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Thread: 'The Passing of the Great Race' - Madison Grant

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    'The Passing of the Great Race' - Madison Grant

    I'm looking for the book The Passing of A Great Race...I can't seem to find it unfortunately since barnes and noble doesn't supply it. Any help would be appreciated.
    Memory And Destiny.

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    Man ſei Held oder Heiliger. In der Mitte liegt nicht die Weisheit, ſondern die Alltäglichkeit.

    SPENGLER

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    Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race

    Introduction

    THE following pages are devoted to an attempt to elucidate the meaning of history in terms of race; that is, by the physical and psychical characters of the inhabitants of Europe instead of by their political grouping, or by their spoken language. Practically all historians, while using the word race, have relied on tribal or national names as its sole definition. The ancients, like the moderns, in determining ethnical origin, did not look beyond a man's name, language, or country, and the actual information furnished by classic literature on the subject of physical characters is limited to a few scattered and often obscure remarks.

    Modern anthropology has demonstrated that racial lines are not only absolutely independent of both national and linguistic groupings, but that in many cases these racial lines cut through them at sharp angles and correspond closely with the divisions of social cleavage. The great lesson of the science of race is the immutability of somatological or bodily characters, with which is closely associated the immutability of psychical predispositions and impulses. This continuity of inheritance has a most important bearing on the theory of democracy and still more upon that of socialism, and those, engaged in social uplift and in revolutionary movements are consequently usually very intolerant of the limitations imposed by heredity.

    Democratic theories of government in their modern form are based on dogmas of equality formulated some hundred and fifty years ago, and rest upon the assumption that environment and not heredity is the controlling factor in human development. Philanthropy and noble purpose dictated the doctrine expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the document which to-day constitutes the actual basis of American institutions. The men who wrote the words, "we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal," were themselves the owners of slaves, and despised Indians as something less than human. Equality in their minds meant merely that they were just as good Englishmen as their brothers across the sea. The words "that all men are created equal" have since been subtly falsified by adding the word "free," although no such expression is found in the original document, and the teachings based on these altered words in the American public schools of to-day would startle and amaze the men who formulated the Declaration.

    The laws of nature operate with the same relentless and unchanging force in human affairs as in the phenomena of inanimate nature, and the basis of the government of man is now and always has been, and always will be, force and not sentiment, a truth demonstrated anew by the present world conflagration.

    It will be necessary for the reader to strip his mind of all preconceptions as to race, since modern anthropology, when applied to history, involves an entire change of definition. We must, first of all, realize that race pure and simple, the physical and psychical structure of man, is something entirely distinct from either nationality or language, and that race lies to-day at the base of all the phenomena of modern society, just as it has done throughout the unrecorded eons of the past.

    The antiquity of existing European populations, viewed in the light thrown upon their origins by the discoveries of the last few decades, enables us to carry back history and prehistory into periods so remote that the classic world is but of yesterday. The living peoples of Europe consist of layer after layer of diverse racial elements in varying proportions, and historians and anthropologists, while studying these populations, have been concerned chiefly with the recent strata, and have neglected the more ancient and submerged types.

    Aboriginal populations from time immemorial have been again and again swamped under floods of newcomers and have disappeared for a time from historic view. In the course of centuries, however, these primitive elements have slowly reasserted their physical type and have gradually bred out their conquerors, so that the racial history of Europe has been in the past, and is to-day a story of the repression and resurgence of ancient races.

    Invasions of new races have ordinarily arrived in successive waves, the earlier ones being quickly absorbed by the conquered, while the later arrivals usually maintain longer the purity of their type. Consequently the more recent elements are found in a less mixed state than the older, and the more primitive strata of the population always contain physical traits derived from still more ancient predecessors.

    Man has inhabited Europe in some form or other for hundreds of thousands of years, and during all this lapse of time the population has been as dense as the food supply permitted. Tribes in the hunting stage are necessarily of small size, no matter how abundant the game, and in the Paleolithic period man probably existed only in specially favorable localities, and in relatively small communities.

    In the Neolithic and Bronze periods domesticated animals and the knowledge of agriculture, although of primitive character, afforded an enlarged food supply, and the population in consequence greatly increased. The lake dwellers of the Neolithic were, for example, relatively numerous. With the clearing of the forests and the draining of the swamps during the Middle Ages and, above all, with the industrial expansion of the last century, the population multiplied with great rapidity. We can, of course, form little or no estimate of the numbers of the Paleolithic population of Europe, and not much more of those of Neolithic times, but even the latter must have been very small in comparison with the census of to-day.

    Some conception of the growth of population in recent times may be based on the increase in England. It has been computed that Saxon England at the time of the Conquest contained about 1,500,000 inhabitants; at the time of Queen Elizabeth the population was about 4,000,000, while in 1911 the census gave for the same area some 35,000,000.

    The immense range of the subject of race in connection with history from its nebulous dawn, and the limitations of space, require that generalizations must often be stated without mention of exceptions. These sweeping statements may even appear to be too bold, but they rest, to the best of the writer's belief, upon solid foundations of facts, or else are legitimate conclusions from evidence now in hand. In a science as recent as modern anthropology, new facts are constantly revealed and require the modification of existing hypotheses. The more the subject is studied the more provisional even the best-sustained theory appears, but modern research opens a vista of vast interest and significance to man, now that we have discarded the shackles of former false view-points and are able to discern, even though dimly, the solution of many of the problems of race. New data will in the future inevitably expand, and perhaps change our ideas, but such facts as are now in hand, and the conclusions based thereupon, are provisionally set forth in the following chapters, and necessarily often in a dogmatic form.

    The statements relating to time have presented the greatest difficulty, as the authorities differ widely, but the dates have been fixed with extreme conservatism and the writer believes that whatever changes in them are hereafter required by further investigation and study, will result in pushing them back and not forward in prehistory. The dates given in the chapter of "Paleolithic Man" are frankly taken from the most recent authority on this subject, "The Men of the Old Stone Age," by Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn, and the writer desires to take this opportunity to acknowledge his great indebtedness to this source of information, as well as to Mr. M. Taylor Pyne and to Mr. Charles Stewart Davison for their assistance and many helpful suggestions.

    The author also wishes to acknowledge a debt of gratitude to Professor William Z. Ripley's great work on "The Races of Europe," which contains a vast array of anthropological data, maps, and type portraits, providing a mine of information upon which the author has drawn freely, for the present distribution of the three primary races of Europe.

    The American Geographical Society and its staff, particularly Mr. Leon Dominian, have also been of great assistance in the preparation of the maps contained herein, and this occasion is taken by the writer to express his deep appreciation for their assistance.

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    Chapter 1
    Race and Democracy

    FAILURE to recognize the clear distinction between race and nationality and the still greater distinction between race and language, the easy assumption that the one is indicative of the other, has been in the past a serious impediment to an understanding of racial values. Historians and philologists have approached the subject from the view-point of linguistics, and as a result we have been burdened with a group of mythical races, such as the Latin, the Aryan, the Caucasian, and, perhaps, most inconsistent of all, the "Celtic" race.

    Man is an animal differing from his fellow inhabitants of the globe, not in kind but only in degree of development, and an intelligent study of the human species must be preceded by an extended knowledge of other mammals, especially the primates. Instead of such essential training, anthropologists often seek to qualify by research in linguistics, religion, or marriage customs, or in designs of pottery or blanket weaving, all of which relate to ethnology alone.

    The question of race has been further complicated by the effort of old-fashioned theologians to cramp all mankind into the scant six thousand years of Hebrew chronology, as expounded by Archbishop Ussher. Religious teachers have also maintained the proposition not only that man is something fundamentally distinct from other living creatures, but that there are no inherited differences in humanity that cannot be obliterated by education and environment.

    It is, therefore, necessary at the outset for the reader to thoroughly appreciate that race, language, and nationality are three separate and distinct things, and that in Europe these three elements are only occasionally found persisting in combination, as in the Scandinavian nations.

    To realize the transitory nature of political boundaries, one has only to consider the changes of the past century, to say nothing of those which may occur at the end of the present war. As to language, here in America we daily hear the English language spoken by many men who possess not one drop of English blood, and who, a few years since, knew not one word of Saxon speech.

    As a result of certain religious and social doctrines, now happily becoming obsolete, race consciousness has been greatly impaired among civilized nations, but in the beginning all differences of class, of caste, and of color, marked actual lines of race cleavage.

