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Thread: Explainations about Montenegrins

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    Cool Explainations about Montenegrins

    Montenegro is a relatively small stretch of land on the west Balkans coast. It's very mountaineous, with many highlands and canyons. The name Montenegro would be best translated as black highlands.





    HISTORY:

    THE EARLY HISTORY
    The Slavic colonization of the Balkan peninsula occurred in two waves. The Montenegrins came in the first wave, in the 6th century, from the region between the Baltic Sea and the present-day city of Hannover, Germany. The Serbs and Croats came in the second wave in the 7th century.

    In the Baltic, the Montenegrins' ancestors lived in an area called Slavia and were known as the Velet and Odobriti tribes. Those tribes longed for the warmer waters of the Mediterranean Sea and settled in the Roman province of Prevalis, where they found the urban Roman settlements of Kotor, Risan, Budva, Bar, Ulcinj and Duklja (which lie within the borders of present-day Montenegro) and also the native Illyrian tribes.

    The Montenegrins were pagans, but through coexistence and assimilation they accepted Christianity from the Romans. They brought with them the name of the old native country Slavia and more than 860 toponyms. Even today there are in the Baltic around 800 settlements, rivers, lakes and mountains with names similar to corresponding places in Montenegro.

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    The following is an excerpt from NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC
    Issue from May 1908.

    The text below about Montenegro is only the excerpt from reportage "Where East Meets West; A Visit to Picturesque Dalmatia, Montenegro and Herzegovina" by Marian Cruger Coffin, from May 1908 edition of National Geographic Magazine.

    [excerpt]

    AN UNCONQUERED RACE

    A land of mountains, apparently without valleys, and almost destitute of vegetation. Montenegro seems to have emerged out of a chaos of the goods to be primeval rib of the world. And, in keeping with the country, is the proud and independent character of this race, who have retreated step by step before the Turk from the fat lands they once held, preferring freedom in their rocky fastnesses to soft living under the yoke of Islam. And it must be remembered to their everlasting credit that they not only remained free when the other Slav peoples as well as the Greeks, Albanian, and Bulgar fell before the power of the Turk, but that they maintained their independence when all Europe, to the gates of Vienna, trembled before the hosts of the Crescent.

    Disembarking at Cattaro (lying baking in the August sun) after a wonderful sail through the tortuous Bocche di Cattaro or "mouths of Cattaro", we took the waiting carriage and started on the climb up the mountain wall to Montenegro or the "Black Mountain". Cattaro is the natural port for Montenegro, but is jealously guarded by Austria, and it was not until we had ascended for more than an hour that we came to the striped black and yellow post that marks the boundary. Our driver stopped to water the horses, to collect his revolver (left at a wayside hut, as it is forbidden to carry weapons over the border), and pointed to his native crags above, saying proudly, "Crnagora". We turned for a last look at the super view spread out below us, the sea shimmering in the distance, and at our feet the land-locked Bocche guarded by the mighty Orjen and the peaks of Herzegovina to the north and west.

    We reached Njegus by the waning light. This our first Montenegrin town was the birthplace of the prince, and is a village with one wide street and small, low stone houses. Wherever there is sufficient space little patches of vegetables are cultivated in a series of stone terraces, built to keep the precious soil from being swept away by the heavy rains. These little garden plats give a curiously checker-board aspect to the valleys and hillsides in contrast to the wastes of rocks above.

    From Njegus we climbed steadily up through the same dreary crags, even more solitary and impressive in the moonlight, and reached the top of the pass (3.500 feet), from which Cettinje can be seen in the daylight. Scarce a trace of habitation was to be seen. We stopped to water the horses at a wayside hut, wild young girls shyly waited on us, than passed a solitary dwelling and heard to the minor wail of the one-stringed gusle (the national musical instrument) and a strong bass voice singing one of the old ballads, probably about the Tzar Lazar and the field of Kosovo, or possibly of doings of the singer's own immediate forefathers in a border fray against the hated Albanians.

