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Thread: Was Hans Günther right about Iberians?

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    Was Hans Günther right about Iberians?

    `` Portugal would seem, like Spain, to have a predominantly Mediterranean population. There does not seem to be any Alpine blood here. There is a slight mixture of Nordic blood, mainly in the coast towns. On the other hand, the Portuguese seem to be racially distinguished from the more homogeneous Mediterranean Spaniards by a heavier strain of that Negro blood which is recognizable, too, in Spain.11 Is this Negro strain to be referred only in greater part to a mixture brought about in the Portuguese African colonies; and have we to do here also with a Negro palaeolithic remnant driven into the extreme south-west? In any case the importation of black slaves into Portugal was formerly very heavy, and the Moorish dominion brought into Portugal, as it did into Spain, much 'African' blood, mainly of the Oriental, Hither Asiatic, and Negro races. ``

    11 This strain is so strong in Portugal that the natives of East Africa look on the Portuguese almost as belonging to themselves, and respect them much less than other Europeans. If the Swahili, for instance, wish to designate the whole of the European nations, they say 'the Europeans and the Portuguese.'

    THE RACIAL ELEMENTS OF EUROPEAN HISTORY, By Hans F.K. Günther, 1927

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    Re: Was Günter right about Iberians?

    ``(...) testifies to the existence of contact between the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa prior to the Moorish occupation``

    ----------------------------------------------------

    Insights into the "isolation" of the Basques: mtDNA lineages from the historical site of Aldaieta (6th-7th centuries AD).

    Alzualde A, Izagirre N, Alonso S, Alonso A, Albarran C, Azkarate A, de la Rua C.

    Genetika, Antropologia Fisikoa, eta Animali Fisiologia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 48080 Bilbo, Spain.

    We analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVR-I) sequence variability of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of individuals buried at Aldaieta (6th-7th centuries AD) in order to find out more about the biosocial implications of this cemetery. The results, fully authenticated by means of diverse criteria (analysis of duplicates, replication in an independent laboratory, quantification of target DNA, and sequencing and cloning of polymerase chain reaction products), suggest that Aldaieta largely consists of autochthonous individuals who shared common funereal customs with the late Ancient North Pyrenean cemeteries of Western Europe (the Reihengraberfelder), a cultural influence possibly accompanied by a certain genetic flow. Furthermore, the distribution of mtDNA lineages in the cemetery highlighted the existence of a significant number of family relationships, supporting the belief that it was a stable settlement and not a group that had haphazardly settled in the area. Finally, this paper stresses the importance of ancient DNA data for reconstructing the biological history of human populations, rendering it possible to verify certain hypotheses based solely on current population data. The presence at Aldaieta of an mtDNA lineage originating in Northwest Africa testifies to the existence of contact between the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa prior to the Moorish occupation. Both this latter discovery and the high frequency of haplogroup J at the Aldaieta cemetery raise questions about the generally accepted belief that, since ancient times, the influence of other human groups has been very scarce in the Basque Country. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

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    Re: Was Günter right about Iberians?

    ``African haplogroups were found in all the groups of islands. Therefore the presence of Moorish and African slaves on the islands, as reported in historical sources, is supported by the mtDNA genetic data, especially in the Eastern group``

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    Genetic structure and origin of peopling in the Azores islands (Portugal): the view from mtDNA.

    Santos C, Lima M, Montiel R, Angles N, Pires L, Abade A, Aluja MP.

    Unity of Anthropology, Department BABVE, Faculty of Sciences, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain. Cristina.Santos@uab.es