    In many countries the existing classes represent races that were once distinct. In the city of New York, and elsewhere in the United States, there is a native American aristocracy resting upon layer after layer of immigrants of lower races, and the native American, while, of course, disclaiming the distinction of a patrician class, nevertheless has, up to this time, supplied the leaders of thought and the control of capital, of education, and of the religious ideals and altruistic bias of the community.

    In the democratic forms of government the operation of universal suffrage tends toward the selection of the average man for public office rather than the man qualified by birth, education, and integrity. How this scheme of administration will ultimately work out remains to be seen, but from a racial point of view, it will inevitably increase the preponderance of the lower types and cause a corresponding loss of efficiency in the community as a whole.

    The tendency in a democracy is toward a standardization of type and a diminution of the influence of genius. A majority must of necessity be inferior to a picked minority, and it always resents specializations in which it cannot share. In the French Revolution the majority, calling itself "the People," deliberately endeavored to destroy the higher type, and something of the same sort was, in a measure, done after the American Revolution by the expulsion of the Loyalists and the confiscation of their lands.

    In America we have nearly succeeded in destroying the privilege of birth; that is, the intellectual and moral advantage a man of good stock brings into the world with him. We are now engaged in destroying the privilege of wealth; that is, the reward of successful intelligence and industry, and in some quarters there is developing a tendency to attack the privilege of intellect and to deprive a man of the advantages of an early and thorough education. Simplified spelling is a step in this direction. Ignorance of English grammar or classic learning must not be held up as a reproach to the political and social aspirant.

    Mankind emerged from savagery and barbarism under the leadership of selected individuals whose personal prowess, capacity, or wisdom gave them the right to lead and the power to compel obedience. Such leaders have always been a minute fraction of the whole, but as long as the tradition of their predominance persisted they were able to use the brute strength of the unthinking herd as part of their own force, and were able to direct at will the blind dynamic impulse of the slaves, peasants, or lower classes. Such a despot had an enormous power at his disposal which, if he were benevolent or even intelligent, could be used, and most frequently was used, for the general uplift of the race. Even those rulers who most abused this power put down with merciless rigor the antisocial elements, such as pirates, brigands, or anarchists, which impair the progress of a community, as disease or wounds cripple an individual.

    True aristocracy is government by the wisest and best, always a small minority in any population. Human society is like a serpent dragging its long body on the ground, but with the head always thrust a little in advance and a little elevated above the earth. The serpent's tail, in human society represented by the antisocial forces, was in the past dragged by sheer force along the path of progress. Such has been the organization of mankind from the beginning, and such it still is in older communities than ours. What progress humanity can make under the control of universal suffrage, or the rule of the average, may find a further analogy in the habits of certain snakes which wiggle sideways and disregard the head with its brains and eyes. Such serpents, however, are not noted for their ability to make rapid progress.

    To use another simile, in an aristocratic as distinguished from a plutocratic, or democratic organization, the intellectual and talented classes form the point of the lance, while the massive shaft represents the body of the population and adds by its bulk and weight to the penetrative impact of the tip. In a democratic system this concentrated force at the top is dispersed throughout the mass, supplying, to be sure, a certain amount of leaven, but in the long run the force and genius of the small minority is dissipated, if not wholly lost. Vox populi, so far from being Vox Dei, thus becomes an unending wail for rights, and never a chant of duty.

    Where a conquering race is imposed on another race the institution of slavery often arises to compel the servient race to work, and to introduce it forcibly to a higher form of civilization. As soon as men can be induced to labor to supply their own needs slavery becomes wasteful and tends to vanish. Slaves are often more fortunate than freemen when treated with reasonable humanity, and when their elemental wants of food, clothing, and shelter are supplied.

    The Indians around the fur posts in northern Canada were formerly the virtual bond slaves of the Hudson Bay Company, each Indian and his squaw and pappoose being adequately supplied with simple food and equipment. He was protected as well against the white man's rum as the red man's scalping parties, and in return gave the Company all his peltries-the whole product of his year's work. From an Indian's point of view this was nearly an ideal condition, but was to all in- tents serfdom or slavery. When, through the opening up of the country, the continuance of such an archaic system became an impossibility, the Indian sold his furs to the highest bidder, received a large price in cash, and then wasted the proceeds in trinkets instead of blankets, and in rum instead of flour, with the result that he is now gloriously free, but is on the highroad to becoming a diseased outcast. In this case of the Hudson Bay Indian the advantages of the upward step from serfdom to freedom are not altogether clear. A very similar condition of vassalage existed until recently among the peons of Mexico, but without the compensation of an intelligent and provident ruling class.

    In the same way serfdom in mediaeval Europe apparently was a device through which the landowners overcame the nomadic instincts of their tenantry. Years are required to bring land to its highest productivity, and agriculture cannot be successfully practised even in well-watered and fertile districts by farmers who continually drift from one locality to another. The serf or villein was, therefore, tied by law to the land, and could not leave except with his master's consent. As soon as these nomadic instincts ceased to exist serfdom vanished. One has only to read the severe laws against vagrancy in England, just before the Reformation, to realize how widespread and serious was this nomadic instinct.

    Here in America we have not yet forgotten the wandering instincts of our Western pioneers, which in that case proved to be beneficial to every one except the migrants.

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    Chapter 2
    The Physical Basis of Race

    In the modern and scientific study of race we have long discarded the Adamic theory that man is descended from a single pair, created a few thousand years ago in a mythical Garden of Eden somewhere in Asia, to spread later over the earth in successive waves.

    Many of the races of Europe, both living and extinct, did come from the East through Asia Minor or by way of the African littoral, but most of the direct ancestors of existing populations have inhabited Europe for many thousands of years. During that time numerous races of men have passed over the scene. Some undoubtedly have utterly vanished, and some have left their blood behind them in the Europeans of to-day.

    It is a fact, however, that Asia was the chief area of evolution and differentiation of man, and that the various groups had their main development there, and not on the peninsula we call Europe.

    We now know, since the elaboration of the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance, that certain bodily characters, the so-called unit characters, such as skull shape, stature, eye color, hair color, and nose form, are transmitted in accordance with fixed mathematical laws, and, further, that various unit characters which are normally correlated, or belong together, may, after prolonged admixture with another race, pass down separately, and form what is known as disharmonic combinations. Such disharmonic combinations are, for example, a tall brunet, or a short blond; blue eyes associated with brunet hair, or brown eyes with blond hair. In modern science the meaning of the word "character" is now limited to physical instead of mental and spiritual traits as in popular usage.

    The process of intermixture of unit characters has gone far in existing populations, and with the ease of modern methods of transportation this process is going much further in Europe, and in America. The immediate results of such mixture are not blends, or intermediate types, but rather mosaics of contrasted characters. Such blends, if any, as ultimately occur, are too remote to concern us here. The first result of the crossing of a pure: brunet with a pure blond is to produce either pure blonds or pure brunets in certain known proportions, instead of offspring of an intermediate type; or else a third group which may be either blond or brunet, but which possesses latent characters of the contrasted type. Such latent or recessive characters often reappear in remote descendants.

    In defining race in Europe it is necessary not only to consider pure groups or pure types, but also the distribution of unit characters belonging to each particular subspecies of man found there. The interbreeding of these populations has progressed to such an extent that in many cases such an analysis of physical characters is necessary to reconstruct the elements which have entered into their ethnic composition.

    Sometimes we find a unit character appearing here and there as the sole remnant of a once numerous race, for example, the occasional appearance in European populations of a skull of the Neanderthal type, a race widely spread over Europe 40,000 years ago, or of the Cro-Magnon type, the predominant race I6,000 years ago. Before the fossil remains of the Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon races were studied and understood such reversional specimens were considered pathological, instead of being recognized as the reappearance of an ancient and submerged type.

    Unit characters are to all intents and purposes immutable, and they do not change during the lifetime of a language or an empire. The skull shape of the Egyptian fellaheen, in the unchanging environment of the Nile Valley, is absolutely identical in measurements, proportions and capacity with skulls found in the predynastic tombs dating back more than six thousand years.

    There exists to-day a widespread and fatuous belief in the power of environment, as well as of education and opportunity to alter heredity, which arises from the dogma of the brotherhood of man, derived in turn from the loose thinkers of the French Revolution and their American mimics. Such beliefs have done much damage in the past, and if allowed to go uncontradicted, may do much more serious damage in the future. Thus the view that the negro slave was an unfortunate cousin of the white man, deeply tanned by the tropic sun, and denied the blessings of Christianity and civilization, played no small part with the sentimentalists of the Civil War period, and it has taken us fifty years to learn that speaking English, wearing good clothes, and going to school and to church, does not transform a negro into a white man. Nor was a Syrian or Egyptian freedman transformed into a Roman by wearing a toga, and applauding his favorite gladiator in the amphitheatre. We shall have a similar experience with the Polish Jew, whose dwarf stature, peculiar mentality, and ruthless concentration on self-interest are being engrafted upon the stock of the nation.

