Towards the end of the Jomon period there was a substantial change in the linguistic pattern of Japan owing to a large influx of peoples. The total population in the early Jomon period probably did not exceed 20,000. Evidence of areas neighbouring Kyushu which were by-passed by the Yayoi migrations can be found in Shikoku. In physical type, the southern Mongoloid or 'Indonesian' has been shown to be more evidently present among the inhabitants of Shikoku, especially those of Kagawa Prefecture. The distinguished Soviet physical anthropologist M.G.Levin comments thus: "the greater incidence of the Indonesian element among the population of Shikoku is evidently due to the fact that this island has for long lain to one side of the route along which the flow of settlers proceeded, bearing the Yayoi culture" (1961: 135). What is the evidence that the Jomon peoples spoke varieties of Malayo-Polynesian languages? Archeological indications point strongly towards migrations from the south. Early Jomon pottery seems to have been influenced by southeast Asian islands. Levin (1961) writes: "Okladnikov is justified in pointing out the close resemblance between the flat-based cylindrical vessels of the early Jomon decorated by impressions (especially the vessels from the lower strata of the Early Neolithic site of Ishio in Aomori Prefecture) and the woven baskets of the Malay archipelago and Japan" (123). The presence of Neolithic four-faceted axes of the type used in southeast Asia, Indonesia and Polynesia, the secondary burial method using red pigment, house and village planning, teeth ablation, the cemetry system whereby families clustered their dead all reflect, as well as a variety of social customs and practices a Malayo-Polynesian influence. Edward Kidder also (1980) notes: "A conspicuous foreignism was the practice of knocking out and filing teeth, a practice commonly associated with tribal people of south Asia... Its distribution is now found to be far closer to home than was once realized: in eastern Neolithic China, the Ryukyus and Taiwan"(23).