    THE CAPITAL OF MONTENEGRO

    The Europe we know is left far behind. We drop suddenly from the complexities of modern life into the peace and simplicity of the patriarchal system, still in force in this strange little state where east and west meet so subtly. Here a man's life is of small account, but he will hold his honor above all earthly price, while the ambition of every boy is to be a warrior and rival the deed of the heroes of old.

    Twenty years ago Cettinje was a collection of hovels. Now it is a clean, neat little town with wide streets and low stone houses roofed with red tile. There are no attempts at architectural decoration - all is plain and bare and seems to have sprung from the very soil of the mountain-locked plain. It has been called a kindergarten capital, and though but a village in size, conducts itself with the importance befitting the center of the country. It boasts a theater and the Prince's very modest palace, while the large, pretentious embassies of Austria and Russia guard opposite ends of the town like two great bloodhounds waiting to pounce on their prey.

    Sights, in the strict sense of the word, there are none, but one may entertain oneself by bargaining in the market with the handsome girls for colored strips of embroidery with which they trim their blouses, chatting with the some one who has a word or two of German or Italian, admiring the medals of the older men gained in the last war with the Turks (proudly shown off by the younger men, the wearers modestly deprecating their own glory), taking a friendly cup of coffee with the tailor who is making one a national costume, or waiting for a glimpse of some member of the royal family to pass by, possibly the Prince himself.

    But the amusement of all other that never palled on us was watching this handsome race airing their finery in the open streets of Cettinje. The national costume seems designed to show of the grace and dignity inherent in even the humblest Montenegrin-crimson and gold sparkle in the sunshine, in dazzling contrast to the somber tints of the encircling mountains, real gold, too, which is elaborately worked in the garment by hand. From the royal family down, the men wear a long, wide-skirted coat of light grey, white, robin's egg blue, or dark green cloth, embroidered in gold, or dark red, open wide in front over a crimson waistcoat heavily decorated in gold, and confined about the waist by a broad sash of plaid silk. The belt is stuck full of weapons, knives, pistols, etc., for our friend considers his toilette incomplete without such accessories, and indeed one's eyes become so accustomed to seeing every man a walking arsenal that on returning to work-a-day Europe people look strangely undressed! Dark blue breeches, baggy to the knee, with the leg either incased in white homespun and low string shoes on the feet, this is thoroughly characteristic, or if the wearer be a bit of a dandy a pair of high black riding boots will be worn instead: a cane for dress occasions and the cocky stiff-brimmed cap complete the costume.

    A tale hangs by the cap. The Montenegrins are a conservative people and, like all the Serbs of the Balkans, look back to the days of the great Serbian Empire when the Slavs held most of the Peninsula. The highest point of glory was reached under Stephen Dushan, 1337-1356, who planned to keep the Turk out of Europe, but who unfortunately died at the height of his career. In 1389 the different Slav peoples made their last united stand under Tzar Lazar Gubijanovich on the plain of Kosovo. The day was at first with Tzar Lazar, but, as usual in the Peninsula, jealousies prevented a concerted action and he was betrayed by his son in law, Vuk Brankovich, who coveted the crown. He deserted to the enemy with 12.000 followers, a frightful slaughter ensued, and the Balkans fell to the invader. This fateful 15th of June is a day of mourning throughout Serb lands and the Montenegrin cap is worn in commemoration - the black is for mourning, and the red-centered crown for the blood shed on the field of Kosovo. A semicircle of gilt braid encloses the Prince's initials H.I., the circle typifying the rainbow of hope that the Turk will be driven from Europe and the great Serbian Empire again established.

    A PROUD AND HANDSOME RACE

    The dress of the women is not so gaudy as that of the men, though very graceful. Like their brothers, they wear the national cap without the gold braid, the married women being distinguished by a black lace veil falling behind. The hair is parted and the mass of heavy braids forms a coronet for the well-carried heads. They wear a soft, silky blouse with open sleeves and trimmed with strips of delicate embroidery, a band of which forms the low collar, then red or black velveteen bolero heavily braided in gold, and over all a semi-fitting, open, sleeveless coat reaching to the knees of the same delicate shades as worn by the men.