    The Azores islands (Portugal), uninhabited when discovered by Portuguese navigators in the fifteenth century, are located in the Atlantic Ocean 1500 km from the European mainland. The archipelago is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin that define three geographical groups: Eastern (S. Miguel and Sta. Maria), Central (Terceira, Faial, Pico, Graciosa and S. Jorge) and Western (Flores and Corvo). To improve the genetic characterisation of the Azorean population, and to clarify some aspects related to the history of settlement, a study of mtDNA was conducted in the population of the archipelago. The HVRI region was sequenced and specific RFLPs were screened in 146 samples obtained from unrelated individuals with Azorean ancestry (50 from the Eastern group, 60 from the Central group, and 37 from the Western group). Samples were classified into haplogroups based on the information obtained from both sequencing and RFLP analysis. All the analyses performed support the idea that, in the whole group of islands, the majority of mtDNA lineages originated from the Iberian Peninsula, mainly from Portugal (mainland). However contributions from other European populations, especially from Northern Europe, cannot be disregarded. The values obtained for the various diversity parameters in the Azores archipelago indicate that the Azorean population, as a whole, does not exhibit the typical characteristics of an isolated population. The analysis of genetic data by groups of islands showed that the Western group exhibited particular features. The distribution of haplogroups in the Western group is very atypical, being significantly different from what is observed in the Eastern and Central groups. Furthermore, the diversity values are, in general, lower than those observed in other populations used for comparison. African haplogroups were found in all the groups of islands. Therefore the presence of Moorish and African slaves on the islands, as reported in historical sources, is supported by the mtDNA genetic data, especially in the Eastern group. The presence of Jews in the Central group is also supported by the mtDNA data. Neither historical nor genetic data (phylogeography of mtDNA) supports the idea of a differential settlement history for the Western group; however, it is represented in the phylogenies as an isolated branch. The effect of genetic drift, induced by the reduced population size since peopling occurred, has led to a very atypical distribution of haplogroups/haplotypes in this group of islands. We cannot ignore the influence of biodemographic and genetic processes, namely founder effect, genetic drift, migration, and even recent mutational events in the mtDNA lineages of the Azorean populations. Nevertheless, a great part of the variation in the Azorean mtDNA can be explained by the settlement history.

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    Re: Was Günter right about Iberians?

    ‘’ Haplogroup PN2 was the third in frequency, having been seen in 10% of Brazilians, with even regional distribution. This haplogroup is observed in 50% of the North Africans (Hammer et al. 2000) and in frequencies >29% in Egyptians, Greeks, Italians, and Lebanese (Hammer et al. 1998, 2000). Haplogroup PN2 is a subset of the haplogroup 21 of Zerjal et al. (1999), which has been more extensively studied (haplogroup 21=PN2+AF+M34 from our study). Haplogroup 21 has been shown to have a north-south cline in Portugal, climbing from a frequency of 10.6% in the north to 24.5% in southern Portugal (Pereira et al. 2000). This was interpreted as a footprint of North African invasions, especially of the Moorish conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in the Middle Ages, which lasted almost seven centuries’’

    Source:

    The phylogeography of Brazilian Y-chromosome lineages.

    Carvalho-Silva DR, Santos FR, Rocha J, Pena SD.

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    Re: Was Günter right about Iberians?

    Hum Biol. 2005 Apr;77(2):213-29. Related Articles, Links


    African female heritage in Iberia: a reassessment of mtDNA lineage distribution in present times.

    Pereira L, Cunha C, Alves C, Amorim A.

    IPATIMUP (Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto), R. Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.

    The Iberian peninsula is a peripheral region of Europe in close proximity to Africa. Its inhabitants have an overall mtDNA genetic landscape typical of European background, although with signs of some African influence, whose features we deemed to disclose by analyzing available mtDNA HVRI distributions and new data. We analyzed 1,045 sequences. The most relevant results are the following: (1) North African sequences (haplogroup U6) present an overall frequency of 2.39%, and sub-Saharan sequences reach 3.83%, values that are, in both cases, much higher than those generally observed in Europe; and (2) there is a substantial geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of these lineages (haplogroup L being the most frequent in the south, whereas haplogroup U6 is generally more common in the north). The analysis of the observed diversity within each haplogroup strongly suggests that both were recently introduced (in historical times). Although for haplogroup U6 the documented event that is demographically compatible is the Islamic period (beginning of the 8th century to the end of the 15th century), for haplogroup L the most probable origin is the modern slave trade (mid 15th century to the end of the 18th century). However, the observed geographic structuring for one of the haplogroups does not fit the expected distribution provided by simplistic historical considerations. In fact, although for haplogroup L the north-south increasing frequency is corroborated by historical data, the opposite trend, observed for haplogroup U6, is more difficult to reconcile with the magnitude and time span of the Islamic political and cultural influence, which lasted longer and was more intense in the south. To clarify this conundrum, we need not only a substantial increase in the amount of mtDNA data (particularly for North Africa) but also new historical data and interpretations.

