his study of Shanidar man suggests that it resembles the Mount Carmel skeletons, in particular, the Tabun remains. Here it is notable that the cranial and post-cranial bones of Amud man are morphologically suprisingly similar to those of Shanidar and Tabun man, which suggests strong racial affinities between the three. But, Shanidar man was found with the typical Mousterian lacking in the Levallois core (Solecki, 1952, 1953, 1955a, b, 1960, 1971) and Tabun man with a Levalloiso-Mousterian Industry. The question of the regional relationships and the origins of the cultures of these three fossil men is of great interest.

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    Post Re: Amud 1

    Great summary!! What about dating? It seems to me that it was about 90,000 years old but it has been at least 20 years since I read anything on Amud.

    This is a good example of a generalized Neanderthal or Eastern Neanderthal as opposed to the Western or specialized Neanderthals. As I recall from the picture of this skull I once saw, the face looked more European than anything else to me. I can't help but think that these gereralized Neanderthals contributed something to the gene pool of the Upper Paleolithics as they moved northwest.

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    Post Re: Amud 1

    Quote Originally Posted by Dr. Solar Wolff
    Great summary!! What about dating? It seems to me that it was about 90,000 years old but it has been at least 20 years since I read anything on Amud.
    Amud does seem to be younger, from around 45,000 to 47,000 years old

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