    It would be hard to find a handsomer race; the men seldom under six feet, strut about like war lords. Their only business in the life for generations has been to protect their families from Turkish raids when not engaged in actual warfare. Consequently most of the hard works has fallen to the women's share, which they cheerfully perform, often carrying heavy loads, such as great blocks of ice, from the higher mountains down to the towns. Such labor and the hard conditions of life age them early, but when young the girls are really beautiful, with noble, Madonna-like faces; the type is rather mixed in coloring, neither light nor dark. We saw many fine gray eyes and especially noticed a lovely shade of ruddy gold hair.

    Travelling in Montenegro is delightfully simple; there are no trains and only one carriage road in and out of Cettinje: you either go by carriage or you take a pack pony and scramble over the mountain tracks. It is said that Prince Nickola wishes to make Nikshitz his capital, as being more in the center of the principality; the one road from Cettinje connects with it via Podgoritza, but it is doubtful if the scheme will be carried through, as Cettinje is considered by the representatives of the Powers to be the "jumping-off place" and certainly Nikshitz would be much less accessible.

    [end of excerpt]
    Last edited by Awar; Monday, November 3rd, 2003 at 04:39 AM.

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    MEDIEVAL HISTORY

    The thousand-year history of the Montenegrin state begins in the ninth century with the emergence of Duklja, a vassal state of Byzantium. In those formative years, Duklja was ruled by the Vojislavljevic dynasty, the first Montenegrin dynasty. In 1042, at the end of his 25-year rule, King Vojislav won a decisive battle near Bar against Byzantium, and Duklja became independent. Duklja's power and prosperity reached their zenith under King Vojislav's son, King Mihailo (1046-81), and his son King Bodin (1081-1101).

    The territory of Duklja comprised much of the southern Adriatic coast, most of present-day Montenegro, Skadar Lake, the town of Skodra and parts of present-day northern Albania. In the west, it included present-day Herzegovina, with its border about 50 kilometers west of the Neretva River. The people of Duklja "were the oldest ancestors of Montenegrins. That people, in the feudal sense, was a particular mix of Illyrians, Romans and Slavs, synthesized under the name -- the Dukljans." (Dragoje Zivkovic, Istorija crnogorskog naroda, Cetinje, 1989, p.134).


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    MEDIEVAL HISTORY

    After the death of the Serbian tzar Dusan Nemanjic in 1355, his kingdom started to crumble. In Zeta, the new Balsic dynasty --- named after its founder Balsa I --- reasserted Zeta's independence around 1360. The Balsics are mentioned as rulers of Zeta in a letter from the Serbian tzar Uros to Dubrovnik in 1360, and in 1368 documents in Venice refer to the Balsics as "those who became independent from the Serbian ruler." The Balsic dynasty first ruled Lower (southern) Zeta from its seat in Skodra, but later extended its rule to Higher (northern) Zeta. The Balsics were Catholics, which suggests that the strong, even dominant, influence of the Roman Catholic Church in Montenegro continued through the early 15th century.

    Balsa had three sons: Stracimir, Djuradj and Balsa II. Djuradj I, considered the most influential Balsic, enlarged and consolidated Zeta's renewed power and took Prizren (a town in present-day Kosovo). Djuradj I and neighboring rulers were in constant conflict with the Herzegovinian ruler Nikola Altomanovic, who took or laid claims to the territory of their countries. A powerful coalition --- Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic of Serbia, Ban Tvrtko I of Bosnia, King Djuradj I Balsic of Zeta, Prince Nikola Gorjanski and King Ludovik I of Hungary (with non-military support from Dubrovnik) --- defeated Nikola Altomanovic and his army in 1373. Ban Tvrtko and Prince Lazar took most of Altomanovic's land, and the Balsics took the towns of Trebinje, Konavle and Dracevica. Later dispute over these towns led to a war between Djuradj I Balsic and Ban Tvrtko.

