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Thread: Carleton S. Coon on the Racial History of Germany

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    Carleton S. Coon on the Racial History of Germany


    The racial history of Germany is long and complicated, and Germany in its present geographical form (even before the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenlands), has never been a unit in the racial sense. In the political sense its unity dates back only to Frederick the Great and Bismarck; its modern social solidarity only to Hitler. Its Palaeolithic racial history is inseparable from that of the rest of Europe, its Mesolithic history limited to the discovery of the brachycephalic crania of Ofnet and Kaufertsberg, and of the Borreby-type skulls dredged from the Baltic clay and peat. During the Neolithic, racial and cultural influences came to Germany from many quarters; the Michelsberg culture in the Rhineland was a northern Schweinhirtenkultur periphery, while in Saxony and Thuringia Danubian pioneers pushed their clearings to the west. Silesia and north-eastern Germany later became great Corded headquarters, while under the combined Corded and Megalithic tutelage, the "Nordic" culture arose in all of northern Germany, and its influences spread to the Danube. With the arrival of metal, or before it, the Corded people had become important in Saxo-Thuringia, and the Bell Beaker people appeared soon after on the Rhine. Thus before the onset of the Bronze Age the German stage already held a full complement of dramatis personae, some of whom were destined to give curtain calls, and others to be thrust into the wings before the end of the first act.

    The cast included members of the following racial types: a small, low-vaulted Mediterranean of North African provenience, commonest in the upper Rhineland, where it still appears sporadically; the ordinary Danubian Mediterranean, the Megalithic Atlanto-Mediterranean, the Corded, the Borreby, probably the Alpine, and the Bell Beaker Dinaric. Furthermore, a considerable trace of the Brünn race remained in solution in the northwestern part of the country. Before the appearance of the full Bronze Age, the Corded and Danubian elements had taken the center of the stage on the plains, while Dinaric, Borreby, and Alpine brachycephals occupied the northern slopes of the Alps. During the Bronze Age the Corded people became particularly important in Saxo-Thuringia, while Aunjetitz Nordics were the principal people farther east, and the descendants of the Bell Beaker people were in control of the upper Rhine. Eastern Germany, along with much of Poland and parts of Ukraine, became the center of the Urnfields cultures, and at the same time a Nordic center, from which cremation spread in the Late Bronze Age.

    In the early Iron Age Hallstatt Nordics spread into southern Germany; in Württemburg, Bavaria, and the Bavarian Palatinate are many Nordic skulls in association with the brachycephalic crania of the earlier inhabitants. Throughout the Hallstatt Iron Age, however, the highland zone of southern Germany, despite Nordic infusions, clung to its brachycephalic population, although on the plains farther north, pure long heads held complete sway. In the Hallstatt cemeteries of Switzerland, the majority of the crania are brachycephalic, while in Austria, a Hallstatt Nordic nucleus, the mountain regions kept, even at the height of the Hallstatt efflorescence, a strong basic population of Dinaric brachycephals.

    The Kelts, who arose in southwestern Germany and who spread thence during the La Tène Iron Age, may have come originally from the Urnfields country during the Bronze Age, but their acquisition of a round-headed element took place in Germany. The Helvetii, the principal Keltic people of Switzerland, bore the brachycephalic head form of their pre-Keltic predecessors.

    Following the northward movement of some Nordic people in a late Bronze Age or Hallstatt stage of culture, and under Hallstatt inspiration, the Germanic racial and cultural amalgam arose, with its center in Scandinavia, and its southern periphery including the lowlands which stretch from the mouth of the Elbe across to the southern Baltic shore. The Germanic Nordic type which occupied this southern area, and which was well exemplified by the Anglo-Saxons and Frisians, was a combination of ordinary Iron Age Nordics with Brünn and Borreby elements, and with a larger ratio of Corded than the original Nordic formula required. It was a heavier, coarser type than the Nordic which took root in eastern Norway and in central Sweden, but perhaps not at that time quite as much so as that which developed in Western Norway, and which it most closely resembled. We have already studied its closest living representatives in both England and Frisia.

