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Thread: 'The Passing of the Great Race' - Madison Grant

  1. #11
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    Chapter VII
    The European Races in the Colonies

    FOR reasons already set forth there are few communities outside of Europe of pure European blood. The racial destiny of Mexico and of the islands and coasts of the Spanish Main is clear. The white man is being rapidly bred out by negroes on the islands and by Indians on the mainland. It is quite evident that the West Indies, the coast region of our Gulf States, and perhaps the black belt of the lower Mississippi Valley, must be abandoned to negroes. This transformation is already complete in Haiti, and is going rapidly forward in Cuba and Jamaica. Mexico and the northern part of South America must also be given over to native Indians with an ever thinning veneer of white culture of the "Latin" type.

    In Venezuela the pure whites number about one per cent of the whole population, the balance being Indians and various crosses between Indians, negroes, and whites. In Jamaica the whites number not more than two per cent, while the remainder are negroes or mulattoes. In Mexico the proportion is larger, but the unmixed whites number not more than twenty per cent of the whole, the others being Indians pure or mixed. These latter are the "greasers" of the American frontiersman.

    Whenever the incentive to imitate the dominant race is removed, the negro, or for that matter, the Indian, reverts shortly to his ancestral grade of culture. In other words, it is the individual and not the race that is affected by religion, education, and example. Negroes have demonstrated throughout recorded time that they are a stationary species, and that they do not possess the potentiality of progress or initiative from within. Progress from self-impulse must not be confounded with mimicry or with progress imposed from without by social pressure, or by the slavers' lash.

    Where two distinct species are located side by side history and biology teach that but one of two things can happen; either one race drives the other out, as the Americans exterminated the Indians, or as the negroes are now replacing the whites in various parts of the South; or else they amalgamate and form a population of race bastards in which the lower type ultimately preponderates. This is a disagreeable alternative with which to confront sentimentalists, but nature is only concerned with results and neither makes nor takes excuses. The chief failing of the day with some of our well meaning philanthropists is their absolute refusal to face inevitable facts, if such facts appear cruel.

    In Argentine and south Brazil white blood of the various European races is pouring in so rapidly that a community preponderantly white, but of the Mediterranean type, may grow up, but such limited opportunities as the writer has had to observe Argentine types leads him to question the probability of such a result even there.

    In Asia, with the sole exception of the Russian settlements in Siberia, there can be and will be no ethnic conquest, and all the white men in India, the East Indies, the Philippines, and China will leave not the slightest trace behind them in the blood of the native population. After several centuries of contact and settlement the pure Spanish in the Philippines are about half of one per cent. The Dutch in their East Indian islands are even less; while the resident whites in Hindustan amount to about one-tenth of one per cent. Such numbers are infinitesimal and of no force in a democracy, but in a monarchy, if kept free from contamination, they suffice for a ruling caste or a military aristocracy.

    Australia and New Zealand, where the natives have been exterminated by the whites, are developing into communities of pure Nordic blood, and will for that reason play a large part in the future history of the Pacific. The bitter opposition of the Australians and Californians to the admission of Chinese coolies and Japanese farmers is due primarily to a blind but absolutely justified determination to keep those lands as white man's countries.

    In Africa, south of the Sahara, the density of the native population will prevent the establishment of any purely white communities, except at the southern extremity of the continent and possibly on portions of the plateaux of eastern Africa. The stoppage of famines and wars and the abolition of the slave trade, while dictated by the noblest impulses of humanity, are suicidal to the white man. Upon the removal of these natural checks negroes multiply so rapidly that there will not be standing room on the continent for white men, unless, perchance, the lethal sleeping sickness, far more fatal to blacks than to whites, should run its course unchecked.

    In South Africa a community of Dutch and English extraction is developing. Here the only difference is one of language. English, being a world tongue, will inevitably prevail over the Dutch patois called "Taal." This Frisian dialect, as a matter of fact, is closer to old Saxon, or rather Kentish, than any living continental tongue, and the blood of the North Hollander is extremely close to that of the Anglo-Saxon of England. The English and the Dutch will merge in a common type just as they did two hundred years ago in the colony of New York. They must stand together if they are to maintain any part of Africa as a white man's country, because they are confronted with the menace of a large black Bantu population which will drive out the whites unless the problem is bravely faced.

    The only possible solution is to establish large colonies for the negroes and to allow them outside of them only as laborers, and not as settlers. There must be ultimately a black South Africa and a white South Africa side by side, or else a pure black Africa from the Cape to the cataracts of the Nile.

    In upper Canada, as in the United States up to the time of our Civil War, the white population was purely Nordic. The Dominion is, of course, handicapped by the presence of an indigestible mass of French-Canadians, largely from Brittany and of Alpine origin, although the habitant patois is an archaic Norman of the time of Louis XIV. These Frenchmen were granted freedom of language and religion by their conquerors, and are now using these privileges to form separatist groups in antagonism to the English population. The Quebec Frenchmen will succeed in seriously impeding the progress of Canada and will succeed even better in keeping themselves a poor and ignorant community of little more importance to the world at large than are the negroes in the South. The selfishness of the Quebec Frenchmen is measured by the fact that in the present war they will not fight for the British Empire, or for France, or even for clerical Belgium, and they are now endeavoring to make use of the military crisis to secure a further extension of their "nationalistic ideals."

    Personally the writer believes that the finest and purest type of a Nordic community outside of Europe will develop in northwest Canada. Most of the other countries in which the Nordic race is now settling lie outside of the special environment in which alone it can flourish.

    The negroes of the United States, while stationary, were not a serious drag on civilization until, in the last century, they were given the rights of citizenship and were incorporated in the body politic. These negroes brought with them no language or religion or customs of their own which persisted, but adopted all these elements of environment from the dominant race, taking the names of their masters just as to-day the German and Polish Jews are assuming American names. They came for the most part from the coasts of the Bight of Benin, but some of the later ones came from the southeast coast of Africa by way of Zanzibar. They were of various black tribes, but have been from the beginning saturated with white blood.

    Looking at any group of negroes in America, it is easy to see that while they are all essentially negroes, whether coal black, brown, or yellow, the great majority of them have varying amounts of Nordic blood in them, which has modified their physical structure without transforming them in any way into white men. This miscegenation was, of course, a frightful disgrace to the dominant race, but its effect on the Nordics has been negligible, for the simple reason that it was confined to white men crossing with negro women, and not the reverse process, which would, of course, have resulted in the infusion of negro blood into the American stock.

    The United States of America must be regarded racially as a European colony, and owing to current ignorance of the physical bases of race, one often hears the statement made that native Americans of Colonial ancestry are of mixed ethnic origin. This is not true. At the time of the Revolutionary War the settlers in the thirteen Colonies were not only purely Nordic, but also purely Teutonic, a very large majority being Anglo-Saxon in the most limited meaning of that term. The New England settlers in particular came from those counties of England where the blood was almost purely Saxon, Anglian, and Dane.

    New England, during Colonial times and long afterward, was far more Teutonic than old England; that is, it contained a smaller percentage of small, Pre-Nordic brunets. Any one familiar with the native New Englander knows the clean cut face, the high stature and the prevalence of gray and blue eyes and light brown hair, and recognizes that the brunet element is less noticeable there than in the South.

    The Southern States were populated also by Englishmen of the purest Nordic type, but there is to-day, except among the mountains, an appreciably larger amount of brunet types than in the North. Virginia is in the same latitude as North Africa, and south of this line no blonds have ever been able to survive in full vigor, chiefly because the actinic rays of the sun are the same regardless of other climatic conditions. These rays beat heavily on the Nordic race and disturb their nervous system, wherever the white man ventures too far from the cold and foggy North.

    The remaining Colonial elements, the Holland Dutch, the Palatine Germans, who came over in small numbers to New York and Pennsylvania, were also purely Teutonic, while the French Huguenots who escaped to America were drawn much more largely from the Nordic than from the Alpine or Mediterranean elements of France. The Scotch-Irish, who were numerous on the frontier of the middle Colonies were, of course, of pure Scotch and English blood, although they had resided in Ireland two or three generations. They were quite free from admixture with the earlier Irish from whom they were cut off socially by bitter religious antagonism, and they are not to be considered as "Irish" in any sense.

    There was no important immigration of other elements until the middle of the nineteenth century, when Irish Catholic and German immigrants appear for the first time upon the scene.

    The Nordic blood was kept pure in the Colonies, because at that time among Protestant peoples there was a strong race feeling, as a result of which half-breeds between the white man and any native type were regarded as natives and not as white men.

    There was plenty of mixture with the negroes as the light color of most negroes abundantly testifies, but these mulattoes, quadroons, or octoroons were then and are now universally regarded as negroes.

    There was also abundant cross breeding along the frontiers between the white frontiersman and the Indian squaw, but the half-breed was everywhere regarded as a member of the inferior race.

    In the Catholic colonies, however, of New France and New Spain, if the half-breed were a good Catholic he was regarded as a Frenchman or a Spaniard, as the case might be. This fact alone gives the clew to many of our colonial wars where the Indians, other than the Iroquois, were persuaded to join the French against the Americans by half-breeds who considered themselves Frenchmen. The Church of Rome has everywhere used its influence to break down racial distinctions. It disregards origins and only requires obedience to the mandates of the universal church. In that lies the secret of the opposition of Rome to all national movements. It is the imperial as contrasted with the nationalistic ideal, and in that respect the inheritance is direct from the Empire.

    Race consciousness in the Colonies and in the United States, down to and including the Mexican War, seems to have been very strongly developed among native Americans, and it still remains in full vigor to-day in the South, where the presence of a large negro population forces this question upon the daily attention of the whites.

    In New England, however, whether through the decline of Calvinism or the growth of altruism, there appeared early in the last century a wave of sentimentalism, which at that time took up the cause of the negro, and in so doing apparently destroyed, to a large extent, pride and consciousness of race in the North. The agitation over slavery was inimical to the Nordic race, because it thrust aside all national opposition to the intrusion of hordes of immigrants of inferior racial value, and prevented the fixing of a definite American type, such as was clearly appearing in the middle of the century.

    The Civil War was fought almost entirely by unalloyed native Americans. The German and Irish immigrants were at that time confined to a few States, and were chiefly mere day laborers and of no social importance. They played no part whatever in the development or policies of the nation, although in the war they contributed a certain number of soldiers to the Northern armies. These Irish and German elements were of Nordic race, and while they did not in the least strengthen the nation either morally or intellectually, they did not impair its physique.

    There has been little or no Indian blood taken into the veins of the native American, except in States like Oklahoma and in some isolated families scattered here and there in the Northwest. This particular mixture will play no very important role in future combinations of race on this continent, except in the north of Canada.

    The native American has always found, and finds now, in the black men, willing followers who ask only to obey and to further the ideals and wishes of the master race, without trying to inject into the body politic their own views, whether racial, religious, or social. Negroes are never socialists or labor unionists, and as long as the dominant imposes its will on the servient race, and as long as they remain in the same relation to the whites as in the past, the negroes will be a valuable element in the community, but once raised to social equality their influence will be destructive to themselves and to the whites. If the purity of the two races is to be maintained, they cannot continue to live side by side, and this is a problem from which there can be no escape.

    The native American by the middle of the nineteenth century was rapidly becoming a distinct type. Derived from the Teutonic part of the British Isles, and being almost purely Nordic, he was on the point of developing physical peculiarities of his own, slightly variant from those of his English forefathers, and corresponding rather with the idealistic Elizabethan than with the materialistic Hanoverian Englishman. The Civil War, however, put a severe, perhaps fatal, check to the development and expansion of this splendid type, by destroying great numbers of the best breeding stock on both sides, and by breaking up the home ties of many more. If the war had not occurred these same men with their descendants would have populated the Western States instead of the racial nondescripts who are now flocking there.

    The prosperity that followed the war attracted hordes of newcomers who were welcomed by the native Americans to operate factories, build railroads, and fill up the waste spaces - "developing the country" it was called.

    These new immigrants were no longer exclusively members of the Nordic race as were the earlier ones who came of their own impulse to improve their social conditions. The transportation lines advertised America as a land flowing with milk and honey, and the European governments took the opportunity to unload upon careless, wealthy, and hospitable America the sweepings of their jails and asylums. The result was that the new immigration, while it still included many strong elements from the north of Europe, contained a large and increasing number of the weak, the broken, and the mentally crippled of all races drawn from the lowest stratum of the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans, together with hordes of the wretched, submerged populations of the Polish Ghettos.

    With a pathetic and fatuous belief in the efficacy of American institutions and environment to reverse or obliterate immemorial hereditary tendencies, these newcomers were welcomed and given a share in our land and prosperity. The American taxed himself to sanitate and educate these poor helots, and as soon as they could speak English, encouraged them to enter into the political life, first of municipalities, and then of the nation.

    The result is showing plainly in the rapid decline in the birth rate of native Americans because the poorer classes of Colonial stock, where they still exist, will not bring children into the world to compete in the labor market with the Slovak, the Italian, the Syrian, and the Jew. The native American is too proud to mix socially with them, and is gradually withdrawing from the scene, abandoning to these aliens the land which he conquered and developed. The man of the old stock is being crowded out of many country districts by these foreigners, just as he is to-day being literally driven off the streets of New York City by the swarms of Polish Jews. These immigrants adopt the language of the native American; they wear his clothes; they steal his name; and they are beginning to take his women, but they seldom adopt his religion or understand his ideals, and while he is being elbowed out of his own home the American looks calmly abroad and urges on others the suicidal ethics which are exterminating his own race.

    As to what the future mixture will be it is evident that in large sections of the country the native American will entirely disappear. He will not intermarry with inferior races, and he cannot compete in the sweat shop and in the street trench with the newcomers. Large cities from the days of Rome, Alexandria, and Byzantium have always been gathering points of diverse races, but New York is becoming a cloaca gentium which will produce many amazing racial hybrids and some ethnic horrors that will be beyond the powers of future anthropologists to unravel.

    One thing is certain: in any such mixture, the surviving traits will be determined by competition between the lowest and most primitive elements and the specialized traits of Nordic man; his stature, his light colored eyes, his fair skin and blond hair, his straight nose, and his splendid fighting and moral qualities, will have little part in the resultant mixture.

    The "survival of the fittest" means the survival of the type best adapted to existing conditions of environment, to-day the tenement and factory, as in Colonial times they were the clearing of forests, fighting Indians, farming the fields, and sailing the Seven Seas. From the point of view of race it were better described as the "survival of the unfit."

    This review of the colonies of Europe would be discouraging were it not that thus far little attention has been paid to the suitability of a new country for the particular colonists who migrate there. The process of sending out colonists is as old as mankind itself, and probably in the last analysis most of the chief races of the world, certainly most of the inhabitants of Europe, represent the descendants of successful colonists.

    Success in colonization depends on the selection of new lands and climatic conditions in harmony with the immemorial requirements of the incoming race. The adjustment of each race to its own peculiar habitat is based on thousands of years of rigid selection which cannot be safely ignored. A certain isolation and freedom from competition with other races, for some centuries at least, is also important, so that the colonists may become habituated to their new surroundings.

  2. #12
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    Part II

    Chapter 1
    Eolithic Man
    BEFORE considering the living populations of Europe, we must give consideration to the extinct peoples that preceded them.

    The science of anthropology is very recent-in its present form less than fifty years old-but it has already revolutionized our knowledge of the past and extended prehistory so that it is now measured not by thousands but by tens of thousands of years.

    The history of man prior to the period of metals has been divided into ten or more subdivisions, many of them longer than the time covered by written records. Man has struggled up through the ages, to revert again and again into savagery and barbarism, but apparently retaining each time something gained by the travail of his ancestors.

    So long as there is in the world a freely breeding stock or race that has in it an inherent capacity for development and growth, mankind will continue to ascend until, possibly through the selection and regulation of breeding as intelligently applied as in the case of domestic animals, he will control his own destiny and attain moral heights as yet unimagined.

    The impulse upward, however, is supplied by a very small number of nations, and by a very small portion of the population in such nations. The section of any community that produces leaders or genius of any sort is only a minute percentage. To invent new processes, to establish new principles, to elucidate and unravel the laws of nature, calls for genius. To imitate or to adopt what others have invented is not genius but mimicry.

    This something which we call "genius" is not a matter of family, but of stock or strain, and is inherited in precisely the same manner as are the purely physical characters. It may be latent through several generations of obscurity, and then flare up when the opportunity comes. Of this we have many examples in America. This is what education or opportunity does for a community; it permits in these rare cases fair play for development, but it is race, always race, that produces genius.

    This genius producing type is slow breeding, and there is real danger of its loss to mankind. Some idea of the value of these small strains can be gained from the recent statistics which demonstrate that Massachusetts produces more than fifty times as much genius per hundred thousand whites as does Georgia, Alabama, or Mississippi, although apparently the race, religion, and environment, other than climatic conditions, are much the same, except for the numbing presence in the South of a large stationary negro population.

    The more thorough the study of European prehistory becomes, the more we realize how many advances of culture have been made and then lost. Our parents were accustomed to regard the overthrow of ancient civilization in the Dark Ages as the greatest catastrophe of mankind, but we now know that the classic period of Greece was preceded by similar dark ages caused by the Dorian invasions, which overthrew the Homeric-Mycenaean culture, which in its turn had flourished after the destruction of its parent, the Minoan culture of Crete. Still earlier, some twelve thousand years ago, the Azilian period of poverty and retrogression succeeded the wonderful achievements of the hunter-artists of the Upper Paleolithic.

    The progress of civilization becomes evident only when immense periods are studied and compared, but the lesson is always the same, namely, that race is everything. Without race there can be nothing except the slave wearing his master's clothes, stealing his master's proud name, adopting his master's tongue, and living in the crumbling ruins of his master's palace. Everywhere on the sites of ancient civilization the Turk, the Kurd, and the Bedouin camp; and Americans might well pause and consider the fate of this country which they, and they alone, founded and nourished with their blood. The immigrant ditch diggers and the railroad navvies were to our fathers what their slaves were to the Romans, and the same transfer of political power from master to servant is taking place to-day.

    Man's place of origin was undoubtedly Asia. Europe is only a peninsula of the Eurasiatic continent, and although the extent of its land area during the Pleistocene was much greater than at present, it is certain, from the distribution of the various species of man, that the main races evolved in Asia long before the centre of that continent was reduced to deserts by progressive desiccation.

    Evidence of the location of the early evolution of man in Asia and the geologically recent submerged area toward the southeast is afforded by the fossil deposits in the Siwalik hills of northern India, where have been found the remains of primates which were either ancestral or closely related to the four genera of living anthropoids; and by the discovery in Java, which in Pliocene times was connected with the mainland over what is now the South China Sea, of the earliest known form of erect primate, the Pithecanthropus. This apelike man is practically the "missing link," being intermediate between man and the anthropoids. Pithecanthropus is generally believed to have been contemporary with the Gunz glaciation of some 500,000 years ago, the first of the four great glacial advances in Europe.

    One or two forms of fossil anthropoid apes have been discovered in the Miocene of Europe which may possibly have been remotely related to the ancestors of man, but when the archaeological exploration of Asia shall be as complete and intensive as that of Europe, it is probable that more forms of fossil anthropoids and new species of man will be found there.

    Man existed in Europe during the second and third interglacial periods, if not earlier. We have his artifacts in the form of eoliths, at least as early as the second interglacial stage, the Mindel-Riss, of some 300,000 years ago. A single jaw found near Heidelberg is referred to this period and is the earliest skeletal evidence of man in Europe. From certain remarkable characters in this jaw, it has been assigned to a new species, Homo heidelbergensis.

    Then follows a long period of scanty industrial relics and no known skeletal remains. Man was slowly and painfully struggling up from an eolithic culture phase, where chance flints served his temporary purpose. This in turn was succeeded by a stage of human development where slight chipping and retouching of flints for man's increasing needs led, after vast intervals of time, to the deliberate manufacture of tools. This period is known as the Eolithic, and is necessarily extremely hazy and uncertain. Whether or not certain chipped or broken flints, called eoliths, or dawn stones, were really human artifacts or were the products of natural forces is really immaterial because man must have passed through such an eolithic stage.

    The further back we go toward the commencement of such an eolithic culture, the more and more unrecognizable the flints necessarily become until they finally cannot be distinguished from natural stone fragments, because at the beginning the earliest man merely picked up a convenient stone, used it once and flung it away, precisely as an anthropoid ape would act to-day if he wanted to break in the shell of a tortoise or crack an ostrich egg.

    Man must have experienced the following phases of development in the transition from the prehuman to the human stage: first, the utilization of chance stones and sticks; second, the casual adaptation of flints by a minimum amount of chipping; third, the deliberate manufacture of the simplest implements from flint nodules; and fourth, the invention of new forms of weapons and tools in ever increasing variety.

    Of the last two stages we have an extensive and clear record. Of the second stage we have in the eoliths intermediate forms ranging from flints that are evidently results of natural causes to flints that are clearly artifacts. The first and earliest stage, of course, could leave behind it no definite record and must always rest on hypothesis.

  3. #13
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    Chapter 2
    Paleolithic Man
    WITH the deliberate manufacture of implements from flint nodules, we enter the beginning of Paleolithic time, and from here on our way is relatively clear. The successive stages of the Paleolithic were of great length, but are each characterized by some improvement in the manufacture of tools. During long ages man was merely a tool making and tool using animal, and, after all is said, that is about as good a definition as we can find to-day for the primate we call human.

    The Paleolithic Period, or Old Stone Age, lasted from the somewhat indefinite termination of the Eolithic, some I50,000 years ago, to the Neolithic or New Stone Age, which began about 7,000 B. C.

    The Paleolithic falls naturally into three great subdivisions. The Lower Paleolithic includes the whole of the last interglacial stage with the subdivisions of the Pre-Chellean, Chellean, and Acheulean; the Middle Paleolithic covers the whole of the last glaciation, and is co-extensive with the Mousterian Period and the dominance of the Neanderthal species of man. The Upper Paleolithic covers all the postglacial stages down to the Neolithic, and includes the subdivisions of the Aurignacian, Solutrean, Magdalenian, and Azilian. During the entire Upper Paleolithic, except the short closing phase, the Cro-Magnon race flourished.

    It is not until after the third severe period of great cold, known as the Riss glaciation, and until we enter, some 150,000 years ago, the third and last interglacial stage of temperate climate, known as the Riss-Wurm, that we begin a definite and ascending series of culture. The Pre-Chellean, Chellean and Acheulean divisions of the Lower Paleolithic occupied the whole of this warm or rather temperate interglacial phase, which lasted nearly 1OO,OOO years.

    A shattered skull, a jaw, and some teeth have been discovered recently in Sussex, England. These remains were all attributed to the same individual, who was named the Piltdown Man. Owing to the extraordinary thickness of the skull and the simian character of the jaw, a new genus, Eoanthropus, the "dawn man, " was created and assigned to PreChellean times. Further study and comparison with the jaws of other primates demonstrated that the jaw belonged to a chimpanzee, so that the genus Eoanthropus must now be abandoned, and the Piltdown Man must be included in the genus Homo as at present constituted. Future discoveries of the Piltdown type and for that matter of Heidelberg Man may, however, raise either or both of them to generic rank.

    Some of the tentative restorations of the fragmentary bones make this skull altogether too modern and too capacious for a Pre-Chellean or even a Chellean. In any event the Piltdown Man is highly aberrant and, so far as our present knowledge goes, does not appear to be related to any other species of man found during the Lower Paleolithic.

    In later, Acheulean, times a new species of man, very likely descended from the early Heidelberg Man of Eolithic times, appears on the scene, and is known as the Neanderthal race. Many fossil remains of this type have been found.

    The Neanderthaloids occupied the European stage exclusively, with the possible exception of the Piltdown Man, so far as our information extends, from the first appearance of man in Europe to the end of the Middle Paleolithic. The Neanderthals flourished throughout the entire duration of the last glacial advance known as the Wurm glaciation. This period, known as the Mousterian, began about 50,000 years ago, and lasted some 25,000 years.

    The Neanderthal species disappears suddenly and completely with the advent of postglacial times, when, about 25,000 years ago, he was apparently exterminated by a new and far higher race, the famous Cro-Magnons.

    There may well have been, and probably were, during Mousterian times, races of man in Europe other than the Neanderthaloids, but of them we have no record. Among the numerous remains of Neanderthals, however, we do find traces of distinct types showing that this race in Europe was undergoing evolution and was developing marked variations in characters.

    Neanderthal Man was a purely meat eating hunter, living in caves, or rather in their entrances. He was dolichocephalic and not unlike existing Australoids, although not necessarily of black skin, and was, of course, in no sense a negro.

    The skull was characterized by heavy superorbital ridges, a low, receding forehead, protruding and chinless under jaw, and the posture was imperfectly erect. This race was widely spread and rather numerous. Some of its blood has trickled down to the present time, and occasionally one sees a skull of the Neanderthal type. The best skull of this type ever seen by the writer belonged to an old and very intellectual professor in London, who was quite innocent of his value as a museum specimen. In the old black breed of Scotland the overhanging brow and deep-set eyes are suggestive of this race.

    Along with other ancient and primitive racial remnants, ferocious gorilla like living specimens of the Neanderthal man are found not infrequently on the west coast of Ireland, and are easily recognized by the great upper lip, bridgeless nose, beetling brow and low growing hair, and wild and savage aspect. The proportions of the skull which give rise to this large upper lip, the low forehead, and the superorbital ridges are clearly Neanderthal characters. The other traits of this Irish type are common to many primitive races. This is the Irishman of caricature, and the type was very frequent in America when the first Irish immigrants came in 1846 and the following years. It seems, however, to have almost disappeared in this country.

    In the Upper Paleolithic, which began after the close of the fourth and last glaciation, about 25,000 years ago, the Neanderthal race was succeeded by men of very modern aspect, known as Cro-Magnons. The date of the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic is the first we can fix with accuracy, and its correctness can be relied on within narrow limits. The Cro-Magnon race first appears in the Aurignacian subdivision of the Upper Paleolithic. Like the Neanderthals, they were dolichocephalic, with a cranial capacity superior to the average in existing European populations, and a stature of very remarkable size.

    It is quite astonishing to find that the predominant race in Europe 25,000 years ago, or more, was not only much taller, but had an absolute cranial capacity in excess of the average of the present population. The low cranial average of existing populations in Europe can be best explained by the presence of large numbers of individuals of inferior mentality. These defectives have been carefully preserved by modern charity, whereas in the savage state of society the backward members are allowed to perish and the race is carried on by the vigorous and not by the weaklings.

    The high brain capacity of the Cro-Magnons is paralleled by that of the ancient Greeks, who in a single century gave to the world out of their small population very much more genius than all the other races of mankind have since succeeded in producing in a similar length of time. Athens between 530 and 430 B. C. had an average population of about 90,000 freemen, and yet from these small numbers there were born no less than fourteen geniuses of the very highest rank. This would indicate a general intellectual status as much above that of the Anglo-Saxons as the latter are above the negroes. The existence at these early dates of a very high cranial capacity and its later decline shows that there is no upward tendency inherent in mankind of sufficient strength to overcome obstacles placed in its way by stupid social customs.

    All historians are familiar with the phenomenon of a rise and decline in civilization such as has occurred time and again in the history of the world, but we have here in the disappearance of the Cro-Magnon race the earliest example of the replacement of a very superior race by an inferior one. There is great danger of a similar replacement of a higher by a lower type here in America unless the native American uses his superior intelligence to protect himself and his children from competition with intrusive peoples drained from the lowest races of eastern Europe and western Asia.

    While the skull of the Cro-Magnon was long, the cheek bones were very broad, and this combination of broad face with long skull constitutes a peculiar disharmonic type which occurs to-day only among the very highly specialized Esquimaux and one or two other unimportant groups.

    Skulls of this particular type, however, are found in small numbers among existing populations in central France, precisely in the district where the fossil remains of this race were first discovered These isolated Frenchmen probably represent the last lingering remnant of this splendid race of hunting savages.

    The Cro-Magnon culture is found all around the basin of the Mediterranean, and this fact, together with the conspicuous absence in eastern Europe of its earliest phases, the lower Aurignacian, indicates that it entered Europe by way of north Africa, precisely as did, in Neolithic times, its successors, the Mediterranean race. There is little doubt that the Cro-Magnons originally developed in Asia and were in their highest stage of physical development at the time of their first appearance in Europe. Whatever change took place in their stature during their residence there seems to have been in the nature of a decline rather than of a further development.

    There is nothing whatever of the negroid in the Cro-Magnons, and they are not in any way related to the Neanderthals, who represent a distinct and extinct species of man.

    The Cro-Magnon race persisted through the entire Upper Paleolithic, during the periods known as the Aurignacian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian, from 25,000 to 1O,OOO B. C. While it is possible that the blood of this race enters somewhat into the composition of the peoples of western Europe, its influence cannot be great, and the Cro-Magnons disappear from view with the advent of the warmer climate of recent times.

    It has been suggested that, following the fading ice edge north and eastward through Asia into North America, they became the ancestors of the Esquimaux, but certain anatomical objections are fatal to this interesting theory. No one, however, who is familiar with the culture of the Esquimaux, and especially with their wonderful skill in bonecarving, can fail to be struck with the similarity of their technique to that of the Cro-Magnons.

    To the Cro-Magnon race the world owes the birth of art. Caverns and shelters are yearly uncovered in France and Spain, where the walls and ceilings are covered with polychrome paintings or with incised bas-reliefs of animals of the chase. A few clay models, sometimes of the human form, are also found together with abundant remains of their chipped but unpolished stone weapons and tools. Certain facts stand out clearly, namely, that they were pure hunters and clothed themselves in furs and skins. They knew nothing of agriculture or of domestic animals, even the dog being as yet untamed, and the horse was regarded merely as an object of chase.

    The question of their knowledge of the principle of the bow and arrow during the Aurignacian and Solutrean is an open one, but there are definite indications of the use of the arrow, or at least the barbed dart, in early Magdalenian times, and this weapon was well known in the succeeding Azilian Period.

    The presence toward the end of this last period of quantities of very small flints, called microliths, has given rise to much controversy. It is possible that these microliths represent the tips of small poisoned arrows such as are now in very general use among primitive hunting tribes the world over. Certain grooves in some of the flint weapons of the Upper Paleolithic may well have been also used for the reception of poison. It is highly probable that these skilful savages, the Cro-Magnons, perhaps the greatest hunters that ever lived, not only used poisoned darts, but were adepts in trapping game by means of pitfalls and snares, precisely as do some of the hunting tribes of Africa to-day. Barbed arrowheads of flint or bone, such as were commonly used by the North American Indians, have not been found in Paleolithic deposits.

    In the next period, the Solutrean, the Cro-Magnons shared Europe with a new race known as the Brunn-Pwredmost, found in central Europe. This race is characterized by a long face as well as a long skull, and was, therefore, harmonic. This Brunn-Pwredmost race would appear to have been well settled in the Danubian and Hungarian plains, and this location indicates an eastern rather than a southern origin.

    Good anatomists have seen in this race the last lingering traces of the Neanderthaloids, but it is more probable that we have here the first advance wave of the primitive forerunners of one of the modern European dolichocephalic races.

    This new race was not artistic, but had great skill in fashioning weapons. It is possibly associated with the peculiarities of Solutrean culture and the decline of art which characterizes that period. The artistic impulse of the Cro-Magnons which flourished so vigorously during the Aurignacian, seems to be quite suspended during this Solutrean period, but reappears in the succeeding Magdalenian times. This Magdalenian art is clearly the direct descendant of Aurignacian models, and in this closing age of the Cro-Magnons all forms of Paleolithic art, carving, engraving, painting, and the manufacture of weapons, reach their highest and final culmination.

    Nine thousand or ten thousand years may be assigned for the Aurignacian and Solutrean Periods, and we may with considerable certainty give the minimum date of 16,000 B. C. for the beginning of Magdalenian time. Its entire duration can be safely set down at 6,000 years, thus bringing the final termination of the Magdalenian to 1O,OOO B. C. All these dates are extremely conservative, and the error, if any, would be in assigning too late and not too early a period to the end of Magdalenian times.

    At the close of the Magdalenian we enter upon the last period of Paleolithic times, the Azilian, which lasted from about 1O,OOO to 7,000 B. C., when the Upper Paleolithic, the age of chipped flints, definitely and finally ends. This period takes its name from the Mas d'Azil or "House of Refuge," a huge cavern in the eastern Pyrenees, where the local Protestants took shelter during the persecutions. In this cave the extensive deposits are typical of this epoch, and here certain marked pebbles show the earliest known traces of the alphabet.

    With the advent of this closing Azilian Period art entirely disappears, and the splendid physical specimens of the Cro-Magnons are succeeded by what appear to have been degraded savages, who had lost the force and vigor necessary for the strenuous chase of large game, and had turned to the easier life of fishermen.

    The bow and arrow in the Azilian are in common use in Spain, and it is well within the possibilities that the introduction of this new weapon from the south may have played its part in the destruction of the Cro-Magnons; otherwise it is hard to account for the disappearance of this race of large stature and great brain power.

    The Azilian, also called the Tardenoisian in the north of France, was evidently a period of racial disturbance, and at its close the beginnings of the existing races are found.

    >From the first appearance of man in Europe, and for many tens of thousands of years down to some ten or twelve thousand years ago, all known human remains are of dolichocephalic type.

    In the Azilian Period there appears the first round skull race. It comes clearly from the east. Later we shall find that this invasion of the forerunners of the existing Alpine race came from southwestern Asia by way of the Iranian plateaux, Asia Minor, the Balkans, and the valley of the Danube, and spread over nearly all of Europe. The earlier round skull invasions may as well have been infiltrations as armed conquests, since apparently from that day to this the round skulls have occupied the poorer mountain districts and have seldom ventured down to the rich and fertile plains.

    This new brachycephalic race is known as the Furfooz or Grenelle race, so called from the localities in Belgium and France where it was first discovered. Members of this round skull race have also been found at Ofnet, in Bavaria, where they occur in association with a dolichocephalic race, our first historic evidence of the mixture of contrasted races. The descendants of this Furfooz-Grenelle race and of the succeeding waves of invaders of the same brachycephalic type now occupy central Europe as Alpines and form the predominant peasant type in central and eastern Europe.

    In this same Azilian Period there appear, coming this time from the south, the first forerunners of the Mediterranean race. The descendants of this earliest wave of Mediterraneans and their later reinforcements occupy all the coast and islands of the Mediterranean, and are spread widely over western Europe. They can everywhere be identified by their short stature, long skull, and brunet hair and eyes.

    While during this Azilian-Tardenoisian Period these ancestors of two of the existing European races are appearing in central and southern Europe, a new culture phase, also distinctly Pre-Neolithic, was developing along the shores of the Baltic. It is known as Maglemose from its type locality in Denmark. It is probably the work of the first wave of the Nordic subspecies, possibly the Proto-Teutons, who had followed the retreating glaciers north over the old land connections between Denmark and Sweden to occupy the Scandinavian Peninsula. In the remains of this culture we find for the first time definite evidence of the domesticated dog. As yet, however, no skeletal remains have been discovered.

    With the appearance of the Mediterranean race the Azilian-Tardenoisian draws to its close, and with it the entire Paleolithic Period. It is safe to assign for the end of the Paleolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic or Polished Stone Age, the date of 7000 or 8000 B. C.

    The races of the Paleolithic Period arrived successively on the scene with all their characters fully developed. The evolution of all these subspecies and races took place somewhere in Asia or eastern Europe. None of these races appear to be ancestral one to another, although the scanty re-mains of the Heidelberg Man would indicate that he may have given rise to the later Neanderthals. Other than this possible affinity, the various races of Paleolithic times are not related one to another.

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    Chapter 3
    The Neolithic and Bronze Ages
    ABOUT 7000 B.C. we enter an entirely new period in the history of man, the Neolithic or New Stone Age, when the flint implements were polished and not merely chipped. Early as is this date in European culture, we are not far from the beginnings of an elaborate civilization in parts of Asia. The earliest organized states, so far as our present knowledge goes, were the Mesopotamian empires of Accad and Sumer-though they may have been preceded by the Chinese civilization, whose origin remains a mystery, nor can we trace any connection between it and western Asia. Balkh, the ancient Bactra, the mother of cities, is located where the trade routes between China, India, and Mesopotamia converged, and it is in this neighborhood that careful and thorough excavations will probably find their greatest rewards.

    However, we are not dealing with Asia, but with Europe only, and our knowledge is confined to the fact that the various cultural advances at the end of the Paleolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic correspond with the arrival of new races.

    The transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic was formerly considered as revolutionary, an abrupt change of both race and culture, but a period more or less transitory, known as the Campignian, now appears to bridge over this gap. This is but what should be expected, since in human archaeology as in geology the more detailed our knowledge becomes, the more gradually we find one period or horizon merges into its successor.

    For a long time after the opening of the Neolithic the old fashioned chipped weapons and implements remain the predominant type, and the polished flints so characteristic of the Neolithic appear at first only sporadically, then increase in number, until finally they entirely replace the rougher designs of the preceding Old Stone Age.

    So in turn these Neolithic polished stone implements which ultimately became both varied and effective as weapons and tools continued in use long after metallurgy developed. In the Bronze Period, of course, metal armor and weapons were for ages of the greatest value. So they were necessarily in the possession of the military and ruling classes only, while the unfortunate serf or common soldier who followed his master to war did the best he could with leather shield and stone weapons. In the ring that clustered around Harold for the last stand on Senlac Hill many of the English thanes died with their Saxon king, armed solely with the stone battle-axes of their ancestors.

    In Italy also there was a long period known to the Italian archaeologists as the Eneolithic Period, when good flint tools existed side by side with very poor copper and bronze implements; so that, while the Neolithic lasted in western Europe four or five thousand years, it is, at its commencement, without clear definition from the preceding Paleolithic, and at its end it merged gradually into the succeeding ages of metals.

    After the opening Campignian phase there followed a long period typical of the Neolithic, known as the Robenhausian, or Age of the Swiss Lake Dwellers, which reached its height about 5000 B. C. The lake dwellings seem to have been the work exclusively of the round skull Alpine races and are found in numbers throughout the region of the Alps and their foothills and along the Danube valley.

    These Robenhausian pile built villages were in Europe the earliest known form of fixed habitation, and the culture found in association with them was a great advance on that of the preceding Paleolithic. This type of permanent habitation flourished through the entire Upper Neolithic and the succeeding Bronze Age. Pile villages end in Switzerland with the first appearance of iron, but elsewhere, as in the upper Danube, they still existed in the days of Herodotus.

    Domesticated animals and agriculture, as well as rough pottery, appear during the Robenhausian for the first time. The chase, supplemented by trapping and fishing, was still common, but it probably was more for clothing than for food. Of course, a permanent site is the basis of an agricultural community, and involves at least a partial abandonment of the chase, because only nomads can follow the game in its seasonal migrations, and hunted animals soon leave the neighborhood of settlements.

    The Terramara Period of northern Italy was a later phase of culture contemporaneous with the Upper Robenhausian, and was typical of the Bronze Age. During the Terramara Period fortified and moated stations in swamps or close to the banks of rivers became the favorite resorts instead of pile villages built in lakes. The first traces of copper are found during this period. The earliest human remains in the Terramara deposits are long skulled, but round skulls soon appear in association with bronze implements. This indicates an original population of Mediterranean affinities swamped later by Alpines.

    Neolithic culture also Nourished in the north of Europe and particularly in Scandinavia, now free from ice. The coasts of the Baltic were apparently occupied for the first time at the very beginning of this period, as no trace of Paleolithic industry has been found there, other than the Maglemose, which represents only the very latest phase of the Old Stone Age. The kitchen middens, or refuse heaps, of Sweden, and more particularly of Denmark, date from the early Neolithic, and thus are somewhat earlier than the lake dwellers. No trace of agriculture has been found in them, and the dog seems to have been the only domesticated animal.

    >From these two centres, the Alps and the North, an elaborate and variegated Neolithic culture spread through western Europe, and an autochthonous development took place little influenced by trade intercourse with Asia after the first immigrations of the new races.

    We may assume that the distribution of races during the Neolithic was roughly as follows: The Mediterranean basin and western Europe, including Spain, Italy, Gaul, Britain, and the western portions of Germany, populated by Mediterranean long heads; the Alps and the territories immediately surrounding, except the valley of the Po, together with much of the Balkans, inhabited by Alpine types. These Alpines extended northward until they came in touch in eastern Germany and Poland with the southernmost Nordics, but as the Carpathians at a much later date, namely from the fourth to the eighth century A. D., were the centre of radiation of the Alpine Slavs, it is very possible that during the Neolithic the early Nordics lay farther north and east.

    North of the Alpines and occupying the shores of the Baltic and Scandinavia, together with eastern Germany, Poland, and Russia, were located the Nordics. At the very base of the Neolithic, and perhaps still earlier, this race occupied Scandinavia, and Sweden became the nursery of the Teutonic subdivision of the Nordic race. It was in that country that the peculiar characters of stature and blondness became most accentuated, and it is there that we find them to-day in their greatest purity. During the Neolithic the remnants of early Paleolithic man must have been numerous, but later they were either exterminated or absorbed by the existing European races.

    During all this Neolithic Period Mesopotamia and Egypt were thousands of years in advance of Europe, but only a small amount of culture from these sources seems to have trickled westward up the valley of the Danube, then and long afterward the main route of intercourse between western Asia and the heart of Europe. Some trade also passed from the Black Sea up the Russian rivers to the Baltic coasts. Along these latter routes there came from the north to the Mediterranean world the amber of the Baltic, a fossil resin greatly prized by early man for its magic electrical qualities.

    Gold was probably the first metal to attract the attention of primitive man, but, of course, could only be used for purposes of ornamentation. Copper, which is often found in a pure state, was also one of the earliest metals known, and probably came first either from the mines of Cyprus or of the Sinai Peninsula. These latter mines are known to have been worked before 3800 B. C. by systematic mining operations, and much earlier the metal must have been obtained by primitive methods from surface ore. It is, therefore, probable that copper was known and used, at first for ornament and later for implements, in Egypt before 5000 B. C., and probably even earlier in the Mesopotamian regions.

    With the use of copper the Neolithic fades to its end and the Bronze Age commences soon thereafter. This next step in advance was made apparently about 4000 B. C., when some unknown genius discovered that an amalgam of nine parts of copper to one part of tin would produce the metal we now call bronze, which has a texture and strength suitable for weapons and tools. The discovery revolutionized the world. The new knowledge was a long time spreading and weapons of this material were of fabulous value, especially in countries where there were no native mines, and where spears and swords could only be obtained through trade or conquest. The esteem in which these bronze weapons, and still more the later weapons of iron, were held, is indicated by the innumerable legends and myths concerning magic swords and armor, the possession of which made the owner well-nigh invulnerable and invincible.

    The necessity of obtaining tin for this amalgam led to the early voyages of the Phoenicians, who from the cities of Tyre and Sidon, and their daughter, Carthage, traversed the entire length of the Mediterranean, founded colonies in Spain to work the Spanish tin mines, passed the Pillars of Hercules, and finally voyaged through the stormy Atlantic to the Cassiterides, the Tin Isles of Ultima Thule. There, on the coasts of Cornwall, they traded with the native British, of kindred Mediterranean race, for the precious tin. These dangerous and costly voyages become explicable only if the value of this metal for the composition of bronze be taken into consideration.

    After these bronze weapons were elaborated in Egypt, the knowledge of their manufacture and use was extended through conquest into Palestine, and about 3000 B. C. northward into Asia Minor.

    The effect of the possession of these new weapons on the Alpine populations of western Asia was magical, and resulted in an intensive and final expansion of round skulls into Europe. This invasion came through Asia Minor, the Balkans, and the valley of the Danube, poured into Italy from the north, introduced bronze among the earlier Alpine lake dwellers of Switzerland, and among the Mediterraneans of the Terramara stations of the valley of the Po, and at a later date reached as far west as Britain and as far north as Holland and Norway.

    The simultaneous appearance of bronze about 3000 or 2800 B.C. in the south as well as in the north of Italy can probably be attributed to a wave of this same invasion which reached Tunis and Sicily, passing through Egypt, where it left behind the so-called Giza round skulls. With the first knowledge of metals begins the Eneolithic Period of the Italians.

    The introduction into England and into Scandinavia of bronze may be safely dated about one thousand years later, around 1800 B.C. The fact that the Alpines only barely reached Ireland, and that the invasion of Britain itself was not sufficiently intensive to leave any substantial record of its passing in the skulls of the existing population, indicates that at this time Ireland was severed from England, and that the land connection between England and France had been broken. The computation of the foregoing dates, of course, is somewhat hypothetical, but the fixed fact remains that this last expansion of the Alpines brought the knowledge of bronze to western and northern Europe and to the Mediterranean and Nordic peoples living there.

    The effect of the introduction of bronze in the areas occupied chiefly by the Mediterranean race along the Atlantic coast and in Britain, as well as in North Africa from Tunis to Morocco, is seen in the wide distribution of the megalithic funeral monuments, which appear to have been erected, not by Alpines, but by the dolichocephs. The occurrence of bronze tools and weapons in the interments shows clearly that the megaliths date from this Bronze Age. But their construction and use continued at least until the very earliest trace of iron appeared, and in fact mound burials among the Vikings were common until the introduction of Christianity.

    The knowledge of iron as well as bronze in Europe, centres around the area occupied by the Alpines in the eastern Alps and its earliest phase is known as the Hallstatt culture, from a little town in the Tyrol where it was first discovered. This Hallstatt iron culture flourished about 1500 B. C. Whether or not the Alpines introduced from Asia or invented in Europe the smelting of iron, it was the Nordics who benefited by its use. Bronze weapons and the later iron ones proved in the hands of these northern barbarians to be of terrible effectiveness, and were first of all turned against their Alpine teachers. With these metal swords in their grasp, the Nordics first conquered the Alpines of central Europe and then suddenly entered the ancient world as raiders and destroyers of cities, and the classic civilizations of the north coasts of the Mediterranean Sea fell, one after another, before the "Furor Normanorum," just as two thousand years later the provinces of Rome were devastated by the last wave of the men of the north, the Teutonic tribes.

    The first Nordics to appear in European history are tribes speaking Aryan tongues, in the form of the various Celtic and related dialects in the west, of Umbrian in Italy and of Thracian in the Balkans, and these tribes, pouring down from the north, swept with them large numbers of Alpines, whom they had already thoroughly Nordicized. The process of conquering and assimilating these Alpines must have gone on for long centuries before our first historic records, and the work was so thoroughly done that the very existence of this Alpine race as a separate subspecies of man was actually forgotten for thousands of years by themselves and by the world at large, until it was revealed in our own day by the science of skull measurements.

    The Hallstatt iron culture did not extend into western Europe, and the smelting and extensive use of iron in south Britain and northwest Europe are of much later date and occur in what is known as the La Tene Period, usually assigned to the fifth and fourth century B. C. Iron weapons were known in England much earlier, perhaps as far back as 800 or 1OOO B.C., but were very rare and were probably importations from the Continent.

    The spread of this La Tene culture is associated with the Cymry, who constituted the last wave of Celtic-speaking invaders into western Europe, while the earlier Nordic Gauls and Goidels had arrived in Gaul and Britain equipped with bronze only.

    In Roman times, which follow the La Tene Period, the three main races of Europe occupied the relative positions which they had held during the whole Neolithic Period and which they hold today, with the exception that the Nordic species was less extensively represented in western Europe than when, a few hundred years later, the Teutonic tribes flooded these countries; but on the other hand, the Nordics occupied large areas in eastern Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Russia now occupied by the Slavs of Alpine race, and many countries also in central Europe were in Roman times inhabited by fair haired, blue eyed barbarians, where now the population is preponderantly brunet and becoming yearly more so.

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    Chapter 4
    THE ALPINE RACE
    THE Alpine race is clearly of Eastern and Asiatic origin. It forms the westernmost extension of a widespread subspecies which, outside of Europe, occupies Asia Minor, Iran, the Pamirs, and the Hindu Kush. In fact the western Himalayas were probably its centre of original evolution and radiation, and its Asiatic members constitute a distinct subdivision, the Armenoids.

    The Alpine race is distinguished by a round face and correspondingly round skull which in the true Armenians has a peculiar, sugarloaf shape, a character which can be easily recognized. The Alpines must not be confounded with the sliteyed Mongols who centre around Thibet and the steppes of north Asia. The fact that both these races are round skulled does not involve identity of origin any more than the long skulls of the Nordics and of the Mediterraneans require that they be both considered of the same subspecies, although good anthropologists have been misled by this parallelism. The Alpines are of stocky build and moderately short stature, except where they have been crossed with

    Nordic elements. This race is also characterized by dark hair, tending to a dark brown color, and in Europe at the present time the eye is usually dark but sometimes grayish. The ancestral Proto-Alpines from the highlands of western Asia must, of course, have had brunet eyes, and very dark, probably black, hair. Whether we are justified in considering gray eyes peculiar to populations of mixed Alpine and Nordic blood is difficult to determine, but one thing is certain, the combination of blue eyes and flaxen hair is never Alpine.

    The European Alpines retain very little of their Asiatic origin, except the skull, and have been in contact with the Nordic race so long that in central and western Europe they are everywhere saturated with the blood of that race. Many populations now considered good Germans, such as the majority of the Wurtembergers, Bavarians, Austrians Swiss, and Tyrolese, are merely Teutonized Alpines.

    The first appearance in Europe of the Alpines, dates from the Azilian Period when it is represented by the Furfooz-Grenelle race. There were, later, several invasions of this race which entered Europe during Neolithic times from the Asia Minor plateaux, by way of the Balkans and the valley of the Danube. It appears also to have passed north of the Black Sea, as some slight traces have been discovered there of round skulls which long ante-

    date the existing population, but the Russian brachycephaly of to-day is of much later origin.

    This race in its final expansion far to the northwest, ultimately reached Norway, Denmark, and Holland, and planted among the dolichocephalic natives small colonies of round skulls, which still exist. When this invasion reached the extreme northwest of Europe its energy was spent, and the invaders were soon forced back into central Europe by the Nordics. The Alpines at this time of maximum extension, about 1800 B.C., crossed into Britain, and a few reached Ireland and introduced bronze into both these islands. As the metal appears about the same time in Sweden, it is safe to assume that it was introduced by this same invasion, a record of which persists to this day in the existence of a colony of round skulls in southwest Norway.

    Bronze culture everywhere antedates the earliest appearance of the Celtic-speaking Nordics in western Europe.

    The men of the Round Barrows in England were Alpines, but their numbers were so scanty that they have not left behind them in the skulls of the living population any demonstrable evidence of their conquest. If we are ever able to accurately dissect out the various strains that enter, in more or less minute quantities, into the blood of the British Isles, we shall find traces of these

    Round Barrow men as well as other interesting and ancient remnants, especially in the western isles and peninsulas.

    In the study of European populations the great and fundamental fact about the British Isles is the absence there to-day of Alpine round skulls. It is the only important state in Europe in which the round skulls play no part, and the only nation of any rank composed solely of Nordic and Mediterranean races in approximately equal numbers. To this fact is undoubtedly due many of the individualities of the English nation.

    The invasion of central Europe by Alpines, which occurred in the Neolithic, following in the wake of the Azilian forerunners of the same type- the Furfooz-Grenelle race - represented a very great advance in culture. They brought with them from Asia the art of domesticating animals and the first knowledge of the cereals and of pottery, and were an agricultural race in sharp contrast to the flesh eating hunters who preceded them.

    The Neolithic populations of the lake dwellings in Switzerland and the extreme north of Italy, which flourished about 5000 B.C., all belonged to this Alpine race. A comparison of the scanty physical remains of these lake dwellers with the inhabitants of the existing villages on the lake shores demonstrates that the skull shape has changed little or not at all during the last seven thousand years, and affords us another proof of the persistency of unit characters.

    This Alpine race in Europe is now so thoroughly acclimated that it is no longer Asiatic in any respect, and has nothing in common with the Mongols except its round skulls. Such Mongolian elements as exist to-day in scattered groups throughout eastern Europe are remnants of the later invasions of Tatar hordes which, beginning with Attila in the fifth century, ravaged eastern Europe for hundreds of years.

    In western and central Europe the present distribution of the Alpine race is a substantial recession from its original extent, and it has been everywhere conquered and completely swamped by Celtic and Teutonic speaking Nordics. Beginning with the first appearance of the Celtic-speaking Nordics in western Europe, this race has been obliged to give ground, but has mingled its blood everywhere with the conquerors, and now after centuries of obscurity it appears to be increasing again at the expense of the master race.

    The Alpines reached Spain, as they reached Britain, in small numbers and with spent force, but they still exist along the Cantabrian Alps as well as on the northern side of the Pyrenees, among the French Basques. There are also dim traces all along the north African coast of a round skull

    invasion about 3000 B.C. through Syria, Egypt, Tripoli, and Tunis, and from there through Sicily to southern Italy.

    The Alpine race forms to-day, as in Caesar's time, the great bulk of the population of central France, with a Nordic aristocracy resting upon it. They occupy, as the lower classes, the uplands of Belgium, where, known as Walloons, they speak an archaic French dialect closely related to the ancient langue d'oil. They form a majority of the upland population of Alsace, Lorraine, Baden, Wurtemberg, Bavaria, Tyrol, Switzerland, and north Italy; in short of the entire central massif of Europe. In Bavaria and the Tyrol the Alpines are so thoroughly Teutonized that their true racial affinities are betrayed by their round skulls alone.

    When we reach Austria we come in contact with the Slavic-speaking nations which form a subdivision of the Alpine race, appearing late in history and radiating from the Carpathian Mountains. In western and central Europe, in relation to the Nordic race, the Alpine is everywhere the ancient, underlying, and submerged type. The fertile lands, river valleys, and the cities are in the hands of the Teutons, but in eastern Germany and Poland we find conditions reversed. Here is an old Nordic broodland, with a Nordic substratum underlying the bulk of the peasantry; which now consists of round skull Alpine Slavs. On top of these again we have an aristocratic upper class of relatively recent introduction. In eastern Germany this upper class is Saxon, and in Austria it is Swabian and Bavarian.

    The introduction of Slavs in east Germany is known to be by infiltration and not by conquest. In the fourth century these Wends were called Venethi, Antes, and Sclaveni, and were described as strong in numbers but despised in war. Through the neglect of the Teutons they were allowed to range far and wide from their homes near the northeastern Carpathians, and to occupy the lands formerly belonging to the German nations, who had abandoned their country and flocked into the Roman Empire. Goth, Burgund, Lombard, and Vandal were replaced by the lowly Wend, and his descendants to-day form the privates in the east German regiments, while the officers are everywhere recruited from the Nordic upper class. The medieval relation of these Slavic tribes to the dominant Teuton, is well expressed in the meaning slave-which has been attached to their name in western languages.

    The occupation of eastern Germany and Poland by the Slavs probably occurred from 400 A.D. to 700 A.D., but these Alpine elements were reinforced from the east and south from time to time during the succeeding centuries. Beginning early in the tenth century, under their Emperor, Henry

    the Fowler, the Saxons turned their attention eastward, and during the next two centuries they reconquered and thoroughly Germanized all this section of Europe.

    A similar series of changes in racial predominance took place in Russia where, in addition to a nobility largely Nordic, a section of the population is of ancient Nordic type, although the bulk of the peasantry consists of Alpine Slavs.

    The Alpines in eastern Europe are represented by various branches of the Slavic nations. Their area of distribution was split into two sections by the occupation of the great Dacian plain by the Hungarians in about 900 A.D. These Magyars came from somewhere in eastern Russia beyond the sphere of Aryan speech, and their invasion separated the northern Slavs, known as Wends, Czechs, Slovaks, and Poles, from the southern Slavs, known as Serbs and Croats. These southern Slavs entered the Balkan Peninsula in the sixth century from the northeast, and to-day form the great mass of the population there.

    The center of radiation of all these Slavic-speaking Alpines was located in the Carpathians, especially the Ruthenian districts of Galicia and eastward to the neighborhood of the Pripet swamps and the head-waters of the Dnieper in Polesia, where the Slavic dialects are believed to have developed, and whence they spread throughout Russia about the eighth century. These early Slavs were probably the Sarmatians of the Greek and Roman writers, and their name " Venethi" seems to have been a later designation. The original Proto-Slavic language, being Aryan, must have been at some distant date imposed by Nordics on the Alpines, but its development into the present Slavic tongues was chiefly the work of Alpines.

    In other words, the expansion of the Alpines of the Slavic-speaking group seems to have occurred between 400 and 900 A.D., and they have spread in the East over areas which were originally Nordic, very much as the Teutons had previously overrun and submerged the earlier Alpines in the West. The Mongol, Tatar, and Turk, who invaded Europe much later, have little in common with the Alpine race, except the round skull. All these purely Asiatic types have been thoroughly absorbed and Europeanized, except in certain localities in Russia, especially in the east and south, where Mongoloid tribes have maintained their type either in isolated and relatively large groups, or side by side with their Slavic neighbors. In both cases the isolation is maintained by religious and social differences.

    The Avars, also of Asiatic origin, preceded the Magyars in Hungary and the Slavs in the Balkans, but they have merged with the latter without leaving traces that can be identified, unless certain

    Mongoloid characters found in Bulgaria are of this origin.

    The original physical type of the Magyars and the European Turks has now practically vanished, as a result of prolonged intermarriage with the original inhabitants of Hungary and the Balkans. These tribes have left little behind but their language, and in the case of the Turks, their religion. The brachycephalic Hungarians to-day resemble the Austrian-Germans much more than they do the Slavic-speaking populations surrounding them on the north and south, or the Rumanians on the east.

    Following in the wake of the Avars, the Bulgarians appeared south of the Danube about the end of the seventh century, coming from eastern Russia, where the remnants of their kindred still persist along the Volga. To-day they conform physically in the western half of the country with the Alpine Serbs, and in the eastern half with the Mediterranean race, as do also the Rumanians of the Black Sea coast.

    Little or nothing remains of the ancestral Bulgars except their name. Language, religion, and nearly, but not quite all, of the physical types have disappeared.

    The early members of the Nordic race, in order to reach the Mediterranean world, had to pass through the Alpine populations, and must have absorbed a certain amount of Alpine blood. Therefore the Umbrians in Italy and the Gauls of western Europe, while predominantly Nordic, were more mixed with Alpine blood than were the Belgae or Cymry, or their Teutonic successors, who, as Goths, Vandals, Burgundians, Helvetians, Alemanni, Saxons, Franks, Lombards, Danes, and Northmen, appear in history as pure Nordics of the Teutonic group.

    In some portions of their range, notably Savoy and central France, the Alpine race is much less affected by Nordic influence than elsewhere, but on the other hand shows signs of a very ancient admixture with Mediterranean and even earlier elements. Brachycephalic Alpine populations in comparative purity still exist in the interior of Brittany, although almost completely surrounded by Nordic populations.

    While the Alpines were everywhere swamped and driven to the fastnesses of the mountains, the warlike and restless nature of the Nordics has enabled the more stable Alpine population to slowly reassert itself, and Europe is probably much more Alpine to-day than it was fifteen hundred years ago.

    The early Alpines made very large contributions to the civilization of the world, and were the medium through which many advances in culture were introduced from Asia into Europe. This race at the time of its first appearance in the west brought to the nomad hunters the knowledge of

    agriculture and of primitive pottery and of the domestication of animals, and thus made possible a great increase in population and the establishment of permanent settlements. Still later its final expansion was the means through which the knowledge of metals reached the Mediterranean and Nordic populations of the west and north. Upon the appearance on the scene of the Nordics the Alpine race lost its identity and sank to the subordinate and obscure position which it still occupies.

    In western Asia members of this race are entitled to the honor of the earliest civilization of which we have knowledge, namely, that of Sumer and its northerly neighbor, Accad in Mesopotamia. It is also the race of Susa, Elam, and Media. In fact, the whole of Mesopotamian civilization belongs to this race with the exception of later Babylonia and Assyria, which were Arabic and Semitic, and of Persia and the empire of the Kassites, which were Nordic and Aryan.

    In classic, medieval, and modern times the Alpines have played an unimportant part in European culture, and in western Europe they have been so thoroughly Nordicized that they exist rather as an element in Nordic race development than as an independent type. There are, however, many indications in current history which point to a great development of civilization in the Slavic branches of this race, and the world must be prepared to face, as one of the results of the present war, a great industrial and cultural expansion in Russia, perhaps based on military power.

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    Chapter 5
    THE MEDITERRANEAN RACE
    THE Mediterranean subspecies, formerly called the Iberian, is a relatively small, light boned, long skulled race, of brunet color becoming even swarthy in certain portions of its range. Throughout Neolithic times and possibly still earlier, it seems to have occupied, just as it does to-day, all the shores of the Mediterranean, including the coast of Africa from Morocco on the west to Egypt on the east. The Mediterraneans are the western members of a subspecies of man which forms a substantial part of the population of Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Hindustan, with perhaps a southward extension into Ceylon.

    The Aryanized Afghan and Hindu of northern India speak languages derived from Old Sanskrit, and are distantly related to the Mediterranean race. Aside from a common dolichocephaly these peoples are entirely distinct from the Dravidians of south India whose speech is agglutinative and who show strong evidence of profound mixture with the ancient negrito substratum of southern Asia.

    Everywhere throughout the Asiatic portion of its range the Mediterranean race overlies an even more ancient negroid race. These negroids still have representatives among the Pre-Dravidians of India, the Veddahs of Ceylon, the Sakai of the Malay Peninsula, and the natives of the Andaman Islands.

    This Mediterranean subspecies at the close of the Paleolithic spread from the basin of the Inland Sea northward by way of Spain throughout western Europe, including the British Isles, and, before the final expansion of the Alpines, was widely distributed up to and touching the domain of the Nordic dolichocephs. It did not cross the Alps from the south, but spread around the mountains across the Rhine into western Germany.

    In all this vast range from the British Isles to Hindustan, it is not to be supposed that there is identity of race. Certain portions, however, of the populations of the countries throughout this long stretch do show in their physique clear indications of descent from a Neolithic race of a common original type, which we may call Proto-Mediterranean.

    Quite apart from inevitable admixture with late Nordic and early Paleolithic elements, the little brunet Englishman has had perhaps ten thousand years of independent evolution during which he has undergone selection due to the climatic and physical conditions of his northern habitat. The

    result is that he has specialized far away from the Proto-Mediterranean race which contributed this blood originally to Britain, probably while it was still a part of continental Europe.

    On the other end of the range of the Mediterranean species, this race in India has been crossed with Dravidians and with Pre-Dravidian negroids. The Mediterraneans in India have also had imposed upon them other ethnic elements which came over through the Afghan passes from the northwest. The resultant racial mixture in India has had its own line of specialization. Residence in the fertile but unhealthy river bottoms, the direct rays of a tropic sun, and competition with the immemorial autochthones have unsparingly weeded generation after generation, until the existing Hindu has little in common with the ancestral Proto-Mediterranean.

    It is to the Mediterranean race in the British Isles that the English, Scotch, and Americans owe whatever brunet characters they possess. In central Europe it underlies the Alpine race, and, in fact, wherever this race is in contact with either the Alpines or the Nordics, it appears to represent the more ancient stratum of the population.

    So far as we know, this Mediterranean type never existed in Scandinavia, and all brunet elements found there are to be attributed to introductions in historic times. Nor did the Mediterranean race ever enter or cross the high Alps as did the Nordics, at a much later date, on their way to the Mediterranean basin from the Baltic coasts.

    The Mediterranean race with its Asiatic extensions is bordered everywhere on the north of its enormous range from Spain to India by round skulls, but there does not seem to be as much evidence of mixture between these two subspecies of man as there is between the Alpines and the Nordics.

    Along its southern boundary the Mediterranean race is in contact with either the long skull negroes of Ethiopia, or the ancient negrito population of southern Asia. In Africa this race has drifted southward over the Sahara and up the Nile valley, and has modified the blood of the negroes in both the Senegambian and equatorial regions.

    Beyond these mixtures of blood, there is absolutely no relationship between the Mediterranean race and the negroes. The fact that the Mediterranean race is long skulled as well as the negro, does not indicate relationship as has been suggested. Overemphasis of the importance of the skull shape as a somatological character can easily be misleading, and other unit characters than skull proportions must also be carefully considered in all determinations of race.

    Africa north of the Sahara, from a zoological point of view, is now, and has been since early Tertiary times, a part of Europe. This is true

    both of animals and of the races of man. The Berbers of north Africa to-day are racially identical with the Spaniards and south Italians and the ancient Egyptians and their modern descendants, the fellaheen, are merely clearly marked varieties of this Mediterranean race.

    The Egyptians fade off toward the south into the so-called Hamitic people (to use an obsolete name), and the infusion of negro blood becomes increasingly great, until we finally reach the pure negro. On the east in Arabia we find an ancient and highly specialized subdivision of the Mediterranean race, which has from time out of mind crossed the Red Sea and infused its blood into the negroes of east Africa.

    To-day the Mediterranean race forms in Europe a substantial part of the population of the British Isles, the great bulk of the population of the Iberian Peninsula, nearly one-third of the population of France, Liguria, Italy south of the Apennines, and all the Mediterranean coasts and islands, in some of which, like Sardinia, it exists in great purity. It forms the substratum of the population of Greece and of the eastern coasts of the Balkan Peninsula. Everywhere in the interior, except in eastern Bulgaria and Rumania, it has been replaced by the South Slavs and by the Albanians, the latter a mixture of the ancient Illyrians and the Slavs.

    In the British Isles the Mediterranean race represents the Pre-Nordic population and exists in considerable numbers in Wales and in certain portions of England, notably in the Fen districts to the north of London. In Scotland it is nearly obliterated, leaving behind only its brunetness as an indication of its former prevalence, though it is now often associated there with tall stature.

    This is the race that gave the world the great civilizations of Egypt, of Crete, of Phoenicia including Carthage, of Etruria and of Mycensean Greece. It gave us, when mixed and invigorated with Nordic elements, the most splendid of all civilizations, that of ancient Hellas, and the most enduring of political organizations, the Roman State.

    To what extent the Mediterranean race entered into the blood and civilization of Rome, it is now difficult to say, but the traditions of the Eternal City, its love of organization, of law and military efficiency, as well as the Roman ideals of family life, loyalty, and truth, point clearly to a Nordic rather than to a Mediterranean origin.

    The struggles in early Rome between Latin and Etruscan, and the endless quarrels between patrician and plebeian, arose from the existence in Rome, side by side, of two distinct and clashing races, probably Nordic and Mediterranean respectively. The northern qualities of Rome are in

    sharp contrast to the Levantine traits of the classic Greeks, whose volatile and analytical spirit, lack of cohesion, political incapacity, and ready resort to treason, all point clearly to southern and eastern affinities.

    While very ancient, present for probably ten thousand years in western and southern Europe, and even longer on the south shore of the Mediterranean, nevertheless this race cannot be called purely European. The route of its migration along the north coast of Africa, and up the west coast of Europe, can be traced everywhere by its beautifully polished stone weapons and tools. The Megalithic monuments also are found in association with this race, and mark its line of advance in western Europe, although they extend beyond the range of the Mediterraneans into the domain of the Scandinavian Nordics. These huge stone structures were chiefly sepulchral memorials and appear to have been based on an imitation of the Egyptian funeral monuments. They date back to the first knowledge of the manufacture and use of bronze tools by the Mediterranean race, and they occur in great numbers, vast size, and considerable variety along the north coast of Africa and up the Atlantic seaboard through Spain, Brittany, and England to Scandinavia.

    It is admitted that the various groups of the Mediterranean race did not speak, in the first in stance, any form of Aryan tongue. These Aryan languages we know were introduced into the Mediterranean world from the north. We have in the Basque tongue to-day a survival of one of the Pre-Aryan languages, which were spoken by the Mediterranean population of the Iberian Peninsula before the arrival of the Aryan-speaking Gauls of Nordic race.

    The language of these invaders was Celtic, and replaced over most of the country the ancient speech of the natives, only in turn to be superseded, along with the Phcenician spoken in some of the southern coast towns, by the Latin of the conquering Roman, and Latin, mixed with some small elements of Gothic construction and Arabic vocabulary forms the basis of modern Portuguese, Castilian, and Catalan.

    The native Mediterranean race of the Iberian Peninsula quickly absorbed the blood of these conquering Gauls, just as it later diluted beyond recognition the vigorous physical characters of the Teutonic Vandals, Suevi, and Visigoths. A certain amount of Nordic blood still persists to-day in northwestern Spain, especially in Galicia and along the Pyrenees, as well as generally among the upper classes. The Romans left no evidence of their domination except in their language and religion; while the earlier Phoenicians on the coasts, and the later swarms of Moors and Arabs all over the peninsula, but chiefly in the south, were closely related by race to the native Iberians.

    That portion of the Mediterranean race which inhabits southern France oocupies the territory of ancient Languedoc and Provence, and it was these Proven~cals who developed and preserved during the Middle Ages the romantic civilization of the Albigensians, a survival of classic culture, which was drowned in blood by a crusade from the north in the thirteenth century.

    In North Italy only the coast of Liguria is occupied by the Mediterranean race. In the valley of the Po the Mediterraneans were the predominant race during the early Neolithic, but with the introduction of bronze the Alpines appear, and round skulls to this day prevail north of the Apennines. About 11OO B.C. the Nordic Umbrians and Oscans swept over the Alps from the northeast, conquered northern Italy and introduced their Aryan speech, which gradually spread southward. The Umbrian state was afterward overwhelmed by the Etruscans, who were of Mediterranean race, and who, by 800 B.C. had extended their empire northward to the Alps. In the sixth century B.C. new swarms of Nordics, coming this time from Gaul and speaking Celtic dialects, seized the valley of the Po, and in 390 B.C. these Gauls, reinforced from the north and under the leadership of Brennus, stormed Rome and completely destroyed the Etruscan power. From that time onward the valley of the Po became known as Cisalpine Gaul. Mixed with Nordic elements, chiefly Gothic and Lombard, this population persists to this day, and is the backbone of modern Italy.

    A similar movement of these same Gauls or Galatians, as the Greek world called them, starting from northern Italy, occurred a century later when these Nordics suddenly appeared before Delphi in Greece in 279 B.C., and then swept over into Asia Minor and founded the state called Galatia, which endured until Christian times.

    South Italy, until its conquest by Rome, was Magna Graecia, and the population to-day retains many Pelasgian Greek elements. It is among these Hellenic remnants that artists search for the handsomest types of the Mediterranean race. In Sicily also the race is purely Mediterranean in spite of the admixture of types coming from the neighboring coasts of Tunis. These intrusive elements, however, were all of kindred race. Traces of Alpine elements in these regions and on the adjoining African coast are very scarce, and are to be referred to the great and final wave of round skull invasion which introduced bronze into Europe.

    In Greece the Mediterranean Pelasgians, who spoke a non-Aryan tongue, were swamped by the Nordic Achaeans, who entered from the northeast according to tradition prior to 1250 B.C., probably between 1400 and 1300 B.C. There were also probably still earlier waves of these same Nordic invaders as far back as 1700 B.C., which was a period of migration throughout the ancient world. These Achaeans were armed with iron weapons of the Hallstatt culture, with which they conquered the bronze using natives. The two races, as yet unmixed, stand out in clear contrast in the Homeric account of the siege of Troy, which is generally assigned to the date of 1194 to 1184 B.C.

    The same invasion that brought the Achaeans into Greece brought a related Nordic people to the coast of Asia Minor, known as Phrygians. Of this race were the Trojan leaders.

    Both the Trojans and the Greeks were commanded by huge blond princes, the heroes of Homer, while the bulk of the armies on both sides was composed of little brunet Pelasgians, imperfectly armed and remorselessly butchered by the leaders on either side. The only common soldiers mentioned by Homer as of the same race as the heroes, were the Myrmidons of Achilles.

    About the time that the Acheeans and the Pelasgians began to amalgamate, new hordes of Nordic barbarians, collectively called Hellenes, entered from the northern mountains and destroyed this old Homeric-Mycenaean civilization. This Dorian invasion took place a little before 1100 B.C. and brought in the three main Nordic strains of Greece, the Dorian, the Aeolian and the Ionian groups, which remain more or less distinct and separate throughout Greek history. It is more than probable that this invasion or swarming of Nordics into Greece was part of the same general racial upheaval that brought the Umbrians and Oscans into Italy.

    Long years of intense and bitter conflict follow between the old population and the newcomers, and when the turmoil of this revolution settled down, classic Greece appears. What was left of the Achceans retired to the northern Peloponnesus, and the survivors of the early Pelasgian population remained in Messenia serving as helots their Spartan masters. The Greek colonies in Asia Minor were founded by refugees fleeing from these Dorian invaders.

    The Pelasgian strain seems to have persisted best in Attica and the Ionian states. The Dorian Spartans appear to have retained more of the character of the northern barbarians than the Ionian Greeks, but the splendid civilization of Hellas was due to a fusion of the two elements, the Achaean and Hellene of Nordic, and the Pelasgian of Mediterranean race.

    The contrast between Dorian Sparta and Ionian Athens, between the military efficiency, thorough organization, and sacrifice of the citizen for the

    welfare of the state, which constituted the basis of the Lacedaemonian power, and the Attic brilliancy, instability, and extreme development of individualism, is strikingly like the contrast between Prussia with its Spartan-like culture and France with its Athenian versatility.

    To this mixture of the two races in classic Greece the Mediterranean Pelasgians contributed their Mycenaean culture and the Nordic Achaeans and Hellenes contributed their Aryan language, fighting efficiency, and the European aspect of Greek life.

    The first result of a crossing of two such contrasted subspecies as the Nordic and Mediterranean races, has repeatedly been a new outburst of culture. This occurs as soon as the older race has imparted to the conquerors its civilization, and before the victors have allowed their blood to be swamped by mixture. This process seems to have happened several times in Greece.

    Later, in 339 B.C., when the original Nordic blood had been hopelessly diluted by mixture with the ancient Mediterranean elements, Hellas fell an easy prey to Macedon. The troops of Philip and Alexander were Nordic and represented the uncultured but unmixed ancestral type of the Achaeans and Hellenes. Their unimpaired fighting strength was irresistible as soon as it was organized into the Macedonian phalanx, whether directed against their degenerate brother Greeks, or against the Persians, whose original Nordic elements had also by this time practically disappeared. When in its turn the pure Macedonian blood was impaired by intermixture with Asiatics, they, too, vanished, and even the royal Macedonian dynasties in Asia and Egypt soon ceased to be Nordic or Greek except in language and customs.

    It is interesting to note that the Greek states in which the Nordic element was most predominant outlived the other states. Athens fell before Sparta, and Thebes outlived them both. Macedon in classic times was considered quite the most barbarous state in Hellas, and was scarcely recognized as forming part of Greece, but it was through the military power of its armies and the genius of Alexander that the Levant and western Asia became Hellenized. Alexander, with his Nordic features, aquiline nose, gently curling yellow hair, and mixed eyes, the left blue and the right very black, typifies this Nordic conquest of the Near East.

    It is not possible to-day to find in purity the physical traits of the ancient race in the Greek-speaking lands and islands, and it is chiefly among the pure Nordics of Anglo-Norman type that there occur those smooth and regular classic features, especially the brow and nose lines, that were the delight of the sculptors of Hellas.

    So far as modern Europe is concerned culture came from the south and not from the east, and to

    this Mediterranean subspecies is due the foundation of our civilization. The ancient Mediterranean world was of this race; the long-sustained civilization of Egypt, which endured during thousands of years of almost uninterrupted sequence; the brilliant Minoan Empire of Crete, which flourished between 4000 and 1200 B.C., and was the ancestor of the Mycensean cultures of Greece, Cyprus, Italy, and Sardinia; the mysterious empire of Etruria, the predecessor and teacher of Rome; the Hellenic states and colonies throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas; the maritime and mercantile power of Phcenicia and its mighty colony, imperial Carthage; all were the creation of this race. The sea empire of Crete, when its royal palace at Cnossos was burned by the 'sea peoples' of the north, passed to Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage, and from them to the Greeks, so that the early development of the art of navigation is to be attributed to this race, and from them the north, centuries later, learned its maritime architecture.

    Even though the Mediterranean race has no claim to the invention of the synthetic languages, and though it played a relatively small part in the development of the civilization of the Middle Ages or of modern times, nevertheless to it belongs the chief credit of the classic civilization of Europe, in the sciences, art, poetry, literature, and philosophy, as well as the major part of the civilization of Greece, and a very large share in the Empire of Rome.

    In the Eastern Empire the Mediterraneans were the predominant factor under the guise of Byzantine Greeks. Owing to the fact that our histories have been written under the influence of Roman orthodoxy, and because in the eyes of the Frankish Crusaders the Byzantine Greeks were heretics, they have been regarded by us as degenerate cowards.

    But throughout the Middle Ages Byzantium represented in unbroken sequence the Empire of Rome in the East, and as the capital of that empire it held Mohammedan Asia in check for nearly a thousand years. When at last in 1453 the imperial city, deserted by western Christendom, was stormed by the Ottoman Turks, and Constantine, last of Roman Emperors, fell sword in hand, there was enacted one of the greatest tragedies of all time.

    With the fall of Constantinople the Empire of Rome passes finally from the scene of history, and the development of civilization is transferred from Mediterranean lands and Mediterranean race to the North Sea and the Nordic race.

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    Chapter 6
    THE NORDIC RACE
    WE have shown that the Mediterranean race entered Europe from the south and forms part of a great group of peoples extending into southern Asia, that the Alpine race came from the east through Asia Minor and the valley of the Danube, and that its present European distribution is merely the westernmost point of an ethnic pyramid, the base of which rests solidly on the round skulled peoples of the great plateaux of central Asia. Both of these races are, therefore, western extensions of Asiatic subspecies, and neither of them can be considered as exclusively European.

    With the remaining race, the Nordic, however, the case is different. This is a purely European type, and has developed its physical characters and its civilization within the confines of that continent. It is, therefore, the Homo europaeus, the white man par excellence. It is everywhere characterized by certain unique specializations, namely, blondness, wavy hair, blue eyes, fair skin, high, narrow and straight nose, which are associated with great stature, and a long skull, as well as with abundant head and body hair.

    This abundance of hair is an ancient and generalized character which the Nordics share with the Alpines of both Europe and Asia, but the light colored eyes and light colored hair are characters of relatively recent specialization and consequently highly unstable.

    The pure Nordic race is at present clustered around the shores of the Baltic and North Seas, from which is has spread west and south and east in every direction, fading off gradually into the two preceding races.

    The centre of its greatest purity is now in Sweden, and there is no doubt that at first the Scandinavian Peninsula, and later the immediately adjoining shores of the Baltic, were the centres of radiation of the Teutonic or Scandinavian branch of this race.

    The population of Scandinavia has been composed of this Nordic subspecies from the beginning of Neolithic times, and Sweden to-day represents one of the few countries which has never been overwhelmed by foreign conquest, and in which there has been but a single racial type from the beginning. This nation is unique for its unity of race, language, religion, and social ideals.

    Southern Scandinavia only became fit for human habitation on the retreat of the glaciers about twelve thousand years ago and apparently was immediately occupied by the Nordic race. This is one

    of the few geological dates which is absolute and not relative. It rests on a most interesting series of computations made by Baron DeGeer, based on an actual count of the laminated deposits of clay laid down annually by the retreating glaciers, each layer representing the summer deposit of the subglacial stream.

    The Nordics first appear at the close of the Paleolithic along the coasts of the Baltic. The earliest industry discovered in this region is known as the Maglemose, found in Denmark and elsewhere around the Baltic, and is probably the culture of the Proto-Teutonic branch of the Nordic race. No human remains have as yet been found.

    The vigor and power of the Nordic race as a whole is such that it could not have been evolved in so restricted an area as southern Sweden, although its Teutonic section did develop there in comparative isolation. The Nordics must have had a larger field for their specialization, and a longer period for their evolution, than is afforded by the limited time which has elapsed since Sweden became habitable. For the development of so marked a type there is required a continental area isolated and protected for long ages from the intrusion of other races. The climatic conditions must have been such as to impose a rigid elimination of defectives through the agency of hard winters and the necessity of industry and foresight in providing the year's food, clothing, and shelter during the short summer. Such demands on energy, if long continued, would produce a strong, virile, and self-contained race which would inevitably overwhelm in battle nations whose weaker elements had not been purged by the conditions of an equally severe environment.

    An area conforming to these requirements is offered by the forests and plains of eastern Germany, Poland, and Russia. It was here that the Proto-Nordic type evolved, and here their remnants are found. They were protected from Asia on the east by the then almost continuous water connections across eastern Russia between the White Sea and the old Caspian-Aral Sea.

    During the last glacial advance (the Wurm glaciation), which, like the preceding glacial advances, is believed to have been a period of land depression, the White Sea extended far to the south of its present limits, while the enlarged Caspian Sea, then and long afterward connected with the Sea of Aral, extended northward to the great bend of the Volga. The intermediate area was studded with large lakes and morasses. Thus an almost complete water barrier of shallow sea, located just west of the low Ural Mountains, separated Europe from Asia during the Wurm glaciation and long afterward. The broken connection was restored just before the dawn of history by the slight ele-

    vation of the land and the shrinking of the Caspian-Aral Sea through increasing desiccation which left its present surface below sea level.

    An important element in the isolation of this Nordic cradle on the south is the fact that from the earliest times down to this day the pressure of population has everywhere been from the bleak and sterile north southward and eastward into the sunny and enervating lands of France, Italy, Greece, Persia, and India.

    In these forests and steppes of the north, the Nordic race gradually evolved in isolation, and at a very early date occupied the Scandinavian Peninsula, together with much of the land now submerged under the Baltic and North Seas.

    Nordic strains form everywhere a substratum of population throughout Russia and underlie the round skull Slavs who first appear a little over a thousand years ago as coming, not from the direction of Asia, but from south Poland. Burial mounds called kurgans are widely scattered throughout Russia from the Carpathians to the Urals, and contain numerous remains of a dolichocephalic race; in fact, more than three-fourths of the skulls are of this type. Round skulls first become numerous in ancient Russian graveyards about 900 A.D., and soon increase to such an extent that in the Slavic period from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries one-half of the skulls were brachycephalic, while in modern cemeteries the proportion of round skulls is still greater. This ancient Nordic element, however, still forms a very considerable portion of the population of northern Russia and contributes the blondness and the red-headedness so characteristic of the Russian of to-day. As we leave the Baltic coasts the Nordic characters fade out both toward the south and east. The blond element in the nobility of Russia is of later Scandinavian and Teutonic origin.

    When the seas which separated Russia from Asia dried up, and when the isolation and exacting climate of the north had done their work and produced the vigorous Nordic type, these men burst upon the southern races, conquering east, south, and west. They brought with them from the north the hardihood and vigor acquired under the rigorous selection of a long winter season, and vanquished in battle the inhabitants of older and feebler civilizations, only in their turn to succumb to the softening influences of a life of ease and plenty in their new homes.

    The earliest appearance in history of Aryan-speaking Nordics is our first dim vision of the Sacae introducing the Sanskrit into India, the Cimmerians pouring through the passes of the Caucasus from the grasslands of south Russia to invade the Empire of the Medes, and the Achaeans and Phrygians conquering Greece and the Aegean coast

    of Asia Minor. About 11OO B.C. Nordics enter Italy as Umbrians and Oscans, and soon after cross the Rhine into Gaul. This western vanguard was composed of Celtic-speaking tribes which had long occupied those districts in Germany which lay south and west of the Teutonic-speaking Nordics, who at this early date were probably confined to Scandinavia and the immediate shores of the Baltic, and were beginning to press southward.

    This first wave of Nordics seems to have swept westward along the sandy plains of northern Europe, entering France through the Low Countries. From this point as Goidels they spread north into Britain, reaching there about 800 B.C. As Gauls they conquered all France and pushed on south and west into Spain, and over the Maritime Alps into northern Italy, where they encountered their kindred Nordic Umbrians, who at an earlier date had crossed the Alps from the northeast. Other Celtic-speaking Nordics apparently migrated up the Rhine and down the Danube, and by the time the Romans came on the scene the Alpines of central Europe had been thoroughly Celticized. These tribes pushed eastward into southern Russia and reached the Crimea as early as the fourth century B.C. Mixed with the natives, they were called by the Greeks the Celto-Scyths. This swarming out of Germany of the first Nordics was during the closing phases of the Bronze Period, and was contemporary with, and probably caused by, the first great expansion of the Teutons from Scandinavia by way both of Denmark and the Baltic coasts.

    These invaders were succeeded by a second wave of Celtic-speaking peoples, the Cymry, who drove their Goidelic predecessors still farther west and exterminated and absorbed them over large areas. These Cymric invasions occurred about 300-1OO B.C., and were probably the result of the growing development of the Teutons and their final expulsion of the Celtic-speaking tribes from Germany. These Cymry occupied northern France under the name of Belgae and invaded England as Brythons, and their conquests in both Gaul and Britain were only checked by the legions of Caesar.

    These migrations are exceedingly hard to trace because of the confusion caused by the fact that Celtic speech is now found on the lips of populations in nowise related to the Nordics who first introduced it. But one fact stands out clearly, all the original Celtic-speaking tribes were purely Nordic.

    What were the special physical characters of these tribes, in which they differed from their Teutonic successors, is now impossible to say, beyond the possible suggestion that in the British Isles the Scottish and Irish populations in which red hair and gray or green eyes are abundant have rather more of this Celtic strain in them than have the

    flaxen haired Teutons, whose china blue eyes are clearly not Celtic.

    When the peoples called Gauls or Celts by the Romans, and Galatians by the Greeks, first appear in history, they are described in exactly the same terms as were later the Teutons. They were all gigantic barbarians with fair and very often red hair, then more frequent than to-day, with gray or fiercely blue eyes, and were thus clearly members of the Nordic subspecies.

    The first Celtic-speaking nations with whom the Romans came in contact were Gaulish, and had probably incorporated much Alpine blood by the time they crossed the mountains into the domain of classic history. The Nordic element had become still weaker by absorption from the conquered populations, when at a later date the Romans broke through the ring of Celtic nations and came into contact with the purely Nordic Cymry and Teutons.

    After these early expansions of Gauls and Cymry, the Teutons appear upon the scene. Of the pure Teutons within the ken of history, it is not necessary to mention more than the most important of the long series of conquering tribes.

    The greatest of them all were perhaps the Goths, who came originally from the south of Sweden and were long located on the opposite German coast, at the mouth of the Vistula. From here they crossed Poland to the Crimea, where they were known in the first century. Three hundred years later they were driven westward by the Huns and forced into the Dacian plain and over the Danube into the Roman Empire. Here they split up; the Ostrogoths after a period of subjection to the Huns on the Danube, ravaged the European provinces of the Eastern Empire, conquered Italy, and founded there a great but shortlived nation. The Visigoths occupied much of Gaul and then entered Spain, driving the Vandals before them into Africa. The Teutons and Cimbri destroyed by Marius in southern Gaul about 1OO B.C.; the Gepidae; the Alans; the Suevi; the Vandals; the Helvetians; the Alemanni of the upper Rhine; the Marcomanni; the Saxons; the Batavians; the Frisians; the Angles; the Jutes, the Lombards and the Heruli of Italy; the Burgundians of the east of France; the Franks of the lower Rhine; the Danes; and latest of all, the Norse Vikings, swept through history. Less well known but of great importance, are the Varangians, who, coming from Sweden in the ninth and tenth centuries, conquered the coast of the Gulf of Finland and much of White Russia, and left there a dynasty and aristocracy of Norse blood. In the tenth and eleventh centuries they were the rulers of Russia.

    The traditions of Goths, Vandals, Lombards, and Burgundians all point to Sweden as their

    earliest homeland, and probably all the pure Germanic tribes came originally from Scandinavia and were closely related.

    When these Teutonic tribes poured down from the Baltic coasts, their Celtic-speaking Nordic predecessors were already much mixed with the underlying populations, Mediterranean in the west and Alpine in the south. These "Celts" were not recognized by the Teutons as kin in any sense, and were all called Welsh or foreigners. From this word are derived the names "Wales," "Cornwales" or "Cornwall," "Valais," "Walloons," and " Wallachian " or "Vlach."

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    Chapter 7
    TEUTONIC EUROPE



    No proper understanding is possible of the meaning of the history of Christendom, or full appreciation of the place in it of the Teutonic Nordics, without a brief review of the events in Europe of the last two thousand years.

    When Rome fell and changed trade conditions neces-sitated the transfer of power from its historic capital in Italy to a strategic situation on the Bosporus, western Europe was definitely and finally abandoned to its Germanic invaders. These same barbarians swept up again and again to the Propontis, only to recoil before the organized strength of the Byzantine Empire, and the walls of Mikklegard.

    Until the coming of the Alpine Slavs the Eastern Empire still held in Europe the Balkan Peninsula and much of the eastern Mediterranean. The Western Empire, however, collapsed utterly under the impact of hordes of Nordic Teutons at a much earlier date. In the fourth and fifth centuries of our era, north Africa, once the empire of Carthage, had become the seat of the kingdom of

    Teutonic Vandals. Spain fell under the control of the Visigoths, and Lusitania, now Portugal, under that of the Suevi. Gaul was Visigothic in the south and Burgundian in the east, while the Frankish kingdom dominated the north until it finally absorbed and incorporated all the territories of ancient Gaul and made it the land of the Franks.

    Italy fell under the control first of the Ostrogoths and then of the Lombards. The purely Teutonic Saxons, with kindred tribes, conquered the British Isles, and mean-while the Norse and Danish Scandinavians contributed large elements to all the coast populations as far south as Spain, and the Swedes organized in the eastern Baltic what is now Russia.

    Thus when Rome passed, all Europe had become superficially Teutonic. At first these Teutons were isolated and independent tribes, bearing some shadowy relation to the one organized state they knew, the Empire of Rome. Then came the Mohammedan invasion, which reached western Europe from Africa and destroyed the Visigothic kingdom. The Moslems swept on un-checked until their light horsemen dashed themselves to pieces against the heavy armed cavalry of Charles Martel and his Franks at Tours in 732 A.D.

    The destruction of the Vandal kingdom by the armies of the Byzantine Empire; the conquest of Spain by the Moors, and finally the overthrow of the Lombards by the Franks were all greatly facilitated by the fact that these barbarians, Vandals, Goths, Suevi, and Lombards, with the sole exception of the Franks, were originally Christians of the Arian or Unitarian confession, and as such were regarded as heretics by their Orthodox Christian subjects. The Franks alone were converted from heathenism directly into the Trinitarian faith to which the old populations of the Roman Empire adhered. From this orthodoxy of the Franks arose the close relation between France, "the eldest daughter of the church," and the papacy, a connection which lasted for more than a thousand years-in fact nearly to our own day.

    With the Goths eliminated, western Christendom became Frankish. In the year 800 A.D. Charlemagne was crowned at Rome and re-established the Roman Empire in the west, which included all Christendom outside of the Byzantine Empire. In some form or shape this Roman Empire endured until the beginning of the nineteenth century, and during all that time it formed the basis of the political concept of European man.

    This same concept lies today at the root of the imperial idea. The Kaiser, Tsar, and Emperor all take their name, and in some way trace their title, from Cesar and the Empire. Charlemagne and his successors claimed, and often exercised, over-lordship as to all the other conti-nental Christian nations, and when the Crusades began it was the German Emperor who led the Frankish hosts against the Saracens. Charlemagne was a German Emperor, his capital was at Aachen, within the present limits of the German Empire, and the language of his court was German. For several centuries after the conquest of Gaul by the Franks, their Teutonic tongue held its own against the Latin speech of the Romanized Gauls.

    The history of all Christian Europe is in some degree interwoven with this Holy Roman Empire. Though the Empire was neither holy nor Roman, but altogether secular and Teutonic, it was, nevertheless, the central core of Europe for ages. Holland and Flanders, Lorraine and Alsace, Burgundy and Luxemberg, Lombardy and Venezia, Switzerland and Austria, Bohemia and Styria are states which were originally component parts of the Empire, although many of them have since been torn away by rival nations or have become independent, while much of northern Italy remained under the sway of Austria within the memory of living men.

    The Empire wasted its strength in imperial ambitions and foreign conquests instead of consolidating, organizing, and unifying its own territories, and the fact that the imperial crown was elective for many generations before it became hereditary in the House of Hapsburg, checked the unification of Germany during the Middle Ages.

    A strong hereditary monarchy such as those which arose in England and in France would have anticipated the Germany of to-day by a thousand years and made it the predominant state in Christendom, but disruptive ele-ments, in the persons of great territorial dukes, were successful throughout its history in preventing an effective concentration of power in the hands of the Emperor.

    That the German Emperor was regarded, though vague-ly, as the overlord of all Christian monarchs was clearly indicated when Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France appeared as candidates for the imperial crown against Charles of Spain, afterward the Emperor Charles V.

    Europe was Germany, and Germany was Europe, predominantly, until the Thirty Years' War. This war was perhaps the greatest catastrophe of all the ghastly crimes committed in the name of religion. It destroyed an entire generation, taking each year for thirty years the finest manhood of the nations.

    Two-thirds of the population of Germany was destroyed, in some states such as Bohemia three-fourths of the inhabitants were killed or exiled, while out of 500,000 inhabitants in Wurtemberg there were only 48,000 left at the end of the war. Terrible as this loss was, the destruction did not fall equally on the various races and classes in the community. It bore, of course, most heavily upon the big blond fighting man, and at the end of the war the German states contained a greatly lessened proportion of Nordic blood. In fact from that time on the purely Teutonic race in Germany has been largely replaced by the Alpine types in the south, and by the Wendish and the Polish types in the east. This change of race in Germany has gone so far that it has been computed that out of the 70,000,000 inhabitants of the German Empire, only 9,000,000 are purely Teutonic in coloration, stature, and skull characters. The rarity of pure Teutonic and Nordic types among the German immigrants to America in contrast to its almost universal prevalence among those from Scandinavia is traceable to the same cause.

    In addition, the Thirty Years' War virtually destroyed the land owning yeomanry and lesser gentry formerly found in mediaeval Germany as numerously as in France or in England. The religious wars of France, while not as devastating to the nation as a whole as was the Thirty Years' War in Germany, nevertheless greatly weakened the French cavalier type, the "petite noblesse de province." In Germany this class had flourished, and throughout the Middle Ages contributed great numbers of knights, poets, thinkers, great artists and artisans who gave charm and variety to European society. But as said, this section of the population was practically extermi-nated in the Thirty Years' War, and the class of gentle-men practically vanishes from German history from that time on.

    When the Thirty Years' War was over there remained in Germany nothing except the brutalized peasantry, largely of Alpine derivation in the south and east, and the high nobility which turned from the toils of endless warfare to mimic on a small scale the court of Versailles. It has taken Germany two centuries to recover her vigor, her wealth, and her aspirations to a place in the sun.

    During these years Germany was a political nonentity, a mere congery of petty states bickering and fighting with each other, claiming and owning only the Empire of the Air as Napoleon happily phrased it, and meantime France and England founded their colonial empires beyond the seas.

    When, in the last generation, Germany became unified and organized, she found herself not only too late to share in these colonial enterprises, but also lacking in much of the racial element, and still more lacking in the very classes which were her greatest strength and glory before the Thirty Years' War. To-day the ghastly rarity in the German armies of chivalry and generosity toward women, and of knightly protection and courtesy toward the prisoners or wounded, can be largely attributed to this annihilation of the gentle classes. The Germans of to-day, whether they live on the farms or in the cities, are for the most part, descendants of the peasants who survived, not of the brilliant knights and sturdy foot soldiers who fell in that mighty conflict. Knowledge of this great past when Europe was Teutonic, and memories of the shadowy grandeur of the Hohenstaufen Emperors, who, generation after generation, led Teut-onic armies over the Alps to assert their title to Italian provinces, have played no small part in modern German consciousness.

    These traditions and the knowledge that their own religious dissensions swept them from the leadership of the European world, lie at the base of the German imperial ideal of to-day, and it is for this ideal that the German armies are dying, just as did their ancestors for a thousand years under their Fredericks, Henrys, Con-rads, and Ottos.

    But the Empire of Rome and the Empire of Charlemagne are no more, and the Teutonic type is divided almost equally between the contending forces in this world war. Germany is too late, and is limited to a destiny fixed and ordained for her on the fatal day in 1618 when the Hapsburg Ferdinand forced the Protestants of Bohemia into revolt.

    Although as a result of the Thirty Years' War the German Empire is far less Nordic than in the Middle Ages, the north of Germany is still Teutonic throughout, and in the east and south the Alpines have been thoroughly Germanized with an aristocracy and upper class of pure Teutonic blood.

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    Chapter 8
    THE EXPANSION OF THE NORDICS

    THE men of Nordic blood to-day form all the population of Scandinavian countries, as also a majority of the population of the British Isles, and are almost pure in type in Scotland and eastern and northern England. The Nordic realm includes all the northern third of France, with extensions into the fertile southwest; all the rich lowlands of Flanders; all Holland; the northern half of Germany, with extensions up the Rhine and down the Danube; and the north of Poland, and of Russia. Recent calculations show that there are about 90,000,000 of purely Nordic physical type in Europe out of a total population of 420,000,000.

    Throughout southern Europe a Nordic nobility of Teutonic type everywhere forms the old aristocratic and military classes, or what now remains of them. These aristocrats, by as much as their blood is pure, are taller and blonder than the native populations, whether these be Alpine in central Europe or Mediterranean in Spain or in the south of France and Italy.

    The countries speaking Low German dialects are almost purely Nordic, but the populations of High German speech are very largely Teutonized Alpines, and occupy lands once Celtic-speaking. The main distinction between the two dialects is the presence of a large number of Celtic elements in High German.

    In northern Italy there is a large amount of Nordic blood. In Lombardy, Venice, and elsewhere throughout the country the aristocracy is blonder and taller than the peasantry, but the Nordic element in Italy has declined noticeably since the Middle Ages. From Roman times onward for a thousand years the Teutons swarmed into northern Italy, through the Alps, chiefly by way of the Brenner Pass. With the stoppage of these Nordic invasions this strain seems to have grown less all through Italy.

    In the Balkan Peninsula there is little to show for the floods of Nordic blood that have poured in for the last 3,500 years, beginning with the Achaeans of Homer, who first appeared en masse about 1400 B.C., and were followed successively by the Dorians, Cimmerians, and Gauls, down to the Goths and the Varangians of Byzantine times.

    The tall stature of the population along the Illyrian Alps from the Tyrol to Albania on the south, is undoubtedly of Nordic origin, and dates from some of these early invasions, but these Illyrians have been so crossed with Slavs that all other blond elements have been lost, and the existing population is essentially of brachycephalic Alpine type. What few remnants of blondness occur in this district, more particularly in Albania, are probably to be attributed to later infiltrations, as are the so-called Frankish elements in Bosnia. In Russia and in Poland the Nordic stature, blondness, and long skull grow less and less pronounced as one proceeds south and east from the Gulf of Finland.

    It would appear that in all those parts of Europe outside of its natural habitat, the Nordic blood is on the wane from England to Italy, and that the ancient, acclimated, and primitive populations of Alpine and Mediterranean race are subtly reasserting their long lost political power through a high breeding rate and democratic institutions.

    In western Europe the first wave of the Nordic tribes appeared about three thousand years ago, and was followed by other invasions with the Nordic element becoming stronger until after the fall of Rome whole tribes moved into its provinces Germanizing them more or less for varying lengths of time.

    These incoming Nordics intermarried with the native populations and were gradually bred out, and the resurgence of the old native stock has proceeded steadily since the Frankish Charlemagne destroyed the Lombard kingdom, and is proceeding with unabated vigor to-day. This process has been greatly accelerated in western Europe by the crusades and the religious and Napoleonic wars. The world war, now in full swing with its toll of millions, will leave Europe much poorer in Nordic blood. One of its most certain results will be the partial destruction of the aristocratic classes everywhere in northern Europe. In England the nobility has already suffered in battle more than in any century since the Wars of the Roses. This will tend to realize the standardization of type so dear to democratic ideals. If equality cannot be obtained by lengthening and uplifting the stunted of body and of mind, it can be at least realized by the destruction of the exalted of stature and of soul. The bed of Procrustes operates with the same fatal exactness when it shortens the long as when it stretches the undersized.

    The first Nordics in Spain were the Gauls who crossed the Pyrenees about the seventh century before our era, and introduced Aryan speech into the Iberian Peninsula. They quickly mixed with Mediterranean natives and the composite Spaniards were called Celtiberians by the Romans.

    In Portugal and Spain there are in the physical structure of the population few traces of these early Celtic-speaking Nordic invaders, but the Suevi, who a thousand years later occupied parts of Portugal, and the Vandals and Visigoths who conquered and held Spain for 300 years, have left some small evidence of their blood, and in the provinces of northwestern Spain a considerable percentage of light colored eyes reveals these Nordic elements in the population.

    Deep seated Castilian traditions associate aristocracy with blondness, and the sangre azul, or blue blood of Spain, refers to the blue eye of the Goth, whose traditional claim to lordship is also shown in the Spanish name for gentleman, "hidalgo," or son of the Goth.

    As long as this Gothic nobility controlled the Spanish states during the endless crusades against the Moors, Spain belonged with the Nordic kingdoms, but when their blood became impaired by losses in wars waged outside of Spain and in the conquest of the Americas, the sceptre fell from this noble race into the hands of the little, dark Iberian, who had not the physical vigor or the intellectual strength to maintain the world empire built up by the stronger race.

    The splendid conquistadores of the New World were of Nordic type, but their pure stock did not long survive their new surroundings, and to-day they have vanished utterly, leaving behind them only their language and their religion. After considering well these facts we shall not have to search further for the causes of the collapse of Spain.

    Gaul at the time of Caesar's conquest was under the rule of the Nordic race, which furnished the bulk of the population of the north as well as the military classes elsewhere, and the power and vigor of the French nation have been based on this blood and its later reinforcements. In fact, in the Europe of to-day the amount of Nordic blood in each nation is a very fair measure of its strength in war and standing in civilization.

    When, about 1OOO B.C., the first Nordics crossed the lower Rhine they found the Mediterranean race in France everywhere overwhelmed by an Alpine population, except in the south, and before the time of Caesar the Celtic language of these invaders, which was related to the Goidelic language still spoken in parts of Ireland and in the Scotch Highlands, had been imposed upon the entire population, and the whole country had been saturated with Nordic blood. These earliest Nordics in the west were known to the ancient world as Gauls. These Gauls or "Celts," as they were called by Csesar, occupied in his day the centre of France. The actual racial complexion of this part of France was overwhelmingly Alpine then and is so now, but this population was Celticized thoroughly by the Gauls, just as it was Latinized as completely at a later date by the Romans.

    The northern third of France, that is, above Paris, was inhabited in Caesar's time by the Belgae, a Nordic people of the Cymric division of Celtic speech. They were largely of Teutonic blood, and in fact should be regarded as the immediate forerunners of the Germans, and they probably represent the early Teutons who had crossed from Sweden and adopted the Celtic speech of their Nordic kindred whom they found on the mainland. These Belgae had followed the earlier Goidels across Germany into Britain and Gaul, and were rapidly displacing their Nordic predecessors, who by this time were much weakened by mixture with the autochthones, when Rome appeared upon the scene and set a limit to their conquests by the Pax Romana.

    The Belgae of the north of France and the Low Countries were the bravest of the peoples of Gaul, according to Caesar's well-known remark, but the claim of the Belgians of to-day to descent from this race is without basis and rests solely on the fact that the present Kingdom of Belgium, which only became independent and assumed its proud name in 1830, occupies a small and relatively unimportant corner of the land of the Belgae. The Flemings of Belgium are Nordic Franks speaking a Low German tongue, and the Walloons are Alpines whose language is an archaic French.

    The Belgae and the Goidelic remnants of Nordic blood in the centre of Gaul, taken together constituted probably only a minority in blood of the population, but were everywhere the military and ruling classes. These Nordic elements were later reinforced by powerful Teutonic tribes, namely, Vandals, Visigoths, Alans, Saxons, Burgundians, and most important of all, the Franks of the lower Rhine, who founded modern France and made it for long centuries the "grand nation" of Christendom.

    The Frankish dynasties long after Charlemagne were of purely Teutonic blood, and the aristocratic land owning and military classes down to the great Revolution were everywhere of this type, which by the time of the creation of the Frankish kingdom had incorporated all the other Nordic elements of old Roman Gaul, both Gaulish and Belgic.

    The last invasion of Teutonic-speaking barbarians was that of the Danish Northmen, who were, of course, of pure Nordic blood, and who conquered and settled Normandy in 911 A.D. No sooner had the barbarian invasions ceased than the ancient aboriginal blood strains, Mediterranean and Alpine, and elements derived from Paleolithic times, began a slow and steady recovery. Step by step, with the reappearance of these primitive and deep rooted stocks, the Nordic element in France declined, and with it the vigor of the nation.

    The chief historic events of the last thousand years have hastened this process, and the fact that the Nordic element everywhere forms the fighting section of the community caused the loss in war to fall disproportionately as among the three races in France. The religious wars greatly weakened the Nordic provincial nobility, which was at first largely Protestant, and the process of exterminating the upper classes was completed by the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. These last wars are said to have shortened the stature of the French by four inches; in other words, the tall Nordic strain was killed off in greater proportions than the little brunet.

    When by universal suffrage the transfer of power was completed from a Nordic aristocracy to lower classes predominantly of Alpine and Mediterranean extraction, the decline of France in international power set in.