    Recent attempts have been made in the interest of inferior races among our immigrants to show that the shape of the skull does change, not merely in a century, but in a single generation.

    In 191O, the report of the anthropological expert of the Congressional Immigration Commission, gravely declared that a round skull Jew on his way across the Atlantic might and did have a round skull child, but that a few years later, in response to the subtle elixir of American institutions, as exemplified in an East Side tenement, might and did have a child whose skull was appreciably longer; and that a long skull south Italian, breeding freely, would have precisely the same experience in the reverse direction. In other words, the Melting Pot was acting instantly under the influence of a changed environment.

    What the Melting Pot actually does in practice, can be seen in Mexico, where the absorption of the blood of the original Spanish conquerors by the native Indian population has produced the racial mixture which we call Mexican, and which is now engaged in demonstrating its incapacity for self-government. The world has seen many such mixtures of races, and the character of a mongrel race is only just beginning to be understood at its true value.

    It must be borne in mind that the specializations which characterize the higher races are of relatively recent development, are highly unstable and when mixed with generalized or primitive characters, tend to disappear. Whether we like to admit it or not, the result of the mixture of two races, in the long run, gives us a race reverting to the more ancient, generalized and lower type. The cross between a white man and an Indian is an Indian; the cross between a white man and a negro is a negro; the cross between a white man and a Hindu is a Hindu; and the cross between any of the three European races and a Jew is a Jew.

    In the crossing of the blond and brunet elements of a population, the more deeply rooted and ancient dark traits are prepotent or dominant. This is matter of everyday observation, and the working of this law of nature is not influenced or affected by democratic institutions or by religious beliefs.

    As measured in terms of centuries, unit characters are immutable, and the only benefit to be derived from a changed environment and better food conditions, is the opportunity afforded a race which has lived under adverse conditions, to achieve its maximum development, but the limits of that development are fixed for it by heredity and not by environment.

    In dealing with European populations the best method of determining race has been found to lie in a comparison of proportions of the skull, the so-called cephalic index. This is the ratio of maximum length to maximum width taken at the widest part of the skull above the ears. Skulls with an index of 75 or less, that is, when the width is three-fourths or less than the length, are considered dolichocephalic, or long skulls. Skulls of an index of 80 or over are round skulls, or brachycephalic. Intermediate indices, between 75 and 80, are considered mesocephalic. These are cranial indices. To allow for the flesh on living specimens, about two per cent is to be added to the index, and the result is the cephalic index. In the following pages only long and round skulls are considered and the intermediate forms, or mesocephs, are assigned to the dolichocephalic group.

    This cephalic index, though an extremely important if not the controlling unit character, is, nevertheless, but a single character and must be checked up with other somatological traits. Normally, a long skull is associated with a long face, and a round skull with a round face.

    The use of this test, the cephalic index, enables us to divide the great bulk of the European populations into three distinct subspecies of man, one northern and one southern, both dolichocephalic or characterized by a long skull, and a central subspecies which is brachycephalic, or characterized by a round skull.

    The first is the Nordic or Baltic subspecies. This race is long skulled, very tall, fair skinned, with blond or brown hair and light colored eyes. The Nordics inhabit the countries around the North and Baltic Seas, and include not only the great Scandinavian and Teutonic groups, but also other early peoples who first appear in southern Europe and in Asia as representatives of Aryan language and culture.

    The second is the dark Mediterranean or Iberian subspecies, occupying the shores of the inland sea, and extending along the Atlantic coast until it reaches the Nordic species. It also spreads far east into southern Asia. It is long skulled like the Nordic race, but the absolute size of the skull is less. The eyes and hair are very dark or black, and the skin more or less swarthy. The stature is stunted in comparison to that of the Nordic race and the musculature and bony framework weak.

    The third is the Alpine subspecies occupying all central and eastern Europe, and extending through Asia Minor to the Hindu Kush and the Pamirs. The Armenoids constitute an Alpine subdivision and represent the ancestral type of this race which remained in the mountains and high plateaux of Anatolia and western Asia. The Alpines are round skulled, of medium height and sturdy build, both as to skeleton and muscles. The coloration of both hair and eyes was originally very dark and still tends strongly in that direction, but many light colored eyes, especially gray, are now found in the Alpine populations of western Europe.

    While the inhabitants of Europe betray as a whole their mixed origin, nevertheless the three main subspecies are each found in large numbers and in great purity, as well as sparse remnants of still more ancient races represented by small groups or by individuals, and even by unit characters.

    These three main groups have bodily characters which constitute them distinct subspecies of Homo sapiens. Each has several varieties, but for the sake of clearness the word race and not the word species or subspecies will hereafter be used nearly, but not quite, exclusively. In zoology the term species implies the existence of a certain definite amount of divergence from the most closely related type, but race does not require a similar amount of difference. In man, where all groups are more or less fertile when crossed, so many intermediate or mixed types occur that the word species has too limited a meaning for wide use. Related species when grouped together constitute subgenera and genera.

    The old idea that fertility or infertility of races of animals was the measure of species, is now abandoned. One of the greatest difficulties in classifying man is his perverse predisposition to mismate. This is a matter of daily observation, especially among the women of the better classes, probably because of their wider range of choice.

    The cephalic index is of less value in the classification of Asiatic populations, but the distribution of round and long skulls is similar to that in Europe. The vast central plateau of that continent is inhabited by round skulls. In fact, Thibet and the western Himalayas were probably the centre of radiation of all the round skulls of the world. In India and Persia south of this central area occurs a long skull race related to Mediterranean man in Europe.

    Both skull types occur, much intermixed, among the American Indians, and the cephalic index is of little value in classifying the Amerinds. No satisfactory explanation of the variability of the skull shape of this species has as yet been found, but the total range of variation of physical characters from northern Canada to southern Patagonia is less than the range of such variation from Normandy to Provence in France.

    In Africa the cephalic index is also of small classification value because all of the populations are characterized by a long skull.

    The distinction between a long skull and a round skull in mankind probably goes back at least to early Paleolithic times, if not to a period still more remote. It is of such great antiquity that when new species or races appear in Europe at the close of the Paleolithic, between IO,OOO and 7,000 years B.C., the skull characters among them are as clearly defined as they are to-day.

    The fact that two distinct species of mankind both have long skulls, as have the north European and the African negro, is no necessary indication of relationship, and in that instance is merely a case of parallel specialization. The fact, however, that the Swede has a long skull and the Savoyard a round skull does prove them to be descendants of distinct subspecies.

    The claims that the Nordic race is a mere variation of the Mediterranean race, and that the latter is, in turn, derived from the Ethiopian negro, rest upon a mistaken idea that a dolichocephaly in common must mean identity of origin, as well as upon a failure to take into consideration many somatological characters of almost equal value with the cephalic index. In this connection it is well to remark that this measurement, being merely a ratio, may yield identical figures for skulls differing in every other proportion and detail, as well as in absolute size and capacity.

    Eye color is of very great importance in race determination, because all blue, gray, or green eyes in the world to-day came originally from the same source, namely, the Nordic race of northern Europe. This light colored eye has appeared nowhere else on earth, and is a specialization of this subspecies of man only, and is consequently one of extreme value in the classification of European races. Dark colored eyes are all but universal among wild mammals, and entirely so among the primates, man's nearest relatives. It is, therefore, an absolute certainty that all the original races of man had dark eyes.

    One subspecies of man, and one alone, specialized in light colored eyes. This same subspecies also evolved light or blond hair, a character far less deeply rooted than eye color, as blond children tend to grow darker with advancing years, and populations largely of Nordic extraction, such as those of Lombardy, upon admixture with darker races, lose their blond hair more readily than their light colored eyes.

    Blond hair also comes everywhere from the Nordic species, and from nowhere else. Whenever we find blondness among the darker races of the earth we may be sure some Nordic wanderer has passed that way. When individuals of perfect blond type occur, as sometimes in Greek islands, we may suspect a recent visit of sailors from a passing ship, but when only single characters remain spread thinly, but widely, over considerable areas, like the blondness of the Atlas Berbers or of the Albanian mountaineers, we must search in the dim past for the origin of these blurred traits of early invaders.

    The range of blond hair color in pure Nordic peoples runs from flaxen and red to shades of chestnut and brown. The darker shades may indicate crossing in some cases, but absolutely black hair certainly does mean an ancestral cross with a dark race-in England with the Mediterranean race.