    The Germanic peoples who participated in the Völkerwanderung were divided into two groups, both on the basis of language and on that of chronology; the East Germans, including the Goths, Vandals, Gepidi, and Burgundians, expanded early in the Christian era and moved well beyond modern Germanic borders, and hence do not concern us here. The West Germans, including the Angles, Saxons, Frisians, and the Germans proper, were later to spread and were less theatrical, but produced more lasting results. It was the Germans proper in particular, the Franks, the Chatti, whose descendants are the Hessians, the Bajuvars or Bavarians, the Alemanni, and the Thuringians, who settled most of modern Germany. Those Franks who did not push on to Belgium and France occupied southwestern Germany, the Chatti settled in the modern Hesse, the Alemanni went to Switzerland and Austria, the Bajuvars to Bavaria, the Thuringians to Thuringia and Bohemia. The Germanic settlement of Austria was a complicated process, involving Alemanni, Bajuvars, Lombards (who were West Germans), and Goths, as well as some Huns and Slavs.

    The Chatti and the Thuringians preserved their original Nordic head form for some time in their new territories, but the Bajuvars incorporated a number of indigenous brachycephals into their ethnic body, while the Alemanni, both in Baden and Switzerland, early lost their Germanic racial identity by physical absorption into the previously Keltic-speaking local populations. We have already seen that those Franks who moved to Belgium kept, in Flanders, much of their Nordic character.

    The Slavs, who for a few centuries after their westward expansion occupied much of the lowland country of central and eastern Germany, were at that time dolichocephalic or mesocephalic for the most part, and resembled the earlier Kelts in their usual physical type, while falling into the general Nordic category. For this reason the subsequent brachycephalization of much of this area cannot be attributed, at least wholly, to them.

    The movement of the Saxons southeastward into the present Saxony and onward to the Sudetenlands was a later phenomenon than the Völkerwanderung, but really an extension of it. The same is true of the eastward expansion of Germans beyond Germanic borderlands, which began about the twelfth century. The Drang nach Osten is an ethnic movement of some antiquity, caused by vital demographic forces, and not a modern political affair. The linguistic map of central and eastern Europe is spattered with patches which designate German villages and whole German sections, in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Jugoslavia, Rumania, and the Ukraine, and reaching as far as the Volga German colony on the border of Asia. Place names such as Leipzig, Wisrais, and Neu Danzig give ample evidence that these colonies had their origins in different parts of Germany. These German exiles remain unabsorbed in their new countries, and their fidelity to German speech and German culture presents a difficult political problem.42 In view of the history of Germany, it is not surprising that the modern German people should be divided regionally on a racial basis. Since the only part of the Reich which is old Germanic country is the extreme north-west, one should expect to find early Germanic racial types in the numercal ascendancy in that region alone, but their occurrence as individuals is to be expected everywhere, and is so found. The tremendous slaughtering of Saxons by the Franks, the devastating wars which took place in Gerrmany during the Middle Ages, the Thirty Years War and the Hundred Years War, the campaigns of the Swedes and of Napoleon, the contant drainage of German manpower as mercenaries in armies far afield, have, when added together, formed a selective force of great magnitude. In many campaigns whole villages have been destroyed, whole populations massacred and replaced. Germany, especially the German plains, has suffered much from war, and this suffering has given the older elements in the population, those socially least affected by war in the sense of survival, till opportunity to reëmerge, an opportunity of which they have availed themselves. The temporary ascendancy of North German Nordics in most of Germany during the centuries which followed the settlement of the West Germanic tribes was not of long duration.

