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Thread: Distinct Genetic Profiles for Northern, Southern Europeans Found

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    Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    Source:University of California, Davis - Health SystemDate:September 15, 2006

    Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    An international team of scientists led by researchers at UC Davis Health System has found that, with respect to genetics, modern Europeans fall into two groups: a Northern group and a Southern, or Mediterranean one. The findings, published in the Sept. 14 edition of Public Library of Science Genetics, are important because they provide a method for scientists to take into account European ancestry when looking for genes involved in diseases.

    Until now, little has been known about the distribution of genetic variation in European populations and how much that distribution matters in terms of doing genetic studies,” said Michael Seldin, chair of the Rowe Program in Genetics at UC Davis Health System. “Now we will be able to control for these differences in European populations in our efforts to find genes that cause common diseases.”

    Seldin, who is also a professor of biochemistry and professor of medicine at UC Davis, worked with his colleagues to compare genetic data for 928 individuals. They looked at 5,700 single nucleotide polymorphisms, called SNPs or “snips.” SNPs are changes in which a single base in the DNA differs from the usual base at that position. Millions of SNP's have been cataloged in the human genome. Some SNPs cause diseases, like the one responsible for sickle cell anemia. Other SNPs are normal variations in the genome. People who share ancestry will have many SNPs in common.
    Seldin and his group set out to discover which SNPs among Europeans could account for shared common ancestry. “We saw a clustering of individuals that come from either southern Europe or derived from populations that left southern Europe, or the Mediterranean, in the last 2,000 years,” Seldin said. This allowed the group to identify a set of 400 informative SNP markers that scientists could now use to control for European ancestry when conducting genetic studies of disease, response to drug treatment, or side effects from therapy.

    In addition to future medical applications, the data are also of interest to anthropologists who study historical human migrations. The Southern grouping included individuals from Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, as well as Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews. The Northern group included people with English, Irish, German, Swedish and Ukranian ancestry. These groups correspond to those historically divided by the Pyrenees and Alps mountain ranges.

    With respect to population genetics, previous studies have shown that SNPs correlate broadly with continental ancestry, dividing modern humans into four large groups: Asia, Africa, Oceana, America and continental Europe. The new study gives scientists the evidence they need to further subdivide people with European ancestry into the Northern and Southern groups when looking for SNPs that may be involved in disease.

    To prove this point, the researchers analyzed two sets of data. They looked at SNPs associated with rheumatoid arthritis and found that, when they corrected for ancestry, several of the genes that were previously believed to be good candidates for being involved in the disease were no longer candidates at all. They also corrected for ancestry in a data set looking at lactose intolerance.

    “When we did not control for differences in population structure, we got a lot of false associations,” Seldin explained.

    Seldin and his colleagues will soon be expanding the current European study by looking at 500,000 SNPs. They also have plans for similar studies of other continental populations and for further defining different subpopulations. Seldin said studies of other continents and ethnic groups are necessary if science is to get the most out of the advances made by the Human Genome Project.

    “The ultimate aim of these studies is to be able to better define subgroups and use this information to eliminate false associations, giving us a better chance of finding true associations for disease genes,” Seldin said.
    Other members of the research team include: Russell Shigeta from UC Davis Health System; Pablo Villoslada at the University of Navarra, Pamplone, Spain; Carlo Selmi at the San Paolo School of Medicine at the University of Milan; Jaakko Tuomilehto at the National Public Health Institute in Helsinki, Finland; Gabriel Silva at the Obras Sociales del Hermano Pedro in Antigua, Guatemala; John W. Belmont at Baylor College of Medicine; Lars Klareskog at Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden; and Peter K. Gregersen at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research in Manhassett, New York.

    This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health.



    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0915102320.htm

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    Re: Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    Any comments?

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    Re: Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    Quote Originally Posted by Ivanushka-Supertzar
    The Southern grouping included individuals from Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, as well as Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews. The Northern group included people with English, Irish, German, Swedish and Ukranian ancestry. These groups correspond to those historically divided by the Pyrenees and Alps mountain ranges.
    Important article, thanks for posting this. I love it when science "discovers" things that many people have long suspected, but were unable to prove scientifically.

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    Re: Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    most studies support a west – east division; up contra neolithic, just like the old anthropological material directs to, parts of britain and iberia show strong correlations, just as iberia and western europe as a whole. Plus there is not a change greeks and iberians are more related than the later to the french and the lowlanders

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    Re: Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    Out of curiosity, will this not allow the theory that Nordids are "essentially depigmented Meditteranids" to be put to the test? Or would it be irrelevant?

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    Re: Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    Quote Originally Posted by SineNomine View Post
    Out of curiosity, will this not allow the theory that Nordids are "essentially depigmented Meditteranids" to be put to the test? Or would it be irrelevant?
    europeans gene pool is approximately 80% upper paleolithic and only about 20% neolithic, so gracilization (mediterranoids) happened because of agriculture, first you had the actual immigration (20% of european genotype’s – mostly notable in eastern europe) and latter local adaptation and gracilization as answer on a new way of living in the rest of europe

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    Re: Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    Quote Originally Posted by SineNomine View Post
    Out of curiosity, will this not allow the theory that Nordids are "essentially depigmented Meditteranids" to be put to the test? Or would it be irrelevant?
    Phenotype and genotype are two different things.

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    Re: Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    This helps even more the reorganization of Coon's typological data by McCulloch. The two groups are Meds. (but not Atlanto-Meds.) and everybody else. "Everybody else" are UP survivors, regardless of their sub-sub type (Bruenn, Borreby, Alpine, Nordic, etc.). Coon noted that parents of one of these types could and do have children of another type. This evidence explains how that can happen. Meds are a special adaptation to that southerly enviornment. Or, Meds may have been the original Caucasian with the UP types being part-Neanderthal and those SPNs were selected for in the old, Neanderthal enviornment.

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    Re: Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    Quote Originally Posted by Dr. Solar Wolff View Post
    Meds are a special adaptation to that southerly enviornment. Or, Meds may have been the original Caucasian with the UP types being part-Neanderthal and those SPNs were selected for in the old, Neanderthal enviornment.
    What are Nordids exactly? From what I know, they are leptomorphs, but what is the particular reason for their body type occuring in the North?

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    Re: Distinct Genetic Profiles Found For Northern, Southern Europeans

    So, where am I then? between?

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