    In Nordic populations the women are, in general, lighter haired than the men, a fact which points to a blond past and a darker future for those populations. Women in all human races, as the females among all mammals, tend to exhibit the older, more generalized and primitive traits of the race's past. The male in his individual development indicates the direction in which the race is tending under the influence of variation and selection.

    It is interesting to note in connection with the more primitive physique of the female, that in the spiritual sphere also, women retain the ancient and intuitive knowledge that the great mass of mankind is not free and equal, but bond and unequal.

    The color of the skin is a character of importance, but one that is exceedingly hard to measure as the range of variation in Europe between skins of extreme fairness and those that are exceedingly swarthy, is almost complete. In general the Nordic race in its purity has an absolutely fair skin, and is consequently the Homo albus, the white man par excellence.

    Many members of the Nordic race otherwise apparently pure have skins, as well as hair, more or less dark, so that the determinative value of this character is uncertain. There can be no doubt that the quality of the skin and the extreme range of its variation in color from black, brown, red, yellow to ivory-white are excellent measures of the specific or subgeneric distinctions between the larger groups of mankind, but in dealing with European populations it is sometimes difficult to correlate shades of fairness with other physical characters.

    It often happens that an individual with all the Nordic characters in great purity, has a skin of an olive or dark tint, and it much more frequently happens that we find an individual with absolutely pure brunet traits in possession of a skin of almost ivory whiteness and of great clarity. This last combination is very frequent among the brunets of the British Isles. That these are, to some extent, disharmonic combinations we may be certain, but beyond that our knowledge does not lead. Owners, however, of a fair skin have always been, and still are, the objects of keen envy by those whose skins are black, yellow, or red.

    Stature is another unit character of greater value than skin color, and perhaps than hair color, and is one of much importance in European classification because on that continent we have the most extreme variations of human height.

    Exceedingly adverse economic conditions may inhibit a race from attaining the full measure of its growth, and to this extent environment plays its part in determining stature, but fundamentally it is race, always race, that sets the limit. The tall Scot and the dwarfed Sardinian owe their respective sizes to race, and not to oatmeal or olive oil. It is probable that the fact that the stature of the Irish is, on the average, shorter than that of the Scotch, is due partly to economic conditions, and partly to the depressing effect of a considerable population of primitive short stock.

    Mountaineers all over the world tend to be tall and vigorous, a fact probably due to the rigid elimination of defectives by the unfavorable environment. In this case altitude would operate like latitude, and produce the severe conditions which seem essential to human vigor. The short stature of the Lapps and the Esquimaux may have been originally attributable to the trying conditions of an Arctic habitat, but in any event it has long since become a racial character.

    So far as the main species of Europe are concerned, stature is a very valuable measure of race.

    To recapitulate as to this character, the Mediterranean race is everywhere marked by a relatively short stature, sometimes greatly depressed, as in south Italy and in Sardinia, and also by a comparatively light bony framework and feeble muscular development.

    The Alpine race is taller than the Mediterranean although shorter than the Nordic, and is characterized by a stocky and sturdy build.

    The Nordic race is nearly everywhere distinguished by great stature. Almost the tallest stature in the world is found among the pure Nordic populations of the Scottish and English borders, while the native British of Pre-Nordic brunet blood are, for the most part, relatively short; and no one can question the race value of stature who observes on the streets of London the contrast between the Piccadilly gentleman of Nordic race and the cockney costermonger of the old Neolithic type.

    In many cases where these three European races have become mixed, stature seems to be one of the first Nordic characters to vanish, but wherever in Europe we find great stature in a population otherwise lacking in Nordic characters, we may be certain of Nordic crossing, as in the case of a large proportion of the inhabitants of Burgundy, of Switzerland, of the Tyrol, and of the Dalmatian Alps south to Albania.

    These four unit characters, skull shape, eye color, hair color, and stature, are sufficient to enable us to differentiate clearly between the three main races of Europe, but if we wish to discuss the minor variations and mixtures, we would have to go much further and take up other proportions of the skull than the cephalic index, as well as the shape and position of the eyes, and the proportions and shape of the jaws and chin.

    The nose also is an exceedingly important character. The original human nose was, of course, broad and bridgeless. This trait is shown clearly in new-born infants who recapitulate in their development the various stages of the evolution of the human genus. A bridgeless nose with wide flaring nostrils is a very primitive character, and is still retained by some of the larger divisions of mankind throughout the world. It appears occasionally in white populations of European origin, but is everywhere a very ancient, generalized, and low character.

    The high bridge and long, narrow nose, the so-called Roman, Norman, or aquiline nose, is characteristic of the most highly specialized races of mankind. While an apparently unimportant character, the nose is one of the very best clews to racial origin, and in the details of its form, and especially in the lateral shape of the nostrils, is a race determinant of the greatest value.

    The lips, whether thin or fleshy or whether cleancut or everted, are race characters. Thick, protruding, everted lips are very ancient traits and are characteristic of primitive races. A high instep also has long been esteemed an indication of patrician type, while the flat foot is often the test of lowly origin.

    The absence or abundance of hair and beard and the relative absence or abundance of body hair are characters of no little value in classification. Abundant body hair is, to a large extent, peculiar to populations of the very highest as well as the very lowest species, being characteristic of the north European as well as of the Australian savages. It merely means the retention in both these groups of a very early and primitive trait which has been lost by the Negroes, Mongols, and the Amerinds.

    The Nordic and Alpine races are far better equipped with head and body hair than the Mediterranean, which is throughout its range a glabrous or relatively naked race.

    The so-called red haired branch of the Nordic race has special characters in addition to red hair, such as a greenish cast of eye, a skin of peculiar texture tending either to great clarity or to freckles, and certain peculiar temperamental traits. This was probably a variety closely related to the blonds, and it first appears in history in association with them.

    In the structure of the head hair of all races of mankind we find a regular progression from extreme kinkiness to lanky straightness, and this straightness or curliness depends on the shape of the cross section of the hair itself. This cross section has three distinct forms, corresponding with the most extreme divergences among human species.

    While the three main European races are the subject of this book, and while it is not the intention of the author to deal with the other human types, it is necessary at this point to state that these three European subspecies, are subdivisions of one of the primary groups or subgenera of the genus Homo which, taken together, we must call the Caucasian for lack of a better name.

    The great mass of the rest of mankind can be roughly divided into the Negroes and Negroids, and the Mongols and Mongoloids.

    The former apparently originated in south Asia and entered Africa from the northeasterly corner of that continent. Africa south of the Sahara is now the chief home of this race, though remnants of Negroid aborigines are found throughout south Asia from India to the Philippines, while the very distinct black Melanesians and the Australoids lie farther to the east and south.

    A third subgenus of mankind includes the round skulled Mongols and their derivatives, the Amerinds, or American Indians. This group is essentially Asiatic, and occupies the centre and the eastern half of that continent. A description of these Negroid and Mongoloid subgenera and their derivatives, as well as of certain aberrant species of man, lies outside of the scope of this work.

    In the consideration of this measurement, the cross section of the hair in connection with these main subgenera, we find that a permanent relation exists, and that each of the three primary divisions of mankind is, in the shape of the cross section of its hair, differentiated from the others.

    The cross section of the hair of the Negro and Negroid races is a flat ellipse with the result that all the members of this subgenus have kinky hair.

    The cross section of the hair of the Mongols and their derivatives, the Amerinds, is a complete circle, and the hair of this subgenus is perfectly straight and lank.

    The cross section of the hair of the so-called Caucasians, including the Mediterranean, Alpine, and Nordic subspecies, is an oval ellipse, and consequently is intermediate between the cross sections of the Negroids and Mongoloids. Hair of this structure is wavy or curly, never either kinky or absolutely straight, and is characteristic of all the European populations, almost without exception.

    We have confined our discussion to the most important unit characters, but there are many other valuable aids to classification to be found in the proportions of the body and the relative length of the limbs. For an example, it is a matter of common knowledge that there occur among white women two distinct types in this latter respect, the one long legged and short bodied, the other long bodied and short legged. All such facts have a race value as yet not understood.

    Without going into further physical details, it is probable that all relative proportions in the body, the features, the skeleton, and the skull which are fixed and constant and lie outside of the range of individual variation represent dim inheritances from the past. Every human being unites in himself the blood of thousands of ancestors, stretching back through thousands of years, superimposed upon a prehuman inheritance of still greater antiquity, and the face and body of every living man offer an intricate mass of hieroglyphs that science will some day learn to read and interpret.