    The problem of South German brachycephaly is a part of the general racial problem of the Alpine highland region, and cannot be separated from a consideration of the same subject in Switzerland and Austria. Cranial collections from Bavaria, from Switzerland, and from the Tyrol all show the same characteristics in varying proportions. All are predominantly if not wholly brachycephalic, with cranial index means ranging rom 82 to 86; all fall metrically into the moderate vault Alpine-Dinaric lass, and all contain both planoccipital and curvoccipital skulls.43 There can be no other interpretation of this material, which covers several thousands of well-documented crania, than that they are the skulls of Alpines and of Dinarics, two variant brachycephalic racial types which formed the predominant population of the Alpine mountain system before the Germanic migrations and which have survived all invasions to which they have been subjected. The series of South German crania of varying date show that this reëmergence has taken place gradually and consistently from the time of the Frankish conversion to Christianity to the present.

    One exception to this rule that the principal cranial types are Alpine and Dinaric is found in a series of skulls of sixteenth to eighteenth century date from various cemeteries in Baden.44 These are brachycephalic, with a mean cranial index of 83, but possess the great cranial length of 189 mm. Other measurements and indices show that these crania are broadfaced and low-orbitted, and belong for the most part to a Borreby category. One will recall that the brachycephaly of this same region during the Bronze Age was also partly of a Borreby type, in mixture with Beaker Dinarics. Baden is on the northwestern periphery of the Alpine world.

    Modern anthropometric research on the living in Germany has taken the form of intensive studies of small, often isolated villages and districts, rather than large, sweeping surveys. Since the villages and districts studied have been selected so as to represent the most varied populations in German, a review of some of the most distinctive will suffice to show the racial character of the principal divisions of the country.45

    Before starting this review, however, it may be advisable to point out that in all parts of Germany the mean cephalic index is 80 or higher, with two exceptions; among the East Frisians already studied, and among the Hessians and the occupants of the eastern bank of the Rhine in Rhenish Prussia as far north as Dusseldoff.46 In both these regions the mean is 79. Along the southern Baltic shore, from Mecklenburg to East Prussia, the mean is 8247, so that no Nordic population in a strict sense may be said to exist there. The lowest cephalic indices in Germany are western in distribution, rather than northern, and are contiguous with the relatively long-headed populations of Flanders and the Netherlands.

    Tall stature is characteristic of most Germans; it is concentrated, however, in the northwestern, western, and southern parts of the country, and is less marked in the center and east. Brünn, Borreby, and Dinaric statures are all tall, and the local form of Alpine, like that of northeastern France, is not short. Moderate statures come largely from eastern European sources. The Germans as a nation are blond or of light-mixed pigmentation. There is a decrease in blondism from north to south, culminating in the mountains of Bavaria where the hair is characteristically dark and the eyes mixed. From the distributional standpoint the most remarkable thing about Germany in a racial sense is the large head size typical of much of the country, and of the north and west in particular.

    The samples studied in northwestern Germany may be divided into two groups, Fehmarn Island48 and all others.49 The island of Fehmarn, lying in the Baltic south of the Danish archipelago, some fifteen miles across the Fehmarn Belt from the Danish island of Laaland, is separated from the Schleswig-Holstein mainland by a narrow sound. The population of Fehmarn is derived from an old Wendish element, dating from the time of the Slavic expansion, to which have been added Low Saxons and immigrants from Dithmars, the southwestern coast of Schleswig-Holstein, just south of North Frisia. There is also without doubt a considerable survival of genetic factors from the pre-Wendish occupants. In modern times the Fehmarn people have been moderately isolated, enough so to have developed and preserved a local type of their own.

    This type, in brief, is the nearest living approximation to the Borreby race of the Mesolithic. The Fehmarners are very tall (173.6 cm.), broad-shouldered, wide-spanned, but at the same time long-legged; their heads are of prodigious size, with a mean length of 194 mm., breadth of 162 mm., and heights of 129 mm. Despite the great length, which exceeds that of long-headed Nordics, the cephalic index mean is 83.6, fully brachycephalic. The face is as large proportionately as the vault; the three principal breadths, minimum frontal, bizygomatic, and bigonial, being respectively 110 mm., 145 mm., and 112 mm. In view of these excessive diameters, the total face height of 122 mm. is relatively short, and the facial index is euryene. The nose is moderately large (56.5 mm. by 35.3 mm.), and the nasal index leptorrhine (62.4). It is safe to predict that no regional population of any numerical size will be found on the continent of Europe which will exceed the cranial and facial dimensions of the Fehmarners.