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    Re: Was Günter right about Iberians?

    Ann Hum Genet. 2000 Nov;64(Pt 6):491-506. Related Articles, Links


    Diversity of mtDNA lineages in Portugal: not a genetic edge of European variation.

    Pereira L, Prata MJ, Amorim A.

    Instituto de Patologia e Inmunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Portugal. lpereira@ipatimup.pt

    The analysis of the hypervariable regions I and II of mitochondrial DNA in Portugal showed that this Iberian population presents a higher level of diversity than some neighbouring populations. The classification of the different sequences into haplogroups revealed the presence of all the most important European haplogroups, including those that expanded through Europe in the Palaeolithic, and those whose expansion has occurred during the Neolithic. Additionally a rather distinct African influence was detected in this Portuguese survey, as signalled by the distributions of haplogroups U6 and L, present at higher frequencies than those usually reported in Iberian populations. The geographical distributions of both haplogroups were quite different, with U6 being restricted to North Portugal whereas L was widespread all over the country. This seems to point to different population movements as the main contributors for the two haplogroup introductions. We hypothesise that the recent Black African slave trade could have been the mediator of most of the L sequence inputs, while the population movement associated with the Muslim rule of Iberia has predominantly introduced U6 lineages.

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    Re: Was Günter right about Iberians?


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    Re: Was Günter right about Iberians?

    The presence of similar mtDNA in the Iberian peninsula and in North Africa is not strange, as North Africans share about 66% of European haplogroups in their matriarcal linage (H, V, J, T, U, K).
    I don't understand why so many people talk about the North African U6 haplogroup, when this haplogroup really originated in East Europe, and is found all over Europe, being found at its highest rates in Eastern Europe and in lower rates in Central and Western Europe.

    Refering to Y Chromosome haplogroups, Iberians don't share a significant amount of E3b "North African/Berberic" haplogroup.
    It is found at a rate of 5%-8% in both Spain and Portugal, while it is found at a rate of 70% in North Africa. E3b is even found at higher rates in other European countries, Italy: 10%, Yugoslavia: 10%, Greece: 30%, Bulgaria: 20%, Hungary: 20%, and found at similar rates among Slovakians and Belorusians.

    As far as I know, no Sub-Saharan haplogroups (either in Y Chromosome and mtDNA) has been found among Spaniards.

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    Re: Was Günter right about Iberians?

    Ann Hum Genet. 2004 May;68(Pt 3):222-33.


    Mitochondrial DNA heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers.

    Fadhlaoui-Zid K, Plaza S, Calafell F, Ben Amor M, Comas D, Bennamar El gaaied A.

    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Immunologie et Biotechnologie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Universite Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis, Tunisia.

    Berbers live in groups scattered across North Africa whose origins and genetic relationships with their neighbours are not well established. The first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced in a total of 155 individuals from three Tunisian Berber groups and compared to other North Africans. The mtDNA lineages found belong to a common set of mtDNA haplogroups already described in North Africa. Besides the autochthonous North African U6 haplogroup, a group of L3 lineages characterized by the transition at position 16041 seems to be restricted to North Africans, suggesting that an expansion of this group of lineages took place around 10500 years ago in North Africa, and spread to neighbouring populations. Principal components and the coordinate analyses show that some Berber groups (the Tuareg, the Mozabite, and the Chenini-Douiret) are outliers within the North African genetic landscape. This outlier position is consistent with an isolation process followed by genetic drift in haplotype frequencies, and with the high heterogeneity displayed by Berbers compared to Arab samples as shown in the AMOVA. Despite this Berber heterogeneity, no significant differences were found between Berber and Arab samples, suggesting that the Arabization was mainly a cultural process rather than a demographic replacement.

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