    We shall use the foregoing main unit characters as the basis of our definition of race, and shall later call attention to such temperamental and spiritual traits as seem to be associated with distinct physical types.

    We shall only discuss European populations and shall not deal with those quarters of the globe where the races of man are such that other physical characters must be called upon to provide clear definitions.

    A fascinating subject would open up if we were to dwell upon the effect of racial combinations and disharmonies, as, for instance, where the mixed Nordic and Alpine populations of Lombardy retain the skull shape, hair color, and stature of the Alpine race, with the light eye color of the Nordic race, or where the mountain populations along the east coast of the Adriatic from the Tyrol to Albania have the stature of the Nordic race and an Alpine skull and coloration.

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    Chapter III
    Race and Habitat

    THE laws which govern the distribution of the various races of man and their evolution through selection are substantially the same as those controlling the evolution and distribution of the larger mammals.

    Man, however, with his superior mentality, has freed himself from many of the elements which impose restraint upon the expansion of animals. In his case selection through disease and social and economic competition has replaced selection through adjustment to the limitations of food supply.

    Man is the most cosmopolitan of animals, and in one form or another thrives in the tropics and in the arctics, at sea level and on high plateaux, in the desert and in the reeking forests of the equator. Nevertheless, the various races of Europe with which we deal in this book have, each of them, a certain natural habitat in which each achieves its highest development.

    THE NORDIC HABITAT

    The Nordics appear in their present centre of distribution, the basin of the Baltic, at the close

    of the Paleolithic, as soon as the retreating glaciers left habitable land. This race was probably at that time in possession of its fundamental characters, and its extension in the Teutonic group from the plains of Russia to Scandinavia was not in the nature of a radical change of environment. The race in consequence is now and always has been, probably always will be, adjusted to certain environmental conditions, chief of which is protection from a tropical sun. The actinic rays of the sun at the same latitude are uniform in strength the world over, and continuous sunlight affects adversely the delicate nervous organization of the Nordics. The fogs and long winter nights of the North serve as a protection from too much sun, and from its too direct rays.

    Scarcely less important is the presence of a large amount of moisture, but above all a constant variety of temperature is needed. Sharp contrast between night and day temperature, and between summer and winter are necessary to maintain the vigor of the blond race at a high pitch. Uniform weather, if long continued, lessens its energy. Too great extremes, as in midwinter or midsummer in New England, are injurious. Limited but constant alternations of heat and cold, of moisture and dryness, of sun and clouds, of calm and cyclonic storms, offer the ideal surroundings for the Nordic race.

    Men of the Nordic race may not enjoy the fogs and snows of the North, the endless changes of weather, and the violent fluctuations of the thermometer, and they may seek the sunny southern isles, but under the former conditions they flourish, do their work, and raise their families. In the south they grow listless and cease to breed.

    In the lower classes the increasing proportion of poor whites and "crackers" are symptoms of lack of climatic adjustment. The whites in Georgia, the Bahamas, and above all the Barbadoes are excellent examples of the deleterious effects of residence outside the natural habitat of the Nordic race.

    The poor whites of the Cumberland Mountains in Kentucky and Tennessee present a more difficult problem, because here the altitude, even though small, should modify the effects of latitude, and the climate of these mountains cannot be particularly unfavorable to men of Nordic breed. There are probably other hereditary forces at work here as yet little understood.

    No doubt bad food and economic conditions, prolonged inbreeding, and the loss through emigration of the best elements have played a large part in the degeneration of these poor whites. They represent to a large extent the offspring of bond servants brought over by the rich planters in early Colonial times. Their names indicate that, many of them are the descendants of the old borderers along the Scotch and English frontier, and the persistence with which family feuds are maintained certainly points to such an origin. The physical type is typically Nordic, for the most part pure Saxon or Anglian, and the whole mountain population show somewhat aberrant but very pronounced physical, moral, and mental characteristics which would repay scientific investigation. The problem is too complex to be disposed of by reference to the hookworm, illiteracy, or competition with negroes.

    This type played a very large part in the settlement of the Middle West, by way of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri. Thence they passed both up the Missouri River and down the Santa Fe trail, and contributed rather more than their share of the train robbers horse thieves, and bad men of the West.

    Scotland and the Bahamas are inhabited by men of precisely the same race, but the vigor of the English in the Bahamas is gone, and the beauty of their women has faded. The fact that they were not in competition with an autochthonous race better adjusted to climatic conditions has enabled them to survive, but the type could not have persisted, even during the last two hundred years, if they had been compelled to compete on terms of equality with a native and acclimated population.

    Another element entering into racial degeneration on many other islands, and for that matter in many New England villages, is the loss through emigration of the more vigorous and energetic individuals, leaving behind the less efficient to continue the race at home.

    In subtropical countries, when the energy of the Nordics is at a low ebb, it would appear that the racial inheritance of physical strength and mental vigor were suppressed and recessive rather than destroyed. Many individuals who were born in unfavorable climatic surroundings, but who move back to the original habitat of their race in the north, recover their full quota of energy and vigor. New York and other Northern cities have many Southerners who are fully as efficient as pure Northerners.

    This blond race can exist outside of its native environment as land owning aristocrats who are not required to do manual labor in the fields under a blazing sun. As such an aristocracy it continues to exist under Italian skies, but as a field laborer the man of Nordic blood could not compete with his Alpine or Mediterranean rival. It is not to be supposed that the Teutonic armies which for a thousand years after the fall of Rome poured down from the Alps like the glaciers to melt in the southern sun, were composed solely of knights and gentlemen who became the landed nobility of Italy. The man in the ranks also took up his land and work in Italy, but he had to compete directly with the native under climatic conditions which were unfavorable to his race. In this competition the blue eyed Nordic giant died, and the native survived. His officer, however, lived in the castle and directed the labor of his bondsmen without other preoccupation than the chase and war, and he long maintained his vigor.

    The same thing happened in our South before the Civil War. There the white men did not work in the fields or in the factory. The heavy work under the blazing sun was performed by negro slaves, and the planter was spared exposure to an unfavorable environment. Under these conditions he was able to retain much of his vigor. When slavery was abolished, and the white man had to plough his own fields or work in the factory, deterioration began.

    The change in the type of men who are now sent by the Southern States to represent them in the Federal Government from their predecessors in ante-bellum times is partly due to these causes, but in a greater degree it is to be attributed to the fact that a very large portion of the best racial strains in the South were killed off during the Civil War. In addition the war shattered the aristocratic traditions which formerly secured the selection of the best men as rulers. The new democratic ideals with universal suffrage in free operation among the whites result in the choice of representatives who lack the distinction and ability of the leaders of the Old South.

    A race may be thoroughly adjusted to a certain country at one stage of its development and be at a disadvantage when an economic change occurs, such as was experienced in England a century ago when the nation changed from an agricultural to a manufacturing community. The type of man that flourishes in the fields is not the type of man that thrives in the factory, just as the type of man required for the crew of a sailing ship is not the type useful as stokers on a modern steamer.

    THE HABITAT OF THE ALPINES AND MEDITERRANEANS

    The environment of the Alpine race seems to have always been the mountainous country of central and eastern Europe, as well as western Asia. This type has never flourished in the deserts of Arabia or the Sahara, nor has it succeeded in maintaining its colonies in the north of Europe within the domain of the Nordic long heads. It is, however, a sturdy and persistent stock, and, while much of it may not be overrefined or cultured, undoubtedly possesses great potentialities for future development.

    The Alpines in the west of Europe, especially in Switzerland and the districts immediately surrounding, have been so thoroughly Nordicized, and so saturated with the culture of the adjoining nations, that they stand in sharp contrast to backward Alpines of Slavic speech in the Balkans and east of Europe.

    The Mediterranean race, on the other hand, is clearly a southern type with eastern affinities. It is a type that did not flourish in the north of Europe under old agricultural conditions, nor is it suitable to the farming districts and frontiers of America and Canada. It is adjusted to subtropical and tropical countries better than any other European type, and will flourish in our Southern States and around the coasts of the Spanish Main. In France it is well known that members of the Mediterranean race are better adapted for colonization in Algeria than are French Alpines or Nordics. This subspecies of man is notoriously intolerant of extreme cold, owing to its sensibility to diseases of the lungs, and it shrinks from the blasts of the northern winter in which the Nordics revel.

    The brunet Mediterranean element in the native American seems to be increasing at the expense of the blond Nordic element generally throughout the Southern States, and probably also in the large cities. This type of man, however, is scarce on our frontiers. In the Northwest, and in Alaska in the days of the gold rush, it was in the mining camps a matter of comment if a man turned up with dark eyes, so universal were blue and gray eyes among the American pioneers.