    Fifty per cent of the Fehmarn males studied were thick-set and heavy-bodied; a lateral or somatic constitutional type is common here. One-fourth of the group has a straight, presumably flattish occiput, despite the great vault length; a planoccipital cranial form is a strong minority trait. Half of the noses have straight or wavy profiles; 30 per cent have convex, and 20 per cent concave. The photographs indicate that heavy brow-ridges and exceptionally sloping foreheads are common.

    The hair is brown as a rule among adults; 54 per cent could be classed as dark brown (Fischer #27, 4-7); the rest are divided between golden and ashen shades of light brown and blond. The hair as a rule darkens steadily throughout life; at the onset of senility, 80 per cent of all non-white hair observed was dark brown, as against 7 per cent at the age of 6 years. By contrast, the eyes are very light; less than 3 per cent have brown or dark-mixed shades (Martin #1-6); 78 per cent have eyes which are pure light or almost entirely so (Martin #13-16). This combination of very light eyes with brown hair is typical of Palaeolithic survivors in northern Europe, rather than of Nordics.

    The Fehmarners, although quite variable individually, cannot readily be divided into distinct sub-types, since the prevailing Borreby strain has permeated the small, endogamous population thoroughly. Correlations indicate the presence in small numbers of a more brachycephalic element characterized by darker eyes than the total group, and by a convex nasal profile; this may be a Bell Beaker Dinaric survival, but if so it is almost completely absorbed. There seems to be little evidence of a classical Nordic type in this large-headed, coarse-featured group; what Nordic blood has entered into the blend has been recombined or bred out.

    The other northwest German groups which have been intensively studied include the Low Saxon farmers living between the mouths of the Weser and the Elbe, the southern Dithmars population which occupies the North Sea coast between the Elbe mouth and North Frisia, the inhabitants of Finkerwarden Island in the Elbe, and the population of the Schwansen district and of the neighborhood of the Schlei, the inlet connecting the city of Schleswig with the Baltic. These four groups are very much alike; they all resemble the Frisians, as described in the last section; they are, however, less dolichocephalic, and fall in general between the Frisians on the one hand and the Fehmarn islanders on the other. They are lighterhaired than the latter, and somewhat smaller in facial breadths. In bodily build they run to less extreme constitutional types, being less frequently thick-set than the Fehmarners. As among the Fehmarners, however, there is a tendency for a shorter-statured, rounder-headed, smaller-headed, darker-pigmented, more frequently concave-nosed and more leptorrhine element to segregate itself. This type, which is Dinaric, may in part have been introduced by general population movements in modern times From South to North Germany. In Schleswig, the farmers tend to a longerlegged, longer-headed type than the fishermen on the Baltic coast who resemble more closely the Fehmarners.

    Northwestern Germany, therefore, from the Dutch border to Denmark and the Baltic, is the home of a medley of racial types in which the Brünn and Borreby races seem most prominent, with the latter concentrated in the island of Fehmarn and among the fishermen of the Baltic shore of Schleswig. The Nordic race was once important here, as was its component the Corded, but both have been largely absorbed into the earlier types, which never yielded ground strongly, even in the time of the early Germanic efflorescence.

    Before turning to South Germany, let us examine two rural populations from central Germany, one from the Vogelberg in Upper Hesse,50 the other from a group of villages inhabited by the so-called Keuperfranken, in Middle Franconia,51 who derive their name from the red marl of the district in which they live, just southwest of Nürenberg.

    The Vogelbergers are tall men, with a mean stature of 169 cm. and at the same time brachycephalic, with a mean cephalic index of 82.8. Their district lies off the edge of the relatively long-headed section of Hesse. In general metrical character, they are intermediate between the northwestern Germans already studied and the people of the southern mountain country.

