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Thread: Black Holes: The Deadliest Force in the Universe

  1. #11
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    Thank you very much guys, always happy to help. Physics is a hobby of mine now, and i once studied it, so i know a thing or two and i am happy to share said knowledge ^^

    Its both, but more the compression then the friction. You should also know the counterpart of this effect, that gas cools of when it expands, for example when you refill a lighter. If you let the gas flow out it becomes ice cold very quick. Ice spray works also like this (the one dentists use to test if your tooth is still alive for example)
    btw a fridge works with the same 2 principles. Inside the fridge the cooling agent expands and thus cools down, and at the back of the fridge its compressed again, and thus gets warm. Ever felt the backside of a fridge ? It usually gets quite warm ^^

    btw what i forgot to mention, all the heavier elements stem from such novas. After the big bang ONLY helium and hydrogen existed (about 24% helium, the rest hydrogen). All the other elements came from the first generation of stars. I am always fascinated that our whole planet and all the stuff we are made of was born in the death of a star, that shined for a while brighter then a whole galaxy and gave of more energy in a few days then the sun in its whole existence. When the beatles sang:"we are star dust" you can really take that literally. That really blows ones mind, doesn´t it ? Since i am at it :
    Most of the time this reaction only gets up to iron and then stops, only in rare cases the nova is strong enough to also produce heavier elements then iron. That´s the reason all the elements heavier then iron (like gold) are so much more seldom then anything below iron.
    In the year 1054 astronomers around the planet saw a new star at the sky, that was so bright you could even see it by day. Modern day astronomers searched for the source, and found it, its today known as the crab nebula. That thing is 6500 light years away, and was bright enough to be seen by day, and yet it was just a small supernova compared to what else the sky has to offer ^^ Here the wikiarticle on the crab nebula, i find it quite interesting :

    and again, any questions feel free to ask, no matter what it is. Remember, there are no stupid question, the only thing stupid is not to ask at all
    There won't be humans in 500 years. Enough people choke themselves when they jerk off we gave it a name. We ain't a species made to last.

    Judging by it´s name common sense must once have been a pretty common thing. When and why did that change, so it became the rare treasure it is today???

  2. #12

    Scientists find black hole so big it 'should not exist' in Milky Way

    Astronomers have discovered a black hole in the Milky Way so huge that it challenges existing models of how stars evolve.

    An artist illustration of a primitive supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy

    LB-1 is 15,000 light years from Earth and has a mass 70 times greater than the Sun, according to the journal Nature.

    The Milky Way is estimated to contain 100 million stellar black holes but LB-1 is twice as massive as anything scientists thought possible, said Liu Jifeng, a National Astronomical Observatory of China professor who led the research. "Black holes of such mass should not even exist in our galaxy, according to most of the current models of stellar evolution," he added.

    Scientists generally believe that there are two types of black holes.

    The more common stellar black holes - up to 20 times more massive than the Sun - form when the centre of a very big star collapses in on itself.

    Supermassive black holes are at least a million times bigger than the Sun and their origins are uncertain.

    But researchers believed that typical stars in the Milky Way shed most of their gas through stellar winds, preventing the emergence of a black hole the size of LB-1, Mr Liu said. "Now theorists will have to take up the challenge of explaining its formation," he said in a statement.

    Astronomers are still only beginning to grasp "the abundance of black holes and the mechanisms by which they form," David Reitze, a physicist at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) who was not involved in the discovery, said. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory at Caltech, overseen by Mr Reitze, had previously detected ripples in space-time that suggested the possibility of black holes in distant galaxies, that were much bigger than what was thought possible.

    Stellar black holes are usually formed in the aftermath of supernova explosions, a phenomenon that occurs when extremely large stars burn out at the end of their lives. LB-1's large mass falls into a range "known as the 'pair instability gap' where supernovae should not have produced it", Mr Reitze said. "That means that this is a new kind a black hole, formed by another physical mechanism!"

    LB-1 was discovered by an international team of scientists using China's sophisticated LAMOST telescope. Additional images from two of the world's largest optical telescopes - Spain's Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Keck I telescope in the US - confirmed the size of LB-1, which the National Astronomical Observatory of China said was "nothing short of fantastic".

    Scientists have tended to find black holes by detecting the X-rays they emit. But this method has limited usefulness because only a small number of black hole systems where the companion star orbits very close to the black hole would emit detectable X-rays, Mr Liu said at a press conference.

    Instead, the team that discovered LB-1 tracked the movements of "huge numbers of stars over a long period of time", before identifying LB-1 based on the motion of its companion star. This method has been used for decades without much success due to the limitations of the available equipment, Mr Liu added.

    He said the method used to discover LB-1 could help scientists identify many more black holes in the future.

    Scientists find black hole so big it 'should not exist'28 XI 2019.

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