    Zeta's consolidated territory included much of the land of the former Duklja and some of southern Raska, but Herzegovina was largely under the control of Altomanovic and then of the Bosnian Ban Tvrtko. So Zeta occupied roughly the southern half of the former state of Duklja. Under the rule of Djuradj I, Zeta was a well-organized state. It had a two-tier court system, a treasury managed by an official well-versed in commerce, and regional officials appointed by the king. The coastal towns, ruled by princes appointed by the king, continued to enjoy their traditional autonomy. Under Djuradj I, Balsic Zeta also had its own currency -- the dinar.

    Following Djuradj's death in 1378, Balsa II, the third son of Balsa I, rose to power. He made an unsuccessful attempt to conquer the town of Kotor. He died in a battle against the Turks in 1385.

    The successor of Balsa II, Djuradj II Balsic (1385-1403), ruled Zeta and northern Albania from his seat in the coastal town of Ulcinium. His mother was Milica Mrnjavcevic, a sister of Prince Vukasin of Serbia. He married Jelena, daughter of Prince Lazar of Serbia. Djuradj II saw parts of his kingdom eroded by local feudal rulers asserting sovereignty over their fiefs, leaving him only a narrow territory around Lake Skadar and his seat in Ulcinium. He was involved in conflict with Ban Tvrtko of Bosnia over Kotor. But in 1389, he set his conflict with Tvrtko aside and sent his troops with Tvrtko's to help Prince Lazar of Serbia meet the Turkish army at the battle of Kosovo.

    In 1403, Djuradj II's 17-year old son, Balsa III, inherited the rule of Zeta. During the early years of his rule, his main advisor was his mother, Jelena, a sister of the then ruler of Serbia, Stefan Lazarevic. Jelena worked hard to strengthen the family bond between Balsa III and his uncle Stefan Lazarevic. During his rule, Balsa III worked to maintain a delicate balance of power in Zeta, which had become a focal point in the struggle for supremacy between the great powers of that time, Turkey and Venice. But over time he strengthened his ties to Raska and his uncle Stefan Lazarevic.

    In 1419, Balsa III launched an unsuccessful war against Venice in an attempt to recapture the coast. In 1421, before his death and under the influence of his mother, Jelena, he passed the rule of Zeta to Stefan Lazarevic, who then passed it to his son, Djuradj Brankovic. This year (1421) marked the end of the Balsic dynasty. The next thirty years were a period of turmoil and rivalry for power in Zeta. From this period emerged the third Montenegrin dynasty, the Djurasevic family of the Crnojevic clan.


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    MEDIEVAL HISTORY
    presence of Ottoman Turks

    The Crnojevic dynasty began with two brothers Djuradj and Ljes (Aleksa) Djurasevic/Crnojevic, from the area around the Mount Lovcen in northern Zeta. But far more important roles in establishing this family's rule in Zeta were played by Stefan Crnojevic (1427-65) and his son Ivan Crnojevic (1465-90). Ivan's son Djuradj Crnojevic (1490-96) was the last ruler from this dynasty. Beginning with the Crnojevic dynasty, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora or Montenegro.

    The Crnojevic dynasty is important in Montenegrin history for at least three reasons.

    First, the dynasty's rule is a historical link between the tradition of the independent states of Duklja and Zeta and the modern history of independent Montenegro. During their rule, the Crnojevics saw the powerful Ottoman armies easily crush all the neighboring countries. Serbia fell after the Kosovo battle in 1389, Bosnia in 1463, and Herzegovina in 1483. To prevent a similar fate for Montenegro, Ivan Crnojevic moved his capital from Zabljak on Lake Skadar into the highland valley of Lovcenski Dolac (precursor to the capital Cetinje) under Mount Lovcen in 1482. This event conventionally marks the beginning of the history of Montenegro and its capital, Cetinje, which was built around the Cetinje monastery.

