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Thread: The Mediterranean Race in Central Europe, by N.N. Cheboksarov

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    The Mediterranean Race in Central Europe, by N.N. Cheboksarov

    Traces of Mediterraneans on the Rhine and the Danube.

    Notable group variations in the principal anthropological traits are encountered within the confines of the zone where the Central-European complex prevails. Thus, the population of the western half of southern Germany – Baden, Würtemburg and western Bavaria- differs from the typical groups of the Central-European configuration of eastern Bavaria and Franconia. In a direction from east to west, here stature increases markedly (to 169-170 cm), the cephalic index drops (to 82), the face becomes longer and narrower, the percentage of dark hair and eyes rises (to 90% mixed and brown).

    A comparison of the Franconians from Keiperbucht, representatives of the Central-European type, with the Swabians of the Bodensee region (Scheidt), shows that the southwester Germans differ from the south-eastern in the direction of an approximation to the Mediterranean major- race, namely to its “Atlantic” or “North-western” variant, which is lighter and taller than the classic Mediterraneans of the “Ibero-Insular” configuration (Deniker). The same conclusion follows from the analysis of the craniological materials from the present-day population of Franconia collected by Jäger: the more westerly the series the more clearly the Mediterranean features appear –mesodolichocephaly, leptorrhiny, etc. The old data of Ammon permit a like direction in the racial alteration of the group in southern Baden to be established: here in the east are concentrated the more brachycephalic and light elements (Baar – ceph. Ind. 84.8, light eyes 54.9%), in the west more mesocephalic and dark (Constance peninsula of the Bodensee – ceph. Ind. 82.2, light eyes 39.2%).

    The admixture of the Atlanto-Mediterranean element can be discerned among the Badensians of the Alb walley (Breig) and Baar (Fischer), among the Alsatians of the region of Strassburg (Pfitzner), among the inhabitants of the Palatinate (Roth 68). It is very probable that in the entire basin of the middle Rhine from the Bodensee to the mouth of the Main the Central- European elements are strongly mixed with the Atlantic.

    The Atlantic features turn up even more clearly in the population of Switzerland. The representation of this area, based upon old craniological materials, as being the territory of an undisturbed prevalence of the Alpine race, must be abandoned. In the light of recent data of Sclaginhaufen (83, 84) it is clear that in German and French Switzerland (minus the Rhaeto-Italian cantons Graubünden and Ticino) there interact two types: 1) a taller, dark and narrow-headed, concentrated in the western part, and 2) a shorter, light and short-headed, concentrated in the northeast and the center.

    The first type – the Atlantic- is clearly drawn in the Romance canton of Vaud about Lake Geneva (ceph. Ind. 79.9); the second is close to the Central-European, in the German canton Appenzellen-Inner Rhoden in the northeast (ceph. Ind. 82.9). Between these two extreme regions there occur all possible transitional groups, which anthropologically are similar to the above-described Rhine series. To them belong, for instance, the Swiss of canton Schaffhausen (Schwertz), in part those of the cantons Graubünden (Wettstein), Schwyz, Lucerne, Unterwalden, Bern and Aargau (Zbinden). The moderate brachycephaly and more than average stature in all these groups goes along with an intense (on the European scale) pigmentation of hair and eyes.

    The Mediterranean peculiarities are markedly manifest also in the population of southern Tyrol. The analysis I have produced of the old materials of Tappeiner (89,90) and Toldt has shown that the contemporary Tyrolese present a most complicated conglomeration of various racial types, out of which two emerge most distintly:

    1) a light, tall and brachycephalic –Noric or Central-European- and
    2) a dark, short, mesocephalic –Mediterranean.

    The Noric element is most concentrated in the norther German Tyrol (most clearly in the Lech valley on the boundary next the Vorarlberg, and also in the sources of the Drava in the districts of Windisch-Matrei and Linz). The Mediterranean type, which here belongs not to the Atlantic but rather to the Ibero-Insular short variant, is most centered in the south, in the district populated by the Italians (Cheboksarov).

    A definite Mediterranean admixture is traceable, however, also in the German regions, especially where they border on the Italian. It is very noticeable, for instance, in the district of Neumarkt at the sources of the Etsch, where a comparatively moderate cephalic index occurs along with dark color of hair and eyes. It is interesting to remark that in the Tyrol the Mediterranean type links up with heightening of the facial index and the incidence of concave dorsum of nose, while the Noric links up with chamaeprosopy and a prevalence of convex dorsum of nose. The combination of low face and convex nasal dorsum, as we have said above, is characteristic also of the south German light brachycephals of the Central-European configuration.

