By Fernando R. Goñi


This work is a dissertation realized during July 1991, at the O.E.A.’s ex scholarship holders association’s headquarters, remembering the 30th anniversary of Carl Jung’s death. Dr. Goñi worked in Molecular chemistry at the New York Hospital (U.S.A.) and now he’s the director of the area in Montevideo, Uruguay. He is Also Honorific Member of the C.G.Jung Foundation for Analitycal Psychology of Argentina

"...There is a common way, a common breath , every things are in sympathy"... The whole organism and each one of it‘s parts are working in conjunction for the same purpose... The great principle are spreading to the most extreme part , and from the most extreme part returns to the great principle, to the unique nature, "to be or not to be". Starting from this thought of Hipócrates, and summarizing all about the Tao who impressed him, Pico de la Mirándola and, of course, the Universe itself; Jung expressed: "The universal principle is even into the smallest particle, which therefore, correspond to the whole".

This preamble and all the following, takes the purpose to explain how a biochemist dedicated to the basic immunology, who talks like an "invited" in a symposium dedicated to the live an works of Carl G. Jung have arrived until here. In one way, like an human being , my thought always became interested in the supposed pass of the time and the man’s transcendence. I grew with the latin phrase "fugit irreparabile tempus" (the irrecoverable fugue of the time), whose concept never convinced me, although, in fact, certainly perturbed and discouraged me lots of times.

In each life moment I should take advantage of that fleeting border that was the time. I receives a rudimentary microscope with which I learned to observe into the little spaces, which I was see them like a whole; and for not loosing an instant, I lifted my eyes to the sky. I interested myself in investigate the Universe from the human myopia, feeling then how small I was, and understanding that I probably occupied an intermediate position in a physical space that I wasn’t came to embrace in all its dimension. I foresaw the Whole, the Universe in general and in particularly its smallest parts. However with my mind, I could travel and pass the frontier that even physically could see.

Imagination is, therefore, the first form of relationship in the universal space, is the bridge between the physic person compelled to a meager space of the Universe, and the unconscious that embrace it. In many ways my imagination, or perception, or unconscious always could have traveled to a higher speed and farther than physical senses, helping to explain the perfect physical harmony existing from the smallest to the bigger. We could say like a corollary, that in the physical universe the phase which puts the limits is the space and the time, on which I could point originally.

I can’t penetrate into the atom, neither have time to come with my life to supposed confine of the Universe; however I can foresee all of that because I’m a part of that, and therefore I am and I staying in one like in the other. This special mind’s paradigm, like a reflection of the infinite, is really possible if in some level, space and time are relative or may not exists.

From that the comes my interest in this theme in which, of course, I’m an "amateur player" and not an expert. Nevertheless there where some "synchronistic" facts for me to came until here that led to me to reencounter, during 35 years, with Horacio Ejilevich Grimaldi, he with me and both with Jung in a causal form but not casual. Understanding that talking about Jung and the space-time relation, the term synchronicity emerge as antonomasy

Jung elaborated his theory of synchronicity starting from facts that happened and gave to him that pre-knowledge between 1914 and 1921. He said that he had elaborate and foreseen in itself the knowledge or the learning of what was synchronicity. However he waited for more than 30 years until arrived to publish it, and he did after lots of lobbies in Zurich in 1952. There are lots of conjectures about why Jung had not published his theory of synchronicity before; but from my own view and for myself could say that Jung waited to my birth to do it. Particularly for me both facts that have significance and not related causes, therefore they would be at the same time a synchronistic fact and a synchronic fact. I just saw it much more than thirty years later, and even that, had a great impact, which gave me the notion that synchronic facts should be non-temporal, because should be like a prediction and its reverse.

This fact takes significance only in the moment I take conscience of it, and "watching" to the fact, it happens in a near future, and instantly it becomes the recent past, although in the reality it has happened in the past, 37 years before. And here certainly starts the space-time relation in the C. G. Jung’s theory.

He defined synchronicity in this way: "I chose this term because I find an essential approach the simultaneous occurrence of two significant events but not connected accidentally. Therefore I use the general concept of synchronicism with the special meaning of coincidence in the time of two or more events not accidentally related that has the same or similar meaning, in contrast with "synchronism", that simply means the simultaneous occurrence of certain psychic state with one or more external events that they appear like parallely significant for the subjective momentary state and, in certain cases, vice-versa"...

This definition should consider particularly when it is a question of future events. They are evidently not "synchronous" but yes "synchronistic", since they were experienced like images in the present as if the event already existed".

