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Thread: Greatest European Country In Terms Of Achievements

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    Quote Originally Posted by Louhi
    : How big were your drinks? :biggrin:
    8 oz of Vodka. 1 can of beer.

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    Senior Member Todesritter's Avatar
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    ... beer sizes, and names of mixed drinks vary between countries.

    You will get strange results from European (non-English) bartenders if you order most drinks common in the US, even if you speak the foreign language, and literally translate the English name ... trust me I know. I asked for 'several shots of vodka' in German, and the poor German bartender, she replied, 'You want me to shoot you with vodka?' ['vodka pure' is the literal way of asking for a shot there]

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    Quote Originally Posted by Todesritter
    ... beer sizes, and names of mixed drinks vary between countries.

    You will get strange results from European (non-English) bartenders if you order most drinks common in the US, even if you speak the foreign language, and literally translate the English name ... trust me I know. I asked for 'several shots of vodka' in German, and the poor German bartender, she replied, 'You want me to shoot you with vodka?' ['vodka pure' is the literal way of asking for a shot there]
    Vodka tastes like ****. You have to mix it. That's when it gets interesting.
    Mixed Vodka is better than pure Vodka. Pure Vodka is clear and bland. You mix it and it becomes exotic refreshing.

    I'll keep that in mind if I ever go to German pub or whatever you call it.

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    Stick to the topic, people...
    Leave behind the weak, we must take the strong in hand:
    Together are the wicked violent forces in command

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    I have to say England.

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    I you consider large alcoholconsumtion as a achievement, Sweden is quite great. 700 pubs in Stockholm during the "freedom" time the city had 70.000 inhabitants then... 1:

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    Quote Originally Posted by Todesritter
    King James Bible an accomplishment? I suppose the German speaking lands were deficient a bible then....?
    Yes, an accomplishment. Read about it, maybe. No, the German speaking lands were not deficient a bible.

    where did the Printing Press that made this English publishing accomplishment possible come from?
    What is your point? Do you think I've simply overlooked this fact, or for some reason neglected to factor it into my analysis? Why?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Northern_Paladin
    What is the greatest European Country in Terms of Achievements?
    Great Britain.
    The Phora

    "There are no principles; there are only events. There is no good and bad, there are only circumstances. The superior man espouses events and circumstances in order to guide them. If there were principles and fixed laws, nations would not change them as we change our shirts and a man can not be expected to be wiser than an entire nation."
    —Honoré de Balzac

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    Quote Originally Posted by jcs
    Why?
    We have had this debate before on The Phora. British achievements in science and technology are overwhelming.
    The Phora

    "There are no principles; there are only events. There is no good and bad, there are only circumstances. The superior man espouses events and circumstances in order to guide them. If there were principles and fixed laws, nations would not change them as we change our shirts and a man can not be expected to be wiser than an entire nation."
    —Honoré de Balzac

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    Quote Originally Posted by jcs
    Industry: yeah.
    Great Britain.
    Science: most great achievements were the product of Germans.
    This is false. Germany lags far behind Britain, France, and America in scientific and technological accomplishments. Germany was a very rural country until well into the 19th century whereas the Industrial Revolution itself began in Britain.
    The English had Newton and...Aside from Newton, Einstein, de Broglie, and Compton, all other great scientific discoveries were German.
    Central Events in Technology

    -400 -- China, Egypt -- First know use of the abacus.

    -270 -- Greece -- Sostrates builds the first known lighthouse, the Pharos of Alexandria.

    -245 -- Levant -- First known glass blowing.

    -200 -- Asia Minor -- First known use of parchment.

    1 -- China -- Chinese engineers invent the sternpost rudder, enabling efficient steering of large vessels.

    100 -- China -- First known use of paper for writing (earlier verisons had been used for packing and other purposes).

    250 -- China -- First gunpowder (date uncertain).

    300 -- China -- First known use of stirrups.

    984 -- China -- Chinese engineers invent locks for canals.

    1045 -- China -- Bi Sheng invents movable type, reinvented by Gutenberg in Germany, 1440.

    1502 -- Germany -- Peter Henlein invents the mainspring in a pocket watch (and invents the pocket watch itself).

    1556 -- Germany -- Georgius Agricola's De re Metallica is for centuries the best text on mining.

    1589 -- England -- William Lee invents the stocking frame, the basis for all subsequent knitting nad lace-making machines.

    1603 -- England -- Hugh Platt discovers coke, essential to steel production.

    1622 -- England -- William Oughtred invents the slide rule by repositioning Gunter's scales.

    1642 -- France -- Blaise Pascal invents a calculating machine, the Pascaline, that can handle up to nin-digit numbers.

    1656 -- Netherlands -- Christiaan Huygens invents the pendulum escapement and thereby invents the pendulum clock.

    1679 -- France -- Denis Papin invents the pressure cooker.

    1690 -- France -- Denis Papin invents the atmospheric engine, pioneering many design principles of the steam engine.

    1693 -- Germany -- Gottfried von Leibniz invents an improved calculator for multiplication and division.

    1698 -- England -- Thomas Savery invents the Miners' Friend, a practical atmospheric steam engine without a piston.

    1699 -- England -- Jethro Tull invents the modern steam drill.

    1709 -- England -- Abraham Darby successfully uses coke in iron smelting.

    1712 -- England -- Thomas Newcomen uses steam to push a piston.

    1731 -- England -- John Hadley invents the reflecting octant, precursor of the modern sextant, which follows in 1757.

    1733 -- England -- John Kay invents flying shuttle, an important step toward automatic weaving.

    1740 -- England -- Benjamin Huntsman develops the crucible method for making homogeneous steel (Sheffield steel), with high tensile strength.

    1742 -- USA -- Benjamin Franklin invents the Franklin stove, a major improving in heating efficiency.

    1750 -- USA -- Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning rod.

    1764 -- England -- James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny, which does the work of 30 spinning wheels.

    1764 -- Scotland -- James Watt invents the condenser, employing latent heat to improve the efficiency of the steam engine, the first of several improvements that create the modern steam engine.

    1765 -- England -- John Harrison completes 40 years of refinement of an accurate ship's chronometer, enabling the determination of longitude and revolutionizing navigational techniques.

    1769 -- England -- Richard Arkwright invents the water frame, a waterwheel driven machine device that powers multiple spinning machines and a foundation of the modern factory system.

    1770 -- England -- Richard Arkwright, Samuel Need, and Jedediah Strutt open a water-driven mill at Cromford, the start of the factory system.

    1776 -- England -- John Wilkinson invents the first precision boring machine, essential for the manafacture of cylinders for steam engines.

    1779 -- England -- Abraham Darby III and John Wilkinson build an all-iron bridge at Coalbrookdale.

    1781 -- Scotland -- Jame Watt invents a governor for a steam engine and uses a sum-and-planet gear to use a steam engine to drive a wheel.

    1782 -- Scotland, England -- James Watt and Jonathan Hornblower invent a double-acting steam engine in which steam is admitted alternatively on both sides of the piston.

    1783 -- France -- L.S. Lenormand, Jean Blanchard, and André Gernerin invent the first parachute capable of carrying a human.

    1783 -- France -- The Montgolfier brothers conduct the first manned flight of a hot air balloon.

    1785 -- France -- Claude Berthollet invents chemical bleach (chlorine and potash).

    1785 -- USA -- Oliver Evans invents an elevator to move grain, automating the process and requiring only two workers.

    1787 -- USA -- John Fitch invents a working steamboat.

    1793 -- USA -- Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, revolutionizing the economics of cotton production.

    1795 -- France -- Nicolas Appert discovers that food can be preserved by heating, leading to the invention of canned food.

    1796 -- Bohemia -- Aloys Senefelder invents lithography.

    1800 -- Italy -- Alessandro Volta invents the voltaic cell, the first battery.

    1804 -- England -- Richard Trevithick uses a locomotive on rails to pull iron from an ironworks to the Glamorgan canal.

    1805 -- France -- Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents punch cards to create patterns with the Jacquard loom, the first nonalphabetic means of storing information.

    1807 -- USA -- Robert Fulton builds the first commercially successful steamboat.

    1814 -- England -- George Stephenson invents a practical steam locomotive.

    1815 -- Scotland -- John McAdam invents the modern paved road.

    1820 -- USA, Scotland -- Cyrus McCormick, Obed Hussey, and Patrick Bell invent independent versions of the mechanical reaper in the course of the decade.

    1822 -- France -- Joseph Niépce creates the first permanent photograph.

    1824 -- England -- Joseph Aspdin invents Portland cement.

    1825 -- England -- Stephenson begins the first rail service using a steam locomotive.

    1831 -- England -- Michael Faraday invents the electric generator.

    1831 -- USA -- Joseph Henry invents a practical electric motor.

    1833 -- England -- Charles Babbage designs an "analtyic engine," programmed by punch cards, that is the conceptual origin of the computer.

    1835 -- USA -- Samuel Colt invents the Colt revolver.

    1836 -- England -- John Daniell invents the Daniell cell, the first modern battery.

    1830 -- USA, England -- William Cooke, Charles Wheatstone, and Samuel Morse independently invent the telegraph in the course of the decade.

    1839 -- England -- William Grove invents the fuel cell, producing electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen.

    1839 -- France -- Louis Daguerre invents the camera and plates that make photography practical.

    1839 -- Scotland -- Kirkpatrick Macmillian invents the first true bicycle.

    1839 -- USA -- Charles Goodyear invents vulcanization, revolutionizing the utility of rubber.

    1841 -- England -- William Fox-Talbot invents a photgraphic negative that permits unlimited paper positives.

    1842 -- England -- John Lawes invents the first chemical fertilizer.

    1843 -- England -- Isambard Brunel builds a propeller-driven, iron, transatlantic liner.

    1843 -- England -- John Lawes founds the Rothamsted Experimental Station for improving agricultural production, introducing rigorous experimental procedures and field trials.

    1844 -- USA -- Samuel Morse creates the first functioning telegraph line, from Washington to Baltimore.

    1845 -- Germany -- Christian Schonbein invents nitrocellulose, or gun cotton.

    1846 -- USA -- Elias Howe invents a two-thread, lock-stich sewing machine.

    1847 -- Italy -- Ascanio Sobrero prepares nitroglycerine.

    1851 -- USA -- Issac Singer invents an improved sewing machine with treadle and lock stitch.

    1852 -- France -- Henri Giffard conducts the first successful flight of a powered airship (a steam powered dirigible).

    1852 -- France -- Jean Foucault invents a gyroscope that can be used as a substitute for a magnetic compass.

    1852 -- USA -- Elisha Otis invents the safety elevator.

    1853 -- England -- Abraham Gesner and James Young invent kerosene.

    1853 -- England -- George Cayley invents a glider that accomplishes the first unpowered, manned flight in a heavier-than-air vehicle.

    1854 -- France, Germany -- Robert Bunsen and Henri St.-Claire Deville develop an electrolytic process for obtaining metallic aluminum from sodium aluminum chloride.

    1856 -- England, USA -- Henry Bessemer and William Kelly invent the Bessemer process for manafacturing steel.

    1856 -- England -- William Perkin invents a synthetic dye (mauve), founding the synthetic organic chemical industry.

    1859 -- France -- Gaston Planté invents the rechargable storage battery.

    1859 -- USA -- Edwin Drake drills the first successful oil well, in Titusville, Pennsylvania.

    1859 -- USA -- George Pullman invents the sleeping car.

    1860 -- France -- Jean Lenoir invents a practical internal combustion engine.

    1861 -- France -- Eugene Meyer and Pierre Michaux invent the chain-driven bicycle.

    1865 -- England -- Alexander Parkes creates laboratory samples of celluloid.

    1865 -- USA -- Linus Yale invents the pin-tumbler cylinder lock.

    1866 -- Sweden -- Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.

    1866 -- USA -- Cyrus Field lays the first successful transatlantic telegraph cable.

    1877 -- France -- Georges Leclanché invents the forerunner of an easily manafacturing dry cell battery.

    1867 -- USA -- Carlos Glidden and Christopher Sholes invent the first commerically practical typewriter.

    1868 -- USA -- George Westinghouse invents an automatic air brake for railroad cars.

    1869 -- Belgium -- Zénobe Gramme and Ernst Siemens develop and manafacture a DC dynamo.

    1869 -- France -- Ferdinand de Lesseps supervises the design and construction of the Suez Canal.

    1869 -- USA -- John Hyatt invents a commerically successful plastic (celluloid).

    1876 -- Germany -- Nikolaus Otto invents the four-stroke cycle basic to modern combustion engines.

    1876 -- USA -- Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray independently invent the telephone.

    1877 -- USA -- Thomas Edison invents the phonograph.

    1878 -- England, USA -- Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan independently invent the carbon filament incandescent bulb.

    1880 -- Herman Hollerith invents the first workable electromechanical calculator, used to automate tabulation of the 1890 U.S. Census.

    1883 -- France -- Louis de Chardonnet invetns the first synthetic fabric, rayon.

    1883 -- USA -- Nikola Tesla invents a motor using alternating current.

    1884 -- England -- Charles Parsons invents a successful steam turbine.

    1884 -- USA -- Lewis Waterman invents the free-flowing fountain pen.

    1884 -- USA -- Ottmar Mergenthaler invents the linotype machine.

    1885 -- Germany -- Carl Benz invents the first true automobile.

    1885 -- USA -- William Stanley invents a transformer for shifting voltage and amperage.

    1886 -- France, USA -- Charles Hall and Pierre Héroult invent an inexpensive method for extracting aluminum.

    1887 -- Scotland -- John Dunolp invents the pneumatic rubber tire.

    1888 -- USA -- George Eastman invents the Kodak camera.

    1889 -- England -- Frederick Abel and James Dewar invent cordite, leading to smokeless gunpowder.

    1889 -- USA -- Thomas Edison invents the motion picture camera.

    1891 -- USA -- Edward Acheson invents carborundum, the first industrial abrasive.

    1892 -- Germany -- Rudolf Diesel invents the diesel engine.

    1900 -- Germany -- Ferdinand Zeppelin begins the first airline, using rigid airships.

    1901 -- Italy -- Guglielmo Marconi broadcasts radio waves from England to Newfoundland.

    1903 -- USA -- The Wright Brother's airplane achieves the first successful powered flight by a heavier-than-air machine.

    1904 -- USA -- John Fleming invents the rectifier, the first radio tube.

    1906 -- USA -- Lee De Forest invents the amplifier vacuum tube.

    1908 -- Germany -- Fritz Haber invents a process, later perfected by Carl Bosch, for mass production of nitrates, which in turn permits mass production of fertilizers (and explosives).

    1908 -- USA -- Henry Ford invents the assembly line.

    1909 -- USA, Scotland -- Leo Baekeland and James Swingburne independently invent a thermosetting plastic.

    1911 -- Switzerland -- Jacques Brandenberge invents cellophane.

    1911 -- USA, Germany -- Elmer Sperry and Hermann Anschutz-Kampfer independently invent the gyrocompass.

    1911 -- USA -- Charles Kettering invents an electric starter for cars.

    1912 -- Germany -- Friedrich Bergius invents a process of produce gasoline from coal hydrogenation.

    1914 -- USA -- The Panama Canal is completed.

    1917 -- USA -- Clarence Birdseye and Charles Seabrook invent a technique for quick-freezing foods, founding the frozen food industry.

    1918 -- USA -- Edwin Armstrong invents the superheterodyne receiver, making home radio receivers possible.

    1921 -- USA -- Thomas Midgley, Jr., invents tetraethyl lead, an anti-knock compound for gasoline.

    1932 -- USA -- Vladimir Zworykin invents the iconoscope, the precursor of the television tube.

    1926 -- USA -- Robert Goddard invent the liquid-fuel rocket.

    1926 -- USA -- Samuel Warner introduces a motion picture system that integrates sound into film.

    1927 -- USA -- Charles Lindbergh pilots the first nonstop flight from the United States to continental Europe.

    1929 -- Germany -- Fritz Pfleumer invents magnetic recording of sound.

    1929 -- USA -- Edwin Armstrong invents frequency modulation (FM), a method of transmitting radio waves without static; perfected in 1933.

    1930 -- England -- Frank Whittle invents the jet engine.

    1930 -- USA -- Thomas Midgley, Jr., discovers freon, the refrigerant.

    1930 -- USA -- Vannevar Bush invents a machine capable of solving differential equations.

    1931 -- USA -- Wallace Carothers invents nylon.

    1932 -- USA -- Edwin Land invents a synthetic substance that will polarize light, leading to the first synthetic light-polarizing film.

    1935 -- Scotland -- Robert Watson-Watt invents a way to display radio wave information on a cathode ray tube, enabling the development of radar.

    1936 -- USA, Germany -- Igor Sikorsky and Heinrich Foch independently invent a successful helicopter.

    1938 -- USA -- Roy Plunkett invents Teflon.

    1938 -- USA -- The Biro brothers invent the first workable ballpoint pen.

    1939 -- Germany -- Hans Ohain designs the first successful jet plane.

    1939 -- Switzerland -- Paul Muller discovers the insecticidal properties of DDT.

    1940 -- USA -- George Stibitz invents the Complex Number Calculator, the first machine to service more than one terminal and to be used via a remote location.

    1943 -- France -- Jacques Cousteau and Emile Gagnan invent the aqualung.

    1943 -- USA -- Martin Whitaker and Eugene Wignar lead the construction of the first operational nuclear reactor.

    1945 -- England -- Arthur Clarke conceptualizes the use of satellites for global communication.

    1946 -- USA -- ENIAC, the first entirely electronic computer, developed by John Eckert, John Mauchly, Arthur Burks, and John von Neumann, becomes fully operational.

    1946 -- USA -- Arthur Burks, John von Neumann, and Hermann Goldstine's "Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing Instrument" provides the conceptual foundation for computer development in the coming decades.

    1947 -- USA -- Charles Yeager pilots the first supersonic flight.

    1947 -- USA -- Edwin Land, Howard Rogers, and William McCune invent the Polaroid camera.

    1948 -- USA -- John Bardeen, Walter Houser, and William Shockley invent the transistor.

    1948 -- USA -- Peter Goldmark invents the long-playing record.

    1950 -- England -- Alan Turing creates the Turing test, establishing a criterion for judging artificial intelligence.
    Literature: Shakespeare? I'll trump that with a Goethe.
    I would give an edge to the British in Literature, Germany or Austria in Music, France or Italy in Art, Greece in Philosophy.
    The Phora

    "There are no principles; there are only events. There is no good and bad, there are only circumstances. The superior man espouses events and circumstances in order to guide them. If there were principles and fixed laws, nations would not change them as we change our shirts and a man can not be expected to be wiser than an entire nation."
    —Honoré de Balzac

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