    A quite obvious Atlanto-Mediterranean admixture occurs among the population of Austria. A comparison of the Austrian investigated by Lebzelter and Brezina with the Franconians of Keiperbucht, who are the most pronounced representatives of the Central-European type, easily establishes the existence between the two groups of significant differences having definite trends. The Austrians are taller (168-179 cm), darker (up to 30% brown eyes) and more dolichocephalic (81-82) than the southern Germans, that is they differ from them in the direction of Atlanto-Mediterranean. The works of Weisbach permit us to mark out on general lines regions of the highest concentration of the Atlantic type, who are disposed, on the one hand, in the northeast around Vienna; on the other hand, in the southwest, in northern Styria and in Carinthia. The new data of Brezina and Wastl on Viennese labourers, and of Keiter on the peasants of the Murau district in Styria confirm the figures of Weisbach; but at the same time they indicate that the Mediterranean element is strongly mixed in Austria with other racial types: Central-European, Dinaric, et al. The anthropological heterogeneity of the Austrians is also bespoken by the materials of Lebzelter from the population of Burgenland, where in separate regions (Mattersberg, Eisenstadt, Neusiedl) the Mediterranean peculiarities occur distinctly, whereas in others there predominate combinations of “Central-European” or “Dinaric” character.

    The Atlantic type, widely spread in Central Europe, in the morphological sense is transitional between the mesocephlas of Southern and Northern Europe; that is, between the Mediterranean in the narrow sense of the word and the northern races. The relatively dark pigmentation brings the representatives of the Atlantic type close to the Mediterranean elements of Spain and southern Italy; the greater stature relates them to the Nordics of Scandinavia. But this kind of link likewise exists in Eastern Europe: here it is known under the name of “Eastern Great-Russian” (Chepurkovsky) or “North-Pontic” complex (Bunak), which prevails among the Russians of the Kuybyshev and Voronezh districts, and also among the Mordvi-Mokshi.

    As early as 1932 Debets showed that to draw a precise line of demarcation between the northern blond narrow-headed Europids and the southern dark ones is very difficult, since between them there is a range of all possible intermediate forms wich yield a graph of continuous distribution in hair and eye-color. In eastern Europe the different variants of the “Pontic” or “Black Sea” race appear as such transitions, while in Western Europe this role is played by the Atlantic elements. In pigmentation, stature and cephalic index the Swiss of the canton Vaud or the Austrian from the environs of Vienna strongly recalls the Russians and the Moksh of the former Penzen Government. The Atlantic and Pontic types are as alike as the Central-European and Valdaian are alike: in both cases we are dealing, in the manifestation in Eastern and Western Europe of analogous raciogenetic processes, with the formation of intermediate links between the dark and the light variants of the European racial stock. The Atlantic-Black Sea sequence reproduces these linkages among the moderately long-headed forms, while the Noric-Valdaian does to among the short-headed.

    The appearance of Mediterranean types in Central-Europe can be explained in two ways. On one hand, it is possible that the Atlantic elements in the population of the basins of the upper Rhine and Danube are ancient, and represent nothing more than the modification of those same longheaded “Crô-Magnards” who serve as the connecting link between the light, matured Nordics and the dark, gracile Mediterraneans. On the other hand, the Atlanto-Mediterranids may have come into the Rhineland and Austria comparatively late, in the Roman epoch, when there were numerous Roman garrisons stationated there.

    However, the two suppositions are not mutually exclusive; both look sufficiently plausible. Whether to accept them both together or to choose between them, must be resolved by further concrete palaeanthropological materials from those regions of Central Europe in which the Mediterranean admixture shows up with greatest clarity.
    "With the miscegenation vary as much the form as the essence of the nations".
    ILSE SCHWIDETZKY, Grundzüge der Völkerbiologie.

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    AW: The Mediterranean race in Central Europe. By N.N. Cheboksarov.

    Excellent article again!

    The Austrians are taller (168-179 cm), darker (up to 30% brown eyes) and more dolichocephalic (81-82) than the southern Germans, that is they differ from them in the direction of Atlanto-Mediterranean.
    Well, in fact thats something I thought about for a longer time already because the problem I saw in Austria as well as in other parts of Central Europe is the difficulty in many individual cases of distinguishing Nordid-Mediterranid from Nordid-Dinarid mixtures if they being long term intermixed and produced something which is in both cases somewhat between what I call Atlantid and Keltic Nordic. Some rather Atlantid looking people have in fact a Dinarid ancestor from which they inherited not much more than the dark pigmentation and slight alterations of the facial morphology.
    But I have little doubts that non-depigmented leptodolichomorphs were practically always present in most parts of Central Europe latest from the Neolithicum on.

    For the Swiss the case is even more clear and under my examples for the Atlantid some Swiss can be seen:
    Magna Europa est patria nostra

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