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    Chapter IV
    The Competition of Races

    WHERE two races occupy a country side by side, it is not correct to speak of one type as changing into the other. Even if present in equal numbers one of the two contrasted types will have some small advantage or capacity which the other lacks toward a perfect adjustment to surroundings. Those possessing these favorable variations will flourish at the expense of their rivals, and their offspring will not only be more numerous, but will also tend to inherit such variations. In this way one type gradually breeds the other out. In this sense, and in this sense only, do races change.

    Man continuously undergoes selection through social environment. Among native Americans of the Colonial period a large family was an asset, and social pressure and economic advantage both counselled early marriage and numerous children. Two hundred years of continuous political expansion and material prosperity changed these conditions and children, instead of being an asset to till the fields and guard the cattle, became an expensive liability. They now require support, education, and endowment from their parents, and a large family is regarded by some as a serious handicap in the social struggle.

    These conditions do not obtain at first among immigrants, and large families among the newly arrived population are still the rule, precisely as they were in Colonial America, and are to-day in French Canada, where backwoods conditions still prevail.

    The result is that one class or type in a population expands more rapidly than another, and ultimately replaces it. This process of replacement of one type by another does not mean that the race changes, or is transformed into another. It is a replacement pure and simple and not a transformation.

    The lowering of the birth rate among the most valuable classes, while the birth rate of the lower classes remains unaffected, is a frequent phenomenon of prosperity. Such a change becomes extremely injurious to the race if unchecked, unless nature is allowed to maintain by her own cruel devices the relative numbers of the different classes in their due proportions. To attack race suicide by encouraging indiscriminate breeding is not only futile, but is dangerous if it leads to an increase in the undesirable elements. What is needed in the community most of all, is an increase in the desirable classes, which are of superior type physically, intellectually, and morally, and not merely an increase in the absolute numbers of the population.

    The value and efficiency of a population are not numbered by what the newspapers call souls, but by the proportion of men of physical and intellectual vigor. The small Colonial population of America was, man for man, far superior to the average of the present inhabitants, although the latter are twenty-five times more numerous. The ideal in eugenics toward which statesmanship should be directed, is, of course, improvement in quality rather than quantity. This, however, is at present a counsel of perfection, and we must face conditions as they are.

    The small birth rate in the upper classes is, to some extent, offset by the care received by such children as are born, and the better chance they have to become adult and breed in their turn. The large birth rate of the lower classes is, under normal conditions, offset by a heavy infant mortality, which eliminates the weaker children.

    Where altruism, philanthropy, or sentimentalism intervene with the noblest purpose, and forbid nature to penalize the unfortunate victims of reckless breeding, the multiplication of inferior types is encouraged and fostered. Efforts to indiscriminately preserve babies among the lower classes often result in serious injury to the race.

    Mistaken regard for what are believed to be divine laws and a sentimental belief in the sanctity of human life, tend to prevent both the elimination of defective infants and the sterilization of such adults as are themselves of no value to the community. The laws of nature require the obliteration of the unfit, and human life is valuable only when it is of use to the community or race.

    It is highly unjust that a minute minority should be called upon to supply brains for the unthinking mass of the community, but it is even worse to burden the responsible and larger, but still overworked, elements in the community with an ever increasing number of moral perverts, mental defectives, and hereditary cripples.

    The church assumes a serious responsibility toward the future of the race whenever it steps in and preserves a defective strain. The marriage of deaf mutes was hailed a generation ago as a triumph of humanity. Now it is recognized as an absolute crime against the race. A great injury is done to the community by the perpetuation of worthless types. These strains are apt to be meek and lowly, and as such make a strong appeal to the sympathies of the successful. Before eugenics were understood much could be said from a Christian and humane view-point in favor of indiscriminate charity for the benefit of the individual. The societies for charity, altruism, or extension of rights, should have, however, in these days, in their management some small modicum of brains, otherwise they may continue to do, as they have sometimes done in the past, more injury to the race than black death or smallpox.

    As long as such charitable organizations confine themselves to the relief of suffering individuals, no matter how criminal or diseased they may be, no harm is done except to our own generation, and if modern society recognizes a duty to the humblest malefactors or imbeciles, that duty can be harmlessly performed in full, provided they be deprived of the capacity to procreate their defective strain.

    Those who read these pages will feel that there is little hope for humanity, but the remedy has been found, and can be quickly and mercifully applied. A rigid system of selection through the elimination of those who are weak or unfit-in other words, social failures-would solve the whole question in one hundred years, as well as enable us to get rid of the undesirables who crowd our jails, hospitals, and insane asylums. The individual himself can be nourished, educated, and protected by the community during his lifetime, but the state through sterilization must see to it that his line stops with him, or else future generations will be cursed with an ever increasing load of victims of misguided sentimentalism. This is a practical, merciful, and inevitable solution of the whole problem, and can be applied to an ever widening circle of social discards, beginning always with the criminal, the diseased, and the insane, and extending gradually to types which may be called weaklings rather than defectives, and perhaps ultimately to worthless race types.

    Efforts to increase the birth rate of the genius producing classes of the community, while most desirable, encounter great difficulties. In such efforts we encounter social conditions over which we have as yet no control. It was tried two thousand years ago by Augustus, and his efforts to avert race suicide and the extinction of the old Roman breed were singularly prophetic of what some far seeing men are attempting in order to preserve the race of native Americans of Colonial descent.

    Man has the choice of two methods of race improvement. He can breed from the best, or he can eliminate the worst by segregation or sterilization. The first method was adopted by the Spartans, who had for their national ideals, military efficiency and the virtues of self control, and along these lines the results were completely successful. Under modern social conditions it would be extremely difficult in the first instance to determine which were the most desirable types, except in the most general way, and even if a satisfactory selection were finally made, it would be, in a democracy, a virtual impossibility to limit by law the right to breed to a privileged and chosen few.

    Experiments in limiting breeding to the undesirable classes were unconsciously made in mediaeval Europe under the guidance of the church. After the fall of Rome, social conditions were such that all those who loved a studious and quiet life, were compelled to seek refuge from the violence of the times in monastic institutions, and upon such the church imposed the obligation of celibacy, and thus deprived the world of offspring from these desirable classes.

    In the Middle Ages, through persecution resulting in actual death, life imprisonment, and banishment, the free thinking, progressive, and intellectual elements were persistently eliminated over large areas, leaving the perpetuation of the race to be carried on by the brutal, the servile, and the stupid. It is now impossible to say to what extent the Roman Church by these methods has impaired the brain capacity of Europe, but in Spain alone, for a period of over three centuries, from the year I47I to I78I, the Inquisition condemned to the stake or imprisonment an average of I,OOO persons annually. During these three centuries no less than 32,000 were burned alive, and 291,OOO were condemned to various terms of imprisonment and other penalties, and 7,000 persons were burned in effigy, representing men who had died in prison or had fled the country.

    No better method of eliminating the genius producing strains of a nation could be devised, and if such were its purpose the result was eminently satisfactory, as is demonstrated by the superstitious and unintelligent Spaniard of to-day. A similar elimination of brains and ability took place in northern Italy and in France, and in the Low Countries, where hundreds of thousands of Huguenots were murdered or driven into exile.

    Under existing conditions the most practical and hopeful method of race improvement is through the elimination of the least desirable elements in the nation by depriving them of the power to contribute to future generations. It is well known to stock breeders that the color of a herd of cattle can be modified by continuous elimination of worthless shades, and of course this is true of other characters. Black sheep, for instance, have been practically destroyed by cutting out generation after generation all animals that show this color phase, until in carefully maintained flocks a black individual only appears as a rare sport.

    In mankind it would not be a matter of great difficulty to secure a general consensus of public opinion as to the least desirable, let us say, ten per cent of the community. When this unemployed and unemployable human residuum has been eliminated, together with the great mass of crime, poverty, alcoholism, and feeblemindedness associated therewith, it would be easy to consider the advisability of further restricting the perpetuation of the then remaining least valuable types. By this method mankind might ultimately become sufficiently intelligent to deliberately choose the most vital and intellectual strains to carry on the race.