    Second, throughout the Crnojevic rule Montenegro remained independent, sustaining and extending what Montenegrins regarded as a precious tradition of sovereignty. And while the territory of Montenegro became smaller still relative to the earlier states of Duklja and Zeta, it solidified a national spirit of independence into an exceptional devotion to country and freedom.

    Third, the Crnojevics are responsible for Montenegrins' claim of an unusual primacy in the cultural development of southern Europe: introducing the first printing press in southern Europe and in printing the first books in the region.

    Stefan Crnojevic (1427-65) consolidated his power in Zeta and ruled for 38 years, until 1465. During his rule, he saw neighboring Serbia completely subordinated to Turkey soon after the death of Djuradj Brankovic. Under Stefan Crnojevic, Montenegro comprised the Lovcen area around Cetinje, Rijeka Crnojevica, the valley of the river Zeta and the tribes Bjelopavlici, Pjesivci, Malonsici, Piperi, Hoti and Klimenti. Stefan married Mara, a daughter of a prominent Albanian, Ivan Kastriot, whose son Djerdj Kastriot was better known by his Turkish name, Skenderbeg. In 1455, Stefan entered into an agreement with his ally Venice stipulating that Montenegro would recognize the nominal supremacy of Venice while maintaining its factual independence in virtually every respect. The agreement also stipulated that Montenegro would assist Venice militarily on specific occasions in exchange for an annual provision. But in all other respects, Stefan's rule in Montenegro was undisputed.

    Ivan Crnojevic (1465-90), in contrast to his father, fought Venice in an attempt to capture the town of Kotor. He had some success, gaining increasing support from the local coastal tribes Grbljani and Pastrovici in his quest to assert control of Montenegro over Kotor Bay. But when the Turkish campaign in northern Albania and Bosnia convinced him that the main source of danger to his country was to the East, he sought rapprochement with Venice. He fought with Venice against Turkey in the war between these two countries that ended with the successful defense of Scutari against Ottoman attacks

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    ANTHROPOLOGY

    Coon on Montenegrins:

    The Montenegrins, who are the tallest people in Europe, live on a barren limestone mountain upland, where they, for centuries, succeeded in maintainingn their Christianity and their freedom while surrounded by the Turks. They, like the northern Albanians, preserve their old exogamous clan organization, and their clan loyalties and feuds. They are linguistically Serbs, but there can be no question that they are to a large extent Slavicized Illyrians; the cultural continuity between the two peoples is striking, the only real differences being those of language and religion. Although the Montenegrins are divided geographically into several sections, the racial differences between these are not great, and for the present purpose the Montenegrins will be dealt with as a whole. Where there are regional differences, the Old Montenegrins, who show the most extreme development in typically Montenegrin characters, will be referred to.126

    The mean stature of adult male Montenegrins reaches the figure of 177 cm., and in some districts it rises to 178 cm. The mean weight of a large series whose average age is 40 years is 160 lbs.; hence they are probably the heaviest as well as the tallest people in Europe, being even heavier than the Irish. Although their legs are very long, their trunks are correspondingly high, and a mean relative sitting height of 52 is at least 4 points higher than that for the long-legged Tuareg, who are the only white people of pure Mediterranean origin to approach them in stature. The Montenegrins' mean shoulder breath is 39 cm., and their chests are correspondingly large. The relative span of 101 is extremely low, indicat-ing that their arms are short in proportion to either leg or trunk length. The hands and feet are, as is to be expected, usually of great size. These huge mountaineers are not as a rule slender, leptosome people; they are often thick-set, and are large all over.

    As is to be expected among men of their stature and bulk, the Montenegrins have large heads, but these are not quite as large as those of the somewhat shorter Irish, Icelanders, or Fehmarners. The mean head length is 188 mm., the breadth 160 mm., the auricular height about 128 mm. The cephalic index mean is 85, about the same as for Croatians, Bosnians, and Serbs. The head length, however, