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Thread: Population Variation: The Genetic Recipe for a Race of Supermodels

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    Post Population Variation

    The Y chromosome may be a determinant of stature, and some of the differences that have been observed between populations are more pronounced in females than in males. It was therefore suggested that in Latin America, for example, the Y chromosome may come from the European conquerors, while the X chromosome comes from the Amerindian population (Uauy). In North American blacks, 25% of the population is carrying European genetic markers. The difficulty with this idea is that growth is polygenic, determined by many genes on different chromosomes as well as the Y chromosome.

    Reference was then made to the hypothesis of Harrison and his colleagues at Oxford that the variability of height in children may be a measure of environmental stress. Ulijaszek's answer to this was that it may be correct for a sample of children from a large population that is out-breeding, but not if the sample is drawn from a small, inbred population, such as a tribal group. Geneticists use variability as a measure of inbreeding.

    The problem that always arises in discussion of the genetic origin of ethnic differences is that different groups have different diets. Thus the dietary patterns are quite different in Northern and Southern Europe, or at least have been until recently. (The question of possible relationships of individual nutrients to linear growth is discussed below, in relation to the papers of Allen, Neumann & van Dusseldorp.)

    Another possible approach is through correlations between socio-economic status and growth. Such correlations break down in countries where the socio-economic status is rather uniform, as in Scandinavia. These countries have reached an end-stage when the secular trend has come to a stop, and this might reasonably be regarded as a population that has fully expressed its genetic potential for growth. We cannot be certain about the Asian populations, where the secular trend has not yet come to an end.

    Some relevant information may be obtained from studies of migrants. Children who were brought to Norway or Sweden from North Korea or India grew exactly as the Scandinavians, provided that they came before the age of 6 months (Karlberg). On the other hand, Pakistanis in the UK do not show the same convergence to the norm, but this could be attributed to their retaining their original dietary habits. In the UK, in populations of different racial groups, substantial differences in length emerge in the first few months of life (Skuse). This finding recalls the data from Hong Kong presented by Davies at the previous workshop, showing that linear growth diverged significantly from the NCHS standard by about 6 months. The question of whether or not this is a genetic effect remains still open.

    The paper had touched on the appropriateness of the NCHS reference and the inexactness of the centiles. There is also the well-known problem that it is based on two different data sets, overlapping from 2 to 3 years, with a constant difference over that period between the measurements of length and height. A new reference is expected to be available from the USA in 4-5 years, based on a new survey currently being carried out. (One might add that a new reference, if it is to be international, should also take account of the very comprehensive data bases that have been published in various European countries in recent years. Ed.)

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    Post Name every distinct facial feature...

    eyes
    nose
    chin
    forehead
    brows/browridges
    eyebrows
    cheeks
    lips
    ears
    hair texture
    hair color

    who can name them all, I would like to know them all I am bad at naming them

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    Post Re: Name every distinct facial feature...

    Quote Originally Posted by waheed
    eyes
    nose
    chin
    forehead
    brows/browridges
    eyebrows
    cheeks
    lips
    ears
    hair texture
    hair color

    who can name them all, I would like to know them all I am bad at naming them
    If you seriously want a list of anthropometrically relevant traits, why not start with the sticky threads in the Physical Anthropology forum.
    "Whatever is done from love always occurs beyond good and evil." - F. Nietzsche

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    Post Raciology illustrated


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    Post Re: Raciology illustrated

    Interesting picture. Shows the more Dalofaelid character of many idealized Germanics in the propaganda.
    Magna Europa est patria nostra
    STOP GATS! STOP LIBERALISM!

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    Post Nasalance and nasal area values: cross-racial study.

    Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1996 Mar;33(2):143-9.


    Nasalance and nasal area values: cross-racial study.

    Mayo R, Floyd LA, Warren DW, Dalston RM, Mayo CM.

    Speech and Language Services, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 27599-7450, USA.

    Nasometry and nasal cross-sectional area data were obtained from 80 normal male and female speakers (40 African-Americans and 40 white Americans) all of whom were over the age of 18 and spoke the Mid-Atlantic dialect of American English. The nasalance scores for readings of the Zoo Passage did not differ significantly between the groups. However, nasalance scores for readings of the Nasal Sentences were found to be significantly higher among the white speakers. The pressure-flow method was used to obtain nasal cross-sectional area values. There were no racial differences in nasal cross-sectional area. The Nasal Sentences scores were not highly correlated with nasal cross-sectional area. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed.

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    Post Racial Variations in Vision

    Am J Epidemiol. 1981 Jan;113(1):62-80.
    Taylor HR.

    This study determined the distributions of uncorrected visual acuity and of refractive error in representative groups of Australian Aborigines and Australians of European origin aged 20-30 years. The methodology used in this study and its verification are described in detail. As a group, the Aborigines have significantly better visual acuity than the Europeans. This was true for both monocular and binocular vision. Some Aborigines have acuities below the previous postulated threshold levels. Aborigines as a group also have the previous postulated threshold levels. Aborigines as a group also have less myopia--in particular, less high myopia--and less astigmatism than Europeans. The mean refraction for Aborigines is about half a diopter more hypermetropic than that for Europeans, although there is not an excess of high hypermetropia in Aborigines.

    The lack of high refractive errors suggests that the Aborigines may not possess the genes that cause abnormal axial lengths usually associated with high refractive errors in Europeans. The superior vision of the Aborigines persisted, however, when comparing groups which were essentially emmetropic. Therefore, it appears to be a true racial difference which is not explicable on the grounds of variation in refractive error but may result from finer retinal organization or better cerebral integration of visual stimuli.

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    An interesting article that suggests racial difference is genetically quantifiable


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    Re: An interesting article that suggests racial difference is genetically quantifiabl

    They always stick in this garbage, though, on any study that even enters the orbit of Race:

    "Leaders of the study, at Penn State University, warned against interpreting the finding as a discovery of "the race gene." Race is a vaguely defined biological, social and political concept, they noted, and skin color is only part of what race is -- and is not."

    ...ugh.
    "...The moral man is a lower species than the immoral, a weaker species; indeed - he is a type in regard to morality, but not a type in himself; a copy...the measure of his value lies outside him. ... I assess the power of a will by how much resistance, pain, torture it endures and knows how to turn to its advantage; I do not account the evil and painful character of existence a reproach to it, but hope rather that it will one day be more evil and painful than hitherto..." (Nietzsche)

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    Interesting article on an Anglo Indian community

    Scotland on Sunday.March 4th, 2007.


    Little Britain
    BRIJESH PATEL

    NEARLY 75 years ago, as the Indian independence movement continued to ratchet up the pressure on the British government, a small but determined group of Anglo-Indians (the term used to describe people of mixed European and Indian ancestry) sought out a different kind of independence. Led by Ernest Timothy McCluskie, who was part-Scottish, part-Indian, the group journeyed to a remote area of eastern India to inaugurate their very own Eden in the vast subcontinent as it hurtled towards separation from Britain. They were on their way to establishing what would be called McCluskieganj.

    McCluskie, a land and property merchant from Kolkata (Calcutta), was a man of considerable wealth and influence. But as an Anglo-Indian, he had been exposed to discrimination from both the British and the Indians, who resented this mixed-race community who had adopted English as their mother tongue, guaranteeing them jobs in the military and civil service of British India.
    Living.scotsman.com MPU

    In their turn, the Anglo-Indians did not accept their Indian heritage, and had gained a reputation for looking down on 'pure' ethnic Indians. The 1930s were also the time of the Swadeshi movement, which promoted Indian self-sufficiency and a boycott of British products in favour of home-grown goods and services, and the complex dream of a multi-regional, multi-religious Indian identity. There was no place for Indians who wanted to be British.

    McCluskie became convinced that the way forward for the Anglo-Indian community to secure a permanent home and greater acceptance was to separate from the rest of the country and begin life anew. After numerous rejections, the raja of Ratu, a medium-sized principality in the east of India, agreed to sell him 10,000 acres of forested land in Lapra, near Kolkata, in what is now the state of Jharkhand.

    McCluskie sent out 200,000 circulars, calling on Anglo-Indians to come and create an independent home state. He also founded a company, the Colonisation Society of India, which began to sell them land. By the time the British left India in 1947, almost 350 families had established homes there.

    Worried that they were neither British enough to migrate to the UK nor Indian enough to be fully accepted in a newly independent subcontinent, the Anglo-Indians saw McCluskieganj as a place they could finally call home. Amid an idyllic landscape of orchards and gentle hills carpeted with rich forests for hunting, a sweeping stream with crystal waters completed the picture of a new home for the mainly urban Anglo-Indians. They dreamt of becoming farmers, living off the land and building quaint cottages with manicured lawns stretching out from their verandahs, where they would enjoy tea parties reminiscent of their motherland, Britain - a land they had never actually seen.

    In the beginning, the sound of tea parties did indeed echo through the forest, and groups of families in their Sunday best would take picnics down to the banks of the river to enjoy lazy afternoons. The years following independence were harsh, however, and thousands of Anglo-Indian families from all over India were forced to migrate west in search of greater economic prosperity. Many abandoned McCluskieganj, and the loss of its young people was to have a devastating impact on the community - one from which it would never recover.

    Today, the only road connecting McCluskieganj to the state capital, Ranchi, is a dusty track, and local bandits mean that travel after dark is not recommended. McCluskieganj's bakery has closed, while its grocery shops no longer stock the fine ingredients that were staples of Anglo-Indian cuisine. The railway station is being renovated, with a bridge to allow pedestrians to cross over the track. But once you get across, there is only a footpath leading into the forest, where you will find dilapidated cottages , their timber and iron roof beams plundered to be sold on the black market. The Home Counties-inspired gardens are now almost impossible to separate from the encroaching forest.

    For this community, the future is bleaker than for almost any other in India. Crime and poverty are rife, with just a trickle of financial help coming from the government. McCluskieganj does have its own Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), J P Galstaun, who recently reiterated the importance of the community working together to create a more secure future for its children. No one talks about the difficulties of building new roads and improving communication, healthcare (at the moment the village has no doctor) and welfare support, the kinds of investment that might slow the haemorrhage of residents. At the same time, any special treatment that the community receives is always under scrutiny from the non-Anglo-Indians in the area. Favouring a small, disappearing village does not win votes in local elections.

    Besides doing odd jobs, the majority of families have converted their homes to hostels for the students of Don Bosco Academy. This school has been the community's saving grace, but competition to attract lodgers is intense and has resulted in a ruthless battle between friends and neighbours as they attempt to undercut one another.

    Despite the hardship, the beauty that attracted the original settlers to McCluskieganj is still very apparent. Only the shrill whistle of the goods train as it passes the station breaks the silence of the day. It is easy to see why the Anglo-Indians decided to build their homes here. Of those quaint cottages that have survived, some have been bought by prosperous Bengalis from nearby Kolkata as holiday homes or for retirement. They drive here in air-conditioned cars, talking on mobile phones and delighting in the romantic atmosphere of history. But for the 20 Anglo-Indian families who have remained loyal to McCluskieganj, the daily fight for survival makes past glories seem a long time ago.
    The Entrepreneur

    Despite this struggle to survive, there is a willingness among some residents to improve their lives and those of other Anglo-Indians. One is 60-year-old Noel Gordon, an Anglo-Indian with Scottish heritage, whose family struggled in the years before they opened the student hostel for Don Bosco. Gordon spent most of his youth between Ranchi, where he studied and worked, and McCluskieganj, where his parents lived from 1947. He remembers those days with affection, saying, "The birds sounded different and the wind had a different feeling as it blew through McCluskieganj. The people here were polite and innocent - they respected individuals."

    An intrepid entrepreneur, Gordon made the best of what little opportunity was around him when he started the hostel nine years ago. "We didn't even have piped water, so we carried it in buckets from the well to bathe the hostel children. My son was helping in the day-to-day running of the hostel, my wife cleaned the place and my daughter did the cooking."

    Then slowly he expanded his business. He has since built a small guesthouse to accommodate the handful of visitors that come to McCluskieganj from Britain and Australia. It is run by his daughter.

    "I am a lover of nature, so McCluskieganj is the right place for me," says Gordon. Surrounded by his goats, calves, hens, cats and dogs, he talks with a smile about the life he has created for himself and his family, despite knowing that the future of McCluskieganj is not secure for his children. But he believes that hard work can turn things around. He says he wants to tell Anglo-Indians around the world to come and settle in McCluskieganj, to buy land and "save a part of their history from being lost" - even though he understands that one of the settlement's failings is its distance from a major trading market. And there is no swift solution to this.

    Gordon affirms that his identity and the future of his heritage is not just a matter of pride. "This is my motherland, and my identity is Anglo-Indian, but I do not go out of my way to tell everyone. Heritage and identity need to be remembered and carried forward by my children, because without that we will be lost."

    He adds that being an Anglo-Indian does not make you great. "The days of the Raj are no longer here. This is a democratic India now, with no exceptions, and only with hard work and ability will Anglo-Indians get the respect and recognition they want."
    The Farmer

    The world of McCluskieganj has been one of extremes for Catherine Adelaide Texira, a 56-year-old Anglo-Indian with Welsh and English blood. She has lived in the same house since the day she was born, and has seen its many glories disappear due to lack of money for its upkeep. She talks nostalgically about her youth, when "tea parties and fancy dress were a regular occurrence" and "lazy afternoons were spent playing games in the fields".

    Texira's grandfather lost a fortune when the Colonisation Society of India collapsed in 1955, and the family never recovered from this financial disaster. She remembers that the locals were polite in the early years. "It was the newcomers and the outsiders who taught them to look down upon the Anglo-Indians," she says. "Now things are getting worse and worse for us here." Over the past decade, Texira's 11 acres of land have failed to adequately provide for her family. She needs around 2,700 rupees (£31.50) a month to feed herself and her four children. She makes a living selling fruit at the train station and herbs to a local homeopathic doctor. Every year, she runs up debts and then cannot afford to buy fertiliser for her 30 mango trees or to build a fence around the land to prevent stray cows from grazing on the young saplings before they have had a chance to grow.

    She talks with bitterness about the fact that the local Indians are now better off then the Anglo-Indians. Carefully preserved in an old notebook, she has photographs of her family from when she was young. The pictures showing the beautiful young daughter of a comfortable family are a stark contrast to the way she lives today. r
    The Outsider

    Although not an Anglo-Indian by birth, Michael Perkins has certainly become one. Born in 1956 in Kolkata, he was adopted by an Anglo-Indian couple at the age of eight. For him McCluskieganj is a very special place, and he firmly believes that he is "flying the flag" for the remaining members of his adopted family, who live in Britain and Australia.

    Perkins has no illusions when he says that in the coming decades McCluskieganj will become less and less Anglo-Indian. "The strength that the Anglo-Indians have will help them see through the most difficult of times," he says. "The settlement might be dying, but the spirit and identity lives on in other parts of India and around the world."

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