    In addition to selection by climatic environment, man is now, and has been for ages, undergoing selection through disease. He has been decimated throughout the centuries by pestilences such as the black death and bubonic plague. In our fathers' days yellow fever and smallpox cursed humanity. These plagues are now under control, but similar diseases, now regarded as mere nuisances to childhood, such as measles, mumps, and scarlatina, are terrible scourges to native populations without previous experience with them. Add to these smallpox and other white men's diseases, and one has the great empire builders of yesterday. It was not the swords in the hands of Columbus and his followers that decimated the American Indians, it was the germs that his men and their successors brought over, implanting the white man's maladies in the red man's world. Long before the arrival of the Puritans in New England, smallpox had flickered up and down the coast until the natives were but a broken remnant of their former numbers.

    At the present time the Nordic race is undergoing selection through alcoholism, a peculiarly Nordic vice, and through consumption, and both these dread scourges unfortunately attack those members of the race that are otherwise most desirable, differing in this respect from filth diseases like typhus, typhoid, or smallpox. One has only to look among the more desirable classes for the victims of rum and tubercule to realize that death or mental and physical impairment through these two causes have cost the race many of its most brilliant and attractive members.

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    Chapter V
    Race, Language, and Nationality

    NATIONALITY is an artificial political grouping of population, usually centering around a single language as an expression of traditions and aspirations. Nationality can, however, exist independently of language, but states thus formed, such as Belgium or Austria, are far less stable than those where a uniform language is prevalent, as, for example, France or England.

    States without a single national language are constantly exposed to disintegration, especially where a substantial minority of the inhabitants speak a tongue which is predominant in an adjoining state with, as a consequence, a tendency to gravitate toward such state.

    The history of the last century in Europe has been the record of a long series of struggles to unite in one political unit all those speaking the same, or closely allied, dialects. With the exception of internal and social revolutions, every European war since the Napoleonic period has been caused by the effort to bring about the unification either of Italy or of Germany, or by the desperate attempts of the Balkan States to struggle out of Turkish chaos into modern European nations on a basis of community of language. The unification of both Italy and Germany is as yet incomplete, according to the views held by their more advanced patriots, and the solution of the Balkan question is still in the future.

    Men are keenly aware of their nationality and are very sensitive about their language, but only in a few cases, notably in Sweden and Germany, does any large section of the population possess anything analogous to true race consciousness? although the term "race" is everywhere misused to designate linguistic or political groups.

    It sometimes happens that a section of the population of a large nation gathers around language, reinforced by religion, as an expression of individuality. The struggle between the French-speaking Alpine Walloons and the Nordic Flemings of Low Dutch tongue in Belgium is an example of two competing languages in an artificial nation which was formed originally around religion. On the other hand, the Irish National movement centers chiefly around religion, reinforced by myths of ancient grandeur. The French Canadians and the Poles use both religion and language to hold together what they consider a political unit. None of these so-called nationalities are founded on race.

    During the past century alongside of the tendency to form imperial or large national groups, such as the Pan-Germanic, Pan-Slavic, Pan-Rumanian or Italia Irredenta movements, there has appeared a counter movement on the part of small disintegrating " nationalities " to reassert themselves, such as the Bohemian, Bulgar, Serb, Irish, and Egyptian national revivals. The upheaval is usually caused, as in the cases of the Irish and the Serbians, by delusions of former greatness now become national obsessions, but sometimes it means the resistance of a small group of higher culture to absorption by a lower civilization.

    Examples of a high type threatened by a lower culture are afforded by the Finlanders, who are trying to escape the dire fate of their neighbors across the Gulf of Finland-the Russification of the Germans and Swedes of the Baltic Provinces-and by the struggle of the Danes of Schleswig to escape Germanization. The Armenians, too, have resisted stoutly the pressure of Islam to force them away from their ancient Christian faith. This people really represents the last outpost of Europe toward the Mohammedan East and constitutes the best remaining medium through which Western ideals and culture can be introduced into Asia.

    In these as in other cases, the process of absorption from the view-point of the world at large is good or evil exactly in proportion to the relative value of the culture and race of the two groups. The world would be no richer in civilization with an independent Bohemia or an enlarged Rumania, but, on the contrary, an independent Hungarian nation or an enlarged Greece would add greatly to the forces that make for good government and progress. An independent Ireland worked out on a Tammany model is not a pleasing prospect. A free Poland, apart from its value as a buffer state, would be actually a step backward. Poland was once great, but the elements that made it so are dead and gone, and to-day Poland is a geographical expression and nothing more.

    The prevailing lack of true race consciousness is probably due to the fact that every important nation in Europe, as at present organized, with the sole exception of the Iberian and Scandinavian states, possesses in large proportions representatives of at least two of the fundamental European subspecies of man and of all manner of crosses between them. In France to-day, as in Caesar's Gaul, the three races divide the nation in almost equal proportions.

    In the future, however, with an increased knowledge of the correct definition of true human species and types, and with a recognition of the immutability of fundamental racial characters, and of the results of mixed breeding, far more value will be attached to racial in contrast to national or linguistic affinities. In marital relations the con- sciousness of race will also play a much larger part than at present, although in the social sphere we shall have to contend with a certain strange attraction for contrasted types. When it becomes thoroughly understood that the children of mixed marriages between contrasted races belong to the lower type, the importance of transmitting in unimpaired purity the blood inheritance of ages will be appreciated at its full value, and to bring halfbreeds into the world will be regarded as a social and racial crime of the first magnitude. The laws against miscegenation must be greatly extended if the higher races are to be maintained.

    The language that a man speaks may be nothing more than evidence that at some time in the past his race has been in contact, either as conqueror or as conquered, with the original possessors of such language. One has only to consider the spread of the language of Rome over the vast extent of her empire, to realize how few of those who to-day speak Romance languages derive any portion of their blood from the pure Latin stock, and the error of talking about a "Latin race" becomes evident.

    There is, however, such a thing as a large group of nations which have a mutual understanding and sympathy, based on the possession of a common or closely related group of languages and the culture of which it is the medium. This group may be called the "Latin nations," but never the "Latin race."

    "Latin America" is a still greater misnomer as the great mass of the populations of South and Central America is not even European, and still less "Latin," being overwhelmingly of Amerindian blood.

    In the Teutonic group a large majority of those who speak Teutonic languages, as the English, Flemings, Dutch, North Germans, and Scandinavians, are descended from the Nordic race, and the dominant class in Europe is everywhere of that blood.

    As to the so-called "Celtic race," the fantastic inapplicability of the term is at once apparent when we consider that those populations on the borders of the Atlantic Ocean, who to-day speak Celtic dialects, are divided into three groups, each one showing in great purity the characters of one of the three entirely distinct human subspecies found in Europe. To class together the Breton peasant with his round Alpine skull; the little, long skull, brunet Welshman of the Mediterranean race, and the tall, blond, light eyed Scottish Highlander of pure Nordic race, in a single group labelled "Celtic," is obviously impossible. These peoples have neither physical, mental, nor cultural characteristics in common. If one be "Celtic" blood the other two clearly are not.

    There was a people who were the original users of the Celtic language, and they formed the western vanguard of the Nordic race, which was spread all over central and western Europe, prior to the irruption of the Teutonic tribes. The descendants of these "Celts" must be sought to-day among those having the characters of the Nordic race and not elsewhere.

    In England the little, dark Mediterranean Welshman talks about being Celtic quite unconscious that he is the residuum of Pre-Nordic races of immense antiquity. If the Celts are Mediterranean in race, then they are absent from central Europe, and we must regard as "Celts" all the Berbers and Egyptians, as well as many Persians and Hindus.

    In France some enthusiasts regard the Breton of Alpine blood in the same light, and ignore his Asiatic origin. If these Alpine Bretons are " Celts " then there is not in the British Isles any substantial trace of their blood, as round skulls are practically absent there, and all the blond elements in England, Scotland, and Ireland must be attributed to the historic Teutonic invasions. Furthermore we must call all the continental Alpines "Celts," and must also include all Slavs, Armenians, and other brachycephs of western Asia within that designation, which would be obviously grotesque. The fact that the original Celts left behind their speech on the tongues of Mediterraneans in Wales, and of Alpines in Brittany, must not mislead us, as it indicates nothing more than that Celtic speech antedates the Teutons in England and the Romans in France. We must once and for all time discard the name "Celt" for any existing race whatever, and speak only of " Celtic" language and culture.

    In Ireland the big, blond Nordic Danes, claim the honor of the name of "Celt," if honor it be, but the Irish are fully as Nordic as the English, the great mass of them being of Danish, Norse, and Anglo-Norman blood, in addition to earlier and Pre-Teutonic elements. We are all familiar with the blond and the brunet type of Irishman. These represent precisely the same racial elements as those which enter into the composition of the English, namely, the tall Nordic blond and the little Mediterranean brunet. The Irish are consequently not entitled to independent national existence on the ground of race, but if there is any ground for a political separation from England, it must rest, like that of Belgium, on religion, a basis for political combinations now happily obsolete in communities well advanced in culture.