Jung said that: "...The synchronicity has to see with the space-time relation, and time and space are coordinates in order to describe the behavior of bodies in movement".

Perhaps the theoretical formulation on synchronicity of Jung could varied if it wouldn’t dead before the Big-Bang enunciation’s theory of Stephen Hawkins, that for most of the human beings, are an enigma that we could foresee, but not to understand it. This theory can be summarized as that that in the beginning all the materia of the universe, the real materia, was compacted. No type of empty space didn't exist, and was occupied a little space measurable in terrestrial dimensions. From the Big-Bang, initial explosion, the Universe begins to be formed and expand, which bear a determinist concept about the events hinds to the limit.

That would be given Jung an important element, because this introduces the absolute causalism in the physical field, that is to say, an original cause exists, that original cause is going to give a series of effects, and each one of those effects will become causes. Each one of the situations that it is happened from there in more is going to have more causes to be produce themselves, but they will be predetermined always. When we talking about a causal event, or like Jung use to spoke about non-causal events, there is simply that we don't know all the causes that could determine it. However, all this, although physically we could try to explain, in certain form, it is relative since although events without causes don't exist, as more causes produces an effect, their particular influence is made insignificant and the event happens "at random" and being convert to "non-causal".

This paradox we will try to explain a little later on. Jung said then: "...but if space and time are only apparent properties in bodies in movement, and they are created from the intellectual necessity of the observer, then their relativisation for psychic condition, is not more than a matter in order to be surprised and it could arrive to the limits of the possible."...

"For the unconscious psyche space and time pretend to be relative, this means, the knowledge finds itself in a constant space-time, in which the space is not yet space, neither the time, time".
This is the most important point into the theory of synchronicity of Jung.

He thought that he had come to understand many further on, but he didn't want it to describe, for causes that we ignore. Their justification was that what he had come to understand about synchronicity was too much perturbant for the Science of their moment, and it didn't correspond to him, more than have defined what he had already said, without going further on, since would be able to produce chaotic effects that he was not able to measure them.

I will try now, after having defined what Jung described like synchronicity, to destroy or relativise the jungian empiria of synchronistic facts .And I'll do for a conceptual reason, since his concept is what should have validity. Let suppose that the synchronicity exists. However the empiric explanations of Jung only were momentary justifications in order to try to give validity to a theory that he knew would be questioned. Certainly several examples could be debated scientifically, with more or less difficulty according to the case.

For example the famous history in which a patient related him a dream in which the central topic was the gold scarab, to the time that Jung felt a noise in their window and upon opening a scarab entered, what it for him was a great revelation.

I will try it to find related causes so that it stop being a synchronistic event. Leading to a physical plane the archetypes that Jung theorized in a psychic plane, we could say that we also carrying physically everything that precedes us from the first original molecule that was begun to interpolate and extrapolate in order to produce that that we called life- the amount of ADN that we have in our cells gives certain validity to this pre-supposition.

The woman, that in their moment has a dream that for her is significant, although not arrive to understand, about the gold scarab; could retrograde physically to a remote situation, in which, she would produce a certain type of pheromones, hormones of sexual attraction for which we have lost the consciousness of their smell, but that the others animals and insects possess. These pheromones could look like the produced by the scarabs. A scarab has the property, in order to ensure the copulation like a part of their adaptation for the survival, of could detect a part per millions of that pheromone from several kilometers of distance and go toward it. If we thought in this way, we could come to explain causally, in a physical form; the relation of the two facts until the apparition of the scarab in the window and its knocking, like on the other hand, they make it at dusk against so much windows the scarabs of several parts of the world.

Jung includes into the synchronicity examples the telepathy, proven by Rhine with pack of cards. In which he finds validity. The experience is based on that the pack of cards were mixed in order to avoid all human intervention that could be questioned. Today we know --it was proven in Las Vegas like it was of supposing-- that exists a certain number of times that should mix a pack of 52 letters in order to achieve the maximum of disorder without a sequence that could be eventually revealed. The experiment was carried out with only 25 cards and without considering that factor. But even exist people that could have an idea, physic, about who is the sequence. Therefore the confirmation of the telepathic fact--having 10 successes over 25 that statistically is more than the chances at random-- could lose their validity if could relate the blended with the sequence. Also the concurrent facts could be questionable.