    The survivors of the aristocracy, being stripped of political power and to a large extent of wealth, quickly lost their caste pride and committed class suicide by mixing their blood with inferior breeds. One of the most conspicuous features of many of the French nobility of to-day is the strength of the Levantine and Mediterranean strain in them. Being, for political reasons, ardently clerical, the nobility welcomes recruits of any racial origin, as long as they bring with them money and devotion to the Church.

    The loss in war of the best breeding stock through death, wounds, or absence from home has been clearly shown in France. The conscripts who were examined for military duty in 1890-2 were those descended in a large measure from the military rejects and other stay-at-homes during the Franco-Prussian War. In Dordogne this contingent showed seven per cent more deficient statures than the normal rate. In some cantons this unfortunate generation was in height an inch below the recruits of preceding years, and in it the exemptions for defective physique rose from the normal six per cent to sixteen per cent.

    When each generation is decimated or destroyed in turn, a race can be injured beyond recovery, but it more frequently happens that the result is the annihilation of an entire class, as in the case of the German gentry in the Thirty Years' War. Desolation of wide districts often resulted from the plagues and famines which followed the armies in old days, but deaths from these causes fall most heavily on the weaker part of the population. The loss of valuable breeding stock is far more serious when wars are fought with volunteer armies of picked men than with conscript armies, because in the latter cases the loss is more evenly spread over the whole nation. Before England resorted in the present war to universal conscription the injury to her more desirable and patriotic classes was much more pronounced than in Germany, where all types and ranks are called to arms.

    In the British Isles we find, before the arrival of the Nordic race, a Mediterranean population and no perceptible element of Alpine blood, so that we have to deal with only two of the main races instead of all three as in France. In Britain there are, as elsewhere, representatives of earlier races, but the preponderant strain of blood was Mediterranean before the first arrival of the Aryan-speaking Nordics.

    Ireland was connected with Britain and Britain with the continent until times very recent in a geological sense. The depression of the Channel coasts is progressing rapidly to-day, and is known to have been substantial during historic times. The close parallel in blood and culture between England and the opposite coasts of France also indicates a very recent land connection, probably in Neolithic times. Men either walked from the continent to England and from England to Ireland, or they paddled across in primitive boats or coracles. The art of ship-building, or even archaic navigation, cannot go much further back than late Neolithic times.

    The tribes of Celtic speech came to the British Isles in two distinct waves. The earlier invasion of the Goidels arrived in England with a culture of bronze about 800 B.C., and in Ireland two centuries later, and was part of the same movement which brought the Gauls into France. The later conquest was by the Cymric-speaking Belgae who were equipped with iron weapons. It began in the third century B.C., and was still going on in Caesar's time. These Cymric Brythons found the early Goidels, with the exception of the aristocracy, much weakened by intermixture with the Mediterranean natives, and would probably have destroyed all trace of Goidelic speech in Ireland and Scotland, as they actually did in England, if the Romans had not intervened. The Brythons reached Ireland in small numbers only in the second century B.C.

    These Nordic elements in Britain, both Goidelic and Brythonic, were in a minority during Roman times, and the ethnic complexion of the island was not much affected by the Roman occupation, as the legions stationed there represented the varied racial stocks of the Empire.

    After the Romans abandoned Britain, and about 400 A.D., floods of pure Nordics poured into the islands for nearly six centuries, arriving in the north as the Norse pirates, who made Scotland Scandinavian, and in the east as Teutonic Saxons and Angles, who founded England.

    The Angles came from somewhere in central Jutland, and the Saxons came from coast lands immediately at the base of the Danish Peninsula. All these districts were then, and are now, purely Teutonic; in fact, this is part of old Saxony, and is to-day the core of Germany.

    These Saxon districts sent out at that time swarms of invaders not only into England but into France and over the Alps into Italy, just as at a much later period the same land sent swarming colonies into Hungary and Russia.

    The same Saxon invaders passed down the Channel coasts, and traces of their settlement on the mainland remain to this day in the Cotentin district around Cherbourg. Scandinavian sea peoples, called Danes or Northmen, swarmed over as late as 900 A.D. and conquered all eastern England. This Danish invasion of England was the same that brought the Northmen, or Normans, into France. In fact the occupation of Normandy was probably by Danes, and the conquest of England was largely the work of Norsemen, as Norway at that time was under Danish kings.

    Both of these invasions, especially the later one, swept around the greater island and inundated Ireland, driving the aborigines and their Celtic-speaking masters into the bogs and islands of the extreme west.

    The blond Nordic element to-day predominates in Ireland as much as in England. It is derived, to some extent, from the early invaders of Celtic speech, but the Goidelic element has been in Ireland, as in England and Scotland, very largely absorbed by the Iberian substratum of the population, and is found to-day rather in the form of Nordic characters in brunets, than as the pure blond individuals who represent later and purer Nordic strains. The combination of black Iberian hair with blue or gray Nordic eyes is frequently found in Ireland and also in Spain, and in both these countries is greatly admired for its beauty.

    The tall, blond Irishmen are to-day chiefly Danish with the addition of English, Norman, and Scotch elements, which have poured into the lesser island for a thousand years, and have imposed the English speech upon it. The more primitive and ancient elements in Ireland have always showed great ability to absorb newcomers, and during the Middle Ages it was notorious that the Norman and English colonists quickly sank to the cultural level of the natives. Indications of Paleolithic man appear in Ireland frequently as unit characters, as well as individuals. Being, like Brittany, situated on the extreme western outposts of Eurasia, it has more than its share of generalized and low types surviving in the living populations, and these types, the Firbolgs, have imparted a distinct and very undesirable aspect to a large portion of the inhabitants of the west and south, and have greatly lowered the intellectual status of the population as a whole.

    In England much the same ethnic elements are present, namely the Nordic and the Mediterranean. There is, especially in Wales and in the west central counties of England, a large substratum of ancient Mediterranean blood, but the later coming Nordic elements are everywhere imposed upon it.

    Scotland is by race Anglian in the south and Norse in the Highlands, with underlying Goidelic and Brythonic elements which are exceedingly hard to identify.

    The Nordic species of man in his various races, but chiefly Teutonic, made Gaul the land of the Franks, and made Britain the land of the Angles, and the Englishmen who built the British Empire and founded America were of the Nordic and not of the Mediterranean type.

    One of the most vigorous Nordic elements in France, England, and America was contributed by the Normans, and its influence on the development of these countries cannot be ignored. The descendants of the Danish and Norse Vikings who settled in Normandy as Teutonic-speaking heathen, and who as Normans crossed over to Saxon England and conquered it in 1066, are among the finest and noblest examples of the Nordic race. Their only rivals in these characters were the early Goths.

    This Norman strain, while purely Nordic, seems to have been radically different in its mental makeup, and to some extent in its physical detail, from the Saxons of England, and also from the kindred Scandinavians on the continent.

    The Normans seem to have been "fine race," to use a French idiom, and are often characterized by a tall, slender figure, proud bearing and clearly marked features of classic Greek regularity. The type is seldom extremely blond, and is often dark. These Latinized Vikings were and are animated by a restless and nomadic energy and by a fierce aggressiveness. They played a brilliant role during the twelfth and following centuries, but later on the continent this strain ran out. The type is still very common among the English of good families, and especially among hunters, explorers, navigators, adventurers, and officers of the lesser ranks in the British army. These latter-day Normans are natural rulers and administrators, and it is to this type that England largely owes her extraordinary ability to govern justly and firmly the lower races. This Norman blood occurs often among the native Americans, but with the changing social conditions and the filling up of the waste places of the earth, it is doomed to a speedy extinction.

    The invasion of the Normans strengthened the Nordic and not the Mediterranean elements in the British Isles, but the connection once established with France, especially with Aquitaine, later introduced from southern France certain brunet elements of Mediterranean affinities.

    The Nordics in England are in these days apparently receding before the little brunet Mediterranean type. The causes of this decline are the same as in France, and the chief loss is through the wastage of blood by war and emigration.

    An extremely potent influence, however, is the transformation of the nation from an agricultural to a manufacturing community. Heavy, healthful work in the fields of northern Europe enables the Nordic type to thrive, but the cramped factory and crowded city quickly weeds him out, while the little brunet Mediterranean can work a spindle, set type, sell ribbons, or push a clerk's pen far better than the big, clumsy, and somewhat heavy Nordic blond, who needs exercise, meat, and air, and cannot live under Ghetto conditions.

    The increase of urban communities at the expense of the countryside is also an important element in the fading of the Nordic type, because the energetic countryman of this blood is more apt to improve his fortunes by moving to the city than the less ambitious Mediterranean. The country villages and the farms are the nurseries of nations, while cities are consumers and seldom producers of men.

    If England has deteriorated, and there are those who think they see indications of such decline, it is due to the lowering proportion of the Nordic blood and the transfer of political power from the vigorous Nordic aristocracy and middle classes to the radical and labor elements, both largely recruited from the Mediterranean type.

    Only in Scandinavia and north Germany does the Nordic race seem to maintain its full vigor in spite of the enormous wastage of three thousand years of swarming forth of its best fighting men.

    Holland and Flanders are purely Teutonic, the Flemings being the descendants of those Franks who did not adopt Latin speech as did their Teutonic kin across the border in Artois and Picardy; and Holland is the ancient Batavia with the Frisian coast lands eastward to old Saxony.

    Denmark, Norway, and Sweden are purely Nordic and yearly contribute swarms of a splendid type of immigrants to America, and are now, as they have been for thousands of years, the nursery and broodland of the master race.

    In mediaeval times the Norse and Danish Vikings sailed not only the waters of the known Atlantic, but ventured westward through the fogs and frozen seas to Iceland, Greenland, and America. Sweden, after sending forth her Goths and other early Teutonic tribes, turned her attention to the shores of the eastern Baltic, colonized the coast of Finland and the Baltic provinces, and supplied as well a strong Scandinavian element to the aristocracy of Russia.

    The coast of Finland is, as a result, Swedish, and the natives of the interior have distinctly Nordic characters with the exception of the skull, which in its roundness shows traces of an ancient Alpine crossing.

    The population of the so-called Baltic provinces of Russia is everywhere Nordic, and their affinities are with Scandinavia and Germany rather than with Slavic Moscovy. The most primitive Aryan languages, namely, Lettish, Lithuanian, and the recently extinct Old Prussian, are found in this neighborhood, and here we are not far from the original Nordic homeland.

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    Chapter 9
    THE NORDIC FATHERLAND

    THE area in Europe where the Nordic race developed, and in which the Aryan languages took their origin, probably included the forest region of eastern Germany, Poland, and Russia, together with the grasslands which stretched from the Ukraine eastward into the steppes south of the Ural. For reasons already explained this area was long isolated from the rest of the world, especially from Asia. When the unity of the Aryan race and of the Aryan language was broken up during the Bronze Age, the early Nordics pushed west along the sandy plains of the north and pressed against and through the Alpine populations of central Europe. They also swept down through Thrace into Greece and Asia Minor, while other large and important groups entered Asia partly through the Caucasus Mountains but in greater strength around the north and east sides of the Caspian-Aral Sea.

    That portion of the Nordic race which continued to inhabit south Russia and grazed their flocks of sheep and herds of horses on the grasslands, were the Scythians of the Greeks, and from these nomad shepherds came the Cimmerians, Persians,

    Sacae, Massagetae, and perhaps the Kassites and Mitanni, and other early Aryan-speaking Nordic invaders of Asia. The descendants of these Nordics are scattered everywhere in Russia, but are now submerged by the later Slavs.

    Well-marked characters of the Nordic race enable us to distinguish it definitely wherever it first appears in history, and we know that all the blondness in the world is derived from this source. When it first enters the Mediterranean world coming from the north, its arrival is everywhere marked by a new and higher civilization. In most cases the contact of the vigorous barbarians with the ancient civilizations created a sudden impulse of life and an outburst of culture as soon as the first destruction wrought by the conquest was repaired.

    In addition to the long continued selection exercised by the severe climatic conditions of the north, and the consequent elimination of ineffectives, all of which affects a race, there is another force at work which concerns the individual as well. The energy developed in the north is not immediately lost when transferred to the softer conditions of existence in the Mediterranean and Indian countries. This energy endures for several generations, and only dies slowly away as the northern blood becomes diluted and the impulse to strive fades.

    The contact of Hellene and Pelasgian caused the blossoming of the ancient civilization of Hellas, just as two thousand years later, when the Nordic invaders of Italy had absorbed the science, art, and literature of Rome, they produced that splendid century we call the Renaissance.

    The chief men of the Cinque Cento were of Nordic, largely Gothic and Lombard, blood, a fact easily recognized by a close inspection of busts or portraits in north Italy. Dante, Raphael, Titian, Michaelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci were all of Nordic type.

    Similar expansions of civilization and organization of empire, followed the incursion of the Nordic Persians into the land of the round skull Medes, and the introduction of Sanskrit into India by the Nordic Sacae who conquered that peninsula. These outbursts of progress, due to the first contact and mixture of two contrasted races, are, however, only transitory and pass with the last lingering trace of Nordic blood.

    In India the blood of these Aryan-speaking invaders has been absorbed by the dark Hindu, and in the final event only their synthetic speech survived.

    The marvelous organization of the Roman state made use of the services of Nordic mercenaries, and kept the Western Empire alive for three centuries after the blood of the ancient Romans had virtually ceased to exist. The date when the population of the Empire had become predominantly of Mediterranean and Oriental blood, due to the introduction of slaves from the east and the wastage of Italian blood in war, coincides with the establishment of the Empire under Augustus, and the last Republican patriots represent the final protest of the old patrician Nordic strain. For the most part they refused to abdicate their right to rule in favor of manumitted slaves and imperial favorites, and fell in battle and sword in hand. The Roman died out but the slaves survived, and their descendants predominate among the south Italians of to-day.

    The Byzantine Empire, from much the same causes, in its turn gradually became less and less European and more and more Oriental until it, too, withered away.

    When these facts are considered the fall of Rome ceases to be a mystery, and the only wonder is that the Roman state lived on after the Romans were extinct, or that the Eastern Empire struggled on so long with an ever fading Greek population. Both in Rome and in Greece only the language of the dominant race survived.

    So entirely had the blood of the Romans vanished in the last days of the Empire that sorry bands of barbarians wandered at will through the desolated provinces. Caesar and his legions would have made short work of these unorganized ban- ditti, but Caesar and his legions had become a memory, although that memory was great enough to inspire in the intruders a certain awe and desire to imitate. Against invaders, however, blood and brawn are more effective than tradition and culture, however noble these may be.

    Early ascetic Christianity played a large part in this decline of the Roman Empire, as it was at the outset the religion of the slave, the meek, and the lowly, while Stoicism was the religion of the strong men of the time. This bias in favor of the weaker elements greatly interfered with their elimination by natural processes, and the fighting force of the empire was gradually undermined. Christianity was in sharp contrast to the worship of tribal deities which preceded it, and tended then, as it does now, to break down class and race distinctions. Such distinctions are absolutely essential to the maintenance of race purity in any community when two or more races live side by side.

    Race feeling may be called prejudice by those whose careers are cramped by it, but it is a natural antipathy which serves to maintain the purity of type. The unfortunate fact that nearly all species of men interbreed freely leaves us no choice in the matter. Either the races must be kept apart by artificial devices of this sort, or else they ultimately amalgamate, and in the offspring the more generalized or lower type prevails.

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