    Their heads are both long and broad, their vault heights great, and the facial breadths are as great as in most of the North German series with the exception of Fehmarn. In their pigment character they are likewise intermediate. The hair color is for the most part light brown to medium brown, with a high incidence (4 per cent) of red; the beards are said to be very frequently rufous. The eyes are for the most part light-mixed, with 10 per cent of pure browns. The skin is freckled in 15 per cent of all men examined, and among 66 per cent of children; heavy freckling is an infantile character which decreases regularly with age. Here freckles are linked with red hair, and are more often associated with blond hair than with brown. Sixty per cent of the Vogelberg seems to possess blond or light-mixed complexion, while only 9 per cent can be called completely brunet.

    These Vogelbergers belong to a number of different types common elsewhere in Germany. Some of them are apparently standard Nordics, but the heavier, coarser featured types of North Germany are commoner, and there is a strong minority of South German-looking Dinarics. Eighteen per cent of straight occiputs indicates the presence of this group clearly.

    Members of the second central German group, the Keuperfranken of middle Franconia, are shorter, with a mean stature of 166 cm. Their heads are smaller, and their cephalic index higher (mean C. I. = 84.8). Their faces are shorter and narrower; whereas the bizygomatic mean of the Vogelbergers is 143 mm., a dimension suggestive of northern Germany, that of the keuperfranken is 140 mm., more nearly an Alpine or Dinaric dimension. The pigmentation is darker here than in the Vogelberg region, with nearly 20 per cent of brown eyes, and a great majority of dark brown and brown head hair.

    Middle Franconia lies definitely south of the Borreby-Brünn racial frontier; its inhabitants belong mostly to the Alpine and Dinaric races, with many intermediate forms. The Noric type, a blond brachycephal with incipiently Dinaric facial features, seems to be relatively common, and is probably a Nordic brachycephalized through Alpine and Dinaric mixture. A few individuals, not numerous enough to influence the mean of the group statistically, seem to have retained a completely Nordic appearance. These are commoner among the Protestants than the Catholics of the district; the Protestants are taller, longer-headed, narrower-nosed, more frequently convex-nosed, lighter-eyed, and blonder-haired; they are newer in the region than the Catholics, and have not yet been completely modified or absorbed.

    The population of the Alpine borderlands of southern Germany may be studied by reference to three special examples; the farmers from Reichenau Island in Lake Constance, and the nearby mainland villages of Wollmattigen and Dettingen;52 the villagers of Genkingen in the Swabian Alps;53 and Bavarians from Miesbach, some twenty miles south of Munich in Upper Bavaria.54

    The first two of these groups are descendants of the Alemanni and preserve evidence of this ancestry in their dialects and culture. The Lake Constance farmers, representing the westernmost of the South German mountain peoples, have a mean stature of 169 cm., placing them in the same height category as the Vogelbergers, but are somewhat shorter than most of the North Germans. Their heads are moderately long, with a mean length of 189 mm., and a cephalic index of 82, which, while brachycephalic, is low for southern Germany. These people are for the most part dark brown or brown-haired, with a very small minority of hair blondism. Their eye color is predominantly mixed, and pure dark eyes are found in 18 per cent of the group. They are long-faced, with a mean facial index of 91, and the very leptorrhine mean nasal index of 59. They seem to be largely Dinaric, with a minor element of Alpine and a few big, thick-set Borreby-like individuals. The latter may well be remnants of the old pre-Bronze Age populations, or remnants of the North German invasion, more permanent than the accompanying Nordic element.

    While the group just mentioned lives in the Rhine Valley, on a high-road of migration, the Swabians of Genkingen live in an isolated mountain environment. They are almost exclusively Dinaric and Noric, especially the former; there are few individuals who are typically Alpine, and only two men out of 208 investigated were dolichocephalic. Seventy per cent have convex nasal profiles, 48 per cent have steep, flattened or uncurved occiputs. Since the planoccipitals comprise nearly half the group, the Dinaric character of this population is manifest. The more typical Dinarics have pronounced naso-labial folds, heavily built chins, high orbits as shown by a great palpebral opening, and, of course, the expected nasal character. Their stature is above that for the mean of the group, and their body build lean and spare. The relative span of the whole group is 107, the relative sitting height 51.8. The blonder Noric sub-group is not as tall as the more brunet Dinarics proper, and does not show an equal accentuation of nasality and of the accompanying facial features. About 36 per cent of the Genkingen people is estimated to belong to this None class, which is rounder-headed (C. I. = 84.5) than the total population (C. I. = 83.0). Typical Alpines, of intermediate pigmentation, are in the minority, as they are in all Dinaric populations-no Dinaric or Armenoid group has ever been found without them.

    Genkingen was settled by the Alemanni, but before that it was already occupied by a settled population; the Alemanni gave it its name and Germanic character. The Alemanni were Germanic Nordics, as skeletal remains from local graves amply testify. When standard additions to the cranial means are made to allow for soft parts, the restored Alemanni are some 7 mm. longer-headed, 9 mm. narrower-headed, 5 mm. narrower in minimum frontal breath, and 5 mm. narrower-faced than the present Genkingen people. Genkingen is a typical Alemanni street village, with all the houses built along one main thoroughfare; the house type is purely Alemannic, the dialect, the customs, and local cultural peculiarities are typically Alemannic. The Alemanni were established there in the fifth and sixth centuries, and never moved out; no one else has ever moved in, in the sense of an invasion or migration. Yet the means of the Alemanni head and face dimensions barely fall within the ranges of the living population.
    The answer to this apparent enigma lies in three facts, the failure of the Alemanni to exterminate the earlier population, which was presumably of a Keltic Iron Age type, the gradual penetration of new family lines from over the mountains, and the transformation by mixture of Nordics into Norics. At present there are 24 family names in the village; of them, 3 first appeared in the sixteenth century, 8 in the seventeenth, 5 in the eighteenth, 7 in the nineteenth, and 1 in the twentieth. Although some of the names may have been brought from neighboring villages, it is said that most of them came from the south. Since only one-eighth of patrilineal lines present in Genkingen were there before 1600, and since the newcomers were mostly from an Alpine and Dinaric racial center, the problem of the change in head form in southern Germany ceases to be perplexing, especially when one remembers that Genkingen is one of the most conservative, most stable villages of southern Germany. The Nordic element has been partly bred out, partly absorbed, and in absorption it has taken the Noric form, which is actually an element of importance in the population.

    The third group, that of the Upper Bavarian Miesbachers, is descended not from Alemanni, but from Bajuvars. Its history is presumably similar to that of other South German villages. The modern inhabitants are tall, with a mean stature of 170 cm., very brachycephalic, with a mean cephalic index of 85, and of medium head size. Their faces are broader and shorter than those of the modern Alemanni, and their noses less leptorrhine. Dark brown hair is predominant, blond hair is in the small minority, and the eye color is brown in 30 per cent of the group, while the skin color is a brunet-white in over 50 per cent. These people form one of the most brunet populations in Germany.

    These Bavarians are mostly Alpines and Dinarics, with a little Nordic admixture; individually, a number of Atlanto-Mediterranean dolichocephals or mesocephals may be observed. On the whole, the Bavarians are more Alpine, both metrically and morphologically, than most of the population of the eastern Alps; they resemble, in their facial characters, some of the French Alpines more closely than they do the Swiss or Austrians. Southern Bavaria must be considered a minor nucleus of the Alpine race in central Europe.

    In Saxony, Thuringia, and throughout eastern Germany, the racial situation is somewhat different. As an example of a relatively conservative Saxon population, we may study the inhabitants of Questenberg, a village located in an isolated valley of the southern Harz Mountains of Saxony.55
    The Questenbergers have a mean cephalic index of 82.4, which is low for eastern Germany, and the head size is intermediate between that of the South Germans and of those in the northwest. Compared to the southern Germans, these Saxons are very light in skin, hair, and eye color; the predominant hair color is a medium brown while the eyes are mostly pure light or light-mixed, and dark eyes are limited to about 5 per cent. The noses of the Questenbergers are as a rule high and narrow, and frequently convex. These Saxons fall as a group into the Noric racial type; brunet Dinarics are rather uncommon here, as are morphologically typical Alpines. It seems most reasonable to regard these people as the descendants of Iron Age Nordics who have been partially brachycephalized by Alpine and Dinaric admixture.

    Turning farther east to Silesia, we encounter a comparatively new German population. Silesia, overrun by the Slavs, was resettled by German colonists in the thirteenth century, and the colonists were mostly Thuringians and Upper Saxons, with a few from the Upper Rhine country.56 They came from a region which is today largely Noric, Dinaric, and Alpine, but which at the time of their exodus was still considerably Nordic.

    A sample drawn from Friedersdoff in the Sudeten lands of German Silesia may be taken as typical of this eastern German population.57 The stature is only moderate, with a mean of 166 cm.; the head is of Alpine or Dinaric size and definitely smaller than those of North or West Germans, while the cephalic index of 86.5 is hyperbrachycephalic. The facial and upper facial indices are too low for Dinarics, and fall into an Alpine category; the noses, like those of the Bavarians, are usually straight in profile, and only moderately leptorrhine (N. I. = 67). Like the Saxons, these people are not infrequently blond. Medium brown hair is the commonest color; 20 per cent of eyes are brown, while most of the others are light and light-mixed.

    The racial diagnosis of these people shows them to be largely Alpine in type, with a number of brachycephalized Nordics, a few Dinarics, and an important minority of snub-nosed eastern European-looking brachycephals. The presence of these last indicates that in Silesia we have already entered the eastern European racial area.58

    Northeastern Germany, from Mecklenburg over to East Prussia, is a region of great blondism, in which northwestern German types, especially the Borreby, gradually merge into the racial forms found in Lithuania and White Russia. Von Hindenburg, an East Prussian par excellence, was an ideal example of a Borreby-East Baltic combination typical of his own class and country.

    To summarize the data on the physical anthropology of Germany it seems necessary to stress the relative absence of conventional Nordics comparable to those found in eastern Norway, in Sweden, and in England. Such Nordics may be seen almost everywhere in Germany as individuals, but nowhere as a large element in the population. The Northwest Germans represent for the most part a reëmergence of Brünn and Borreby types which have absorbed the Iron Age Nordic group almost completely, as well as the old North German Corded concentration. The southwestern Germans are the most nearly Nordic of all, but have strong Brünn and Borreby accretions. The southern Germans, from southern Baden to eastern Bavaria, are basically Alpine, with strong, often predominant, Dinaric tendencies, and a large purely brunet minority. In central Germany an intermediate condition between the North German and the South German extremes is found. In southeastern Germany, from Saxony to Silesia, while the head form is extremely brachycephalic, the pigmentation is usually light, and the head size small in comparison with the northern and western parts of the country. The racial type which is most characteristic here is the Noric, a blond Dinaric form resulting from a brachycephalization of Iron Age Nordics through direct or indirect Alpine admixture. In Silesia, to the same elements may be added a broad-faced, snub-nosed, brachycephalic strain which we have already observed among Finns and Balts, and which will be studied in further detail in Poland and Russia. The northeastern Germans are for the most part blond brachycephals, varying in type from Borreby to East Baltic, and especially the latter.

    Germany, by and large, is a country in which a variety of pre-Mediterranean racial types have experienced a maximum reëmergence, and in which Mediterranean and Nordic elements have experienced a differential alteration in response to Alpine mixture. In its blended Noric form, the Nordic has survived in greater numbers than the low percentage of the unmixed form would indicate.

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    Re: C.S. Coon: Germany

    42.See Keiter, F., Russlandeutsche Bauern.
    Heanano, A., Die deutschen Bauern des Burgenlandes.
    43. The literature on this subject is exhaustive, and only a few references can be given here. Some of the most important works are:
    Frizzi, E., MAGW, vol.39, 1909, pp. 1-65. KDGA, vol.41,1910, pp.5-8.
    Höfler, M., RAUB, vol.4, 1881, pp.85-97.
    Holl,M., MAGW, vol.14, 1884, pp.77-116; vol.15, 1885, pp.41-76; vol.17, 1887, p.129-152; vol.18, 1888, pp.1-24.
    Mühlmann, W. E., ZFMA, vol.30, 1932, pp. 382-405.
    Pittard, E., REAP, vol.8, 1898, pp.86-94, pp.223-231; vol.9, 1899, p.186; vol.10, 1900, p.136; vol.20, 1910, pp.24-27.
    Pittard, E., and Reverdin, L., ASAG, vol.4, 1920, pp.107-127, 287-330.
    Ranke, J., BAUB, vol.5, 1884, pp.53-205; vol.12, 1897, pp.127-164.
    Reicher, M., ZFMA, vol.15, 1913, pp.421-562.
    Ried, H. A., BAUB, voL 18, 1911, pp.1-112.
    Rutimeyer, L., and His, W., Crania Helvetica.
    Shapiro, H. L., APAM, vol 31, 1929, pp.1-120.
    Tappeiner, F., ZFE, vol.31, 1899, pp.201-236.
    Toldt, C., MAGW, vol.40, 1910, pp.67-100, 197-230.
    Wacker, R., ZFE, vol.44, 1912, pp.437-524.
    Wettstein, E., Zur Anthropologie und Ethnographie des Kreises Dissentis.
    Zuckerkandl, E., MAGW, vol.14, 1884, pp.117-128.

    44. Mûhlmann, W. E., ZFMA, 1932.
    45. Anthropometric research in Germany has been so extensive since the World War that it is impossible to give a complete or even representative bibliography. Perhaps the most notable contribution has been the series of monographs entifled Deutsche Rassenkunde, edited by E. Fischer, and published by Gustav Fischer in Jena. The series was started in 1929; at the time of writing, 16 volumes had appeared.
    46. Huck, M., Anth, vol.29, 1918-19, pp.459-504.
    47. Parsons, F. G., JRAI, vol.49, 1919, pp.20-35; KIenke, W., Die Deutsche und ihrc Nachbarvö1ker.
    48.Saller, K., Die Fehmaraner.
    49. Keiter, F., Schwansen und die Schlei.
    Klenke, W., and Scheidt, W., Niedersachsische Bauern.
    Saller, K., Suderdithmarsische Geestbevolkerung.
    Scheidt,W., and Wriede, H., Die Elbinsel Finkenwärder.

    50. Richter, B., Burkhards und Kaulstoss.
    51. Saller, K., Die Keuperfranken.
    52. Scheidt, W., Alemanische Bauern.
    53. Breig, A., Eine anthropologische Untersuchung einer schwabische Alb.
    54. Ried, H. A., Miesbacher Bevölkerung.
    55. Grau, R., Die Questenberger.
    56. Kienke, W., ZFRK, vol.3, 1936, pp. 56-68.
    57. Göllner, H., Volks- und Rassenkunde der Bevölkerung von Friedersdorf.
    58. See Kienke, ZFRK, 1936.

    Special thanks for the kind folks of SNPA

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    AW: C.S. Coon: Germany

    The racial history of Germany is long and complicated, and Germany in its present geographical form (even before the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenlands), has never been a unit in the racial sense. In the political sense its unity dates back only to Frederick the Great and Bismarck; its modern social solidarity only to Hitler.
    We see, Anthropologists don´t necessarily need profound knowledge of history.
    Tolerance is a proof of distrust in one's own ideals. Friedrich Nietzsche

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