His example was about a person that received a ticket of the tram, one of the theater, and a number through telephone with exactly the same numeration. Probably in the 30ties, when the event happened, the numeration of each one of them was not more than four digits. They are gone giving permanently until in any city, any day are given all in the same numeration, therefore the conjunction of the three identical facts produces an event that could be related causally and for which should not be called synchronistic.

Although investigating the causal relations, more or less obvious, of the rest of the jungian casuistic, could be debate their scientific validity; it is undeniable that Jung was able to extrapolate from the background of certain facts --so that is to say, produced a cognitive deeper effect in him that in their patients-- what we could call the absolute knowledge that exists in the Universe on the synchronicity.

However there is Jung himself who methodologically tried to adapt the non-causalism of his casuistry to the non-causalism of his theory, because its validity in front of the rest of the scientific world, was depended on this so like he expressed it upon saying that:
"...no could be everything causal, neither causalistic, because if not, the synchronistic facts would not exist."

From all of that it comes off that the important matter is the non-causal perception of the fact and not so much that it could be. From another point of view could be said that if all the facts are totally causalistic and everything is totally predetermined, the time like such it doesn't exist. If an event is going to happen in the future, and it really is going to happen, through the absolute determinism, it stops being an event and becomes a fact that actually, it already happened in another plane of what we called time. It would also be part of the past since the present is just a nexus between both.

This sophism, so it is not more than that, would be used to recognize that the concept of time if could take it from a dual form, would be in harmony with the rest of the universe. The synchronicity acquires more importance since become a non-temporal relation. We must look for the nexus that relates the synchronicity with the dual character of the time giving meaning to it. The concept that would introduce is that we in fact have two parallel universes, one physical on which we know certain laws like for example the causation or non-causation and the linearity of the time; and a psychic universe on which we don't still know the laws that govern it although these laws are governing.

If we perceived some of the elements that conform this psychic universe like the willingness and the meaning; and through the concept of time's definition, in psychic aspect, this would not exist. Like corollary we could say that the non-temporal relation between the psychic universe and the physical universe would produce the synchronistic events.

In the last paragraphs of the book "About the Synchronicity," Jung writes that: "...Against of this should keep in mind that the synchronistic events, that one could verify empirically, far from building a rule, they are so exceptional that most of the people doubt of their existence." Probably Jung was not able to verify logic and scientifically these facts, but for the above, we should suppose that the synchronistic facts happens, in the reality with many much frequency of what one could check.

Even more:

We don't know if they happen frequently and regularly in any field of the experience like in order to talk about they conforming a law. I owe to emphasize again the possibility that the facts of relation between "the body and the soul" should be understood like synchronistic, and in fact, the synchronicity is the non-temporal relation and therefore, non-causal between that psychic universe "the soul" and the physique universe that is "the body."

Robert Aziz in his book about Jung "Synchronicity and Religion" says that: "The problem is that Jung treated the thematic of what they were the archetypes, the archetypal images, creating a confusion in certain form; but he never expressed with words that exist the synchronicity and the synchronistic facts, and that is very important to make the difference between the one and the other."


On the other hand Jung says:

"...If this conjecture comes to be eventually proven, my current vision of the synchronicity like rare phenomenon, should be corrected. We only knows that should be an underlying phenomenon that possibly could explain these related phenomenons."
In fact Jung already foresaw the relativity of the time, and of the space in one of the universes, in both or in their interrelation. He wrote this like an admonition. But an admonition in certain form contains a certain principle. Jung was sure of what he was saying, he simply lost much time trying to explain to the scientific world of the moment the synchronicity through certain examples. Therefore Jung didn't come to give scientific and rational form to what supposedly he conjectured in the end of his life.

The synchronicity so will be the non-temporal relation between the psyche and the physique, and therefore most of the facts should be synchronistics. However the relation becomes synchronistic when we could understand it and give us a meaning. There is that when we takes the synchronicity concept in hands although the synchronicity already exists. Non-temporally and therefore non-causally we explain the synchronistic fact.

Arriving to the end wants to try to sketching the reason, the what, the importance and the meaning of the synchronicity and the synchronistic facts. The synchronistic facts that takes place being the non-temporal relation of psyche - physique, are the norm of our lives although we seldom recognize them like such.

The synchronicity is our relationship with the total, Psychic and Physical Universe and therefore it connect us with the unconscious. The synchronicity and the synchronistic facts give us the opportunity to understand the way to putting us in balance with the symmetry of the Universe, and therefore with ourselves and with the environment that surrounds us. The meaning of the synchronicity is that the universal homeostasis is non temporal and non spatial.