    In the case of the so-called "Slavic race," there is much more unity between racial type and language. It is true that in most Slavic-speaking countries the predominant race is clearly Alpine, except perhaps in Russia where there is a very large substratum of Nordic type the so-called Finnic element, which may be considered as Proto- Nordic. The objection which is made to the identification of the Slavic race with the Alpine type rests chiefly on the fact that a very large portion of the Alpine race is German-speaking in Germany, Italian-speaking in Italy, and French-speaking in central France. Moreover, large portions of Rumania are of exactly the same racial complexion.

    Many of the Greeks are also Alpines; in fact, are little more than Byzantinized Slavs. It was through the Byzantine Empire, that the Slavs first came in contact with the Mediterranean world, and through this Greek medium the Russians, the Serbians, the Rumanians, and the Bulgars received their Christianity.

    Situated on the eastern marches of Europe the Slavs were submerged during long periods in the Middle Ages by Mongolian hordes, and were checked in development and warped in culture. Definite traces remain of the blood of the Mongols in both isolated and compact groups in south Russia, and scattered throughout the whole country as far west as the German boundary. The high tide of the Mongol invasion was during the thirteenth century. Three hundred years later the great Muscovite expansion began, first over the steppes to the Urals, and then across Siberian tundras and forests to the waters of the Pacific, taking up in its course much Mongolian blood, especially during the early stages of its advance.

    The term "Caucasian race" has ceased to have any meaning except where it is used, in the United States, to contrast white populations with negroes or Indians, or, in the Old World, with Mongols. It is, however, a convenient term to include the three European subspecies when considered as divisions of one of the primary branches or subgenera of mankind. At best it is a cumbersome and archaic designation. The name "Caucasian" arose a century ago from a false assumption that the cradle of the blond Europeans was in the Caucasus, where there are now found no traces of any such race, except a small and decreasing minority of blond traits among the Ossetes, a tribe whose Aryan speech is related to that of the Armenians, and who, while mainly brachycephalic, still retain some blond and dolichocephalic elements which are apparently fading fast. The Ossetes have now about thirty per cent fair eyes and ten per cent fair hair. They are supposed to be, to some extent, a remnant of the Alans, a Teutonic tribe closely related to the Goths. Both Alans and Goths very early in our era occupied southern Russia, and were the latest known Nordics in the vicinity of the Caucasus Mountains. If these Ossetes are not partly of Alan origin they may possibly represent the last lingering trace of early Scythian dolichocephalic blondness.

    The phrase " Indo-European race " is also of little use. If it has any meaning at all it must include all the three European races as well as members of the Mediterranean race in Persia and India. The use of this name also involves a false assumption of blood relationship between the main European populations and the Hindus, because of their possession in common of Aryan speech.

    The name "Aryan race" must also be frankly discarded as a term of racial significance. It is to-day purely linguistic, although there was at one time, of course, an identity between the original Aryan mother tongue and the race that first spoke and developed it. In short there is not now, and there never was either a Caucasian or an Indo-European race, but there was once, thousands of years ago, an Aryan race now long since vanished into dim memories of the past. If used in a racial sense other than as above it should be limited to the Nordic invaders of Hindustan now long extinct. The great lapse of time since the disappearance of the ancient Aryan race as such, is measured by the extreme disintegration of the various groups of Aryan languages. These linguistic divergences are chiefly due to the imposition by conquest of Aryan speech upon several unrelated subspecies of man throughout western Asia and Europe.

  10. #10
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    Chapter VI
    Race and Language

    WHEN a country is invaded and conquered by a race speaking a foreign language, one of several things may happen, replacement of both population and language, as in the case of eastern England when conquered by the Saxons; or adoption of the language of the victors by the natives, as happened in Roman Gaul, where the invaders imposed their Latin tongue throughout the land, without substantially altering the race.

    In England and Scotland later conquerors, Danes and Normans, failed to change the Saxon speech of the country, and in Gaul the German tongue of the Franks, Burgundians, and Northmen could not displace the language of Rome.

    Autochthonous inhabitants frequently impose upon their invaders their own language and customs. In Normandy the conquering Norse pirates accepted the language, religion, and customs of the natives, and in a century they vanish from history as Scandinavian heathen and appear as the foremost representatives of the speech and religion of Rome.

    In Hindustan the blond Nordic invaders forced their Aryan language on the aborigines, but their blood was quickly and utterly absorbed in the darker strains of the original owners of the land. A record of the desperate efforts of the conquering upper classes in India to preserve the purity of their blood persists until this very day in their carefully regulated system of castes. In our Southern States Jim Crow cars and social discriminations have exactly the same purpose and justification.

    The Hindu to-day speaks a very ancient form of Aryan language, but there remains not one recognizable trace of the blood of the white conquerors who poured in through the passes of the Northwest. The boast of the modern Indian that he is of the same race as his English ruler, is entirely without basis in fact, and the little dark native lives amid the monuments of a departed grandeur, professing the religion and speaking the tongue of his long forgotten Nordic conquerors, without the slightest claim to blood kinship. The dim and uncertain traces of Nordic blood in northern India only serve to emphasize the utter swamping of the white man in the burning South.

    The power of racial resistance of a dense and thoroughly acclimated population to an incoming army, is very great. No ethnic conquest can be complete unless the natives are exterminated and the invaders bring their own women with them. If the conquerors are obliged to depend upon the women of the vanquished to carry on the race, the intrusive blood strain in a short time becomes diluted beyond recognition.

    It sometimes happens that an infiltration of population takes place either in the guise of unwilling slaves, or of willing immigrants, filling up waste places and taking to the lowly tasks which the lords of the land despise, gradually occupying the country and literally breeding out their former masters.

    The former catastrophe happened in the declining days of Rome, and the south Italians of to-day are very largely descendants of nondescript slaves of all races, chiefly from the southern and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean, who were imported by the Romans under the Empire to work their vast estates. The latter is occurring to-day in many parts of America, especially in New England.

    The eastern half of Germany has a Slavic Alpine substratum which now represents the descendants of the Wends, who by the sixth century had filtered in as far west as the Elbe, occupying the lands left vacant by the Teutonic tribes which had migrated southward. These Wends in turn were Teutonized by a return wave of military conquest from the tenth century onward, and to-day their descendants are considered Germans in good standing. Having adopted the German as their sole tongue they are now in religious, political, and cultural sympathy with the pure Teutons; in fact, they are quite unconscious of any racial distinction.

    This historic fact underlies the ferocious controversy which has been raised over the ethnic origin of the Prussians, the issue being whether the populations in Brandenburg, Silesia, Posen, and other districts in eastern Germany, are Alpine Wends or true Nordic Germans. The truth is that the dominant half of the population is purely Teutonic and the lower half of the population are merely Teutonized Wends and Poles of Alpine affinities. Of course these territories must also retain some of their early Teutonic population, and the blood of the Goth, Burgund, Vandal, and Lombard, who were at the commencement of our era located there, as well as the later Saxon element, must enter largely into the composition of the Prussian of to-day.

    The most important communities in continental Europe of pure German type are to be found in old Saxony, the country around Hanover, and this element prevails generally in the northwestern part of the German Empire among the Low Dutch-speaking population, while the High German-speaking population is largely composed of Teutonized Alpines.

    All the states involved in the present world war have sent to the front their fighting Nordic element, and the loss of life now going on in Europe will fall much more heavily on the blond giant than on the little brunet.

    As in all wars since Roman times, from a breeding point of view, the little dark man is the final winner. No one who saw one of our regiments march on its way to the Spanish War could fail to be impressed with the size and blondness of the men in the ranks as contrasted with the complacent citizen, who from his safe stand on the gutter curb gave his applause to the fighting man, and then stayed home to perpetuate his own brunet type.

    This same Nordic element, everywhere the type of the sailor, the soldier, the adventurer, and the pioneer, was ever the type to migrate to new countries, until the ease of transportation and the desire to escape military service in the last forty years reversed the immigrant tide. In consequence of this change our immigrants now largely represent lowly refugees from "persecution" and other social discards.

    In most cases the blood of pioneers has been lost to their race. They did not take their women with them. They either died childless or left halfbreeds behind them. The virile blood of the Spanish conquistadores, who are now little more than a memory in Central and South America, died out from these causes.

    This was also true in the early days of our Western frontiersmen, who individually were a far finer type than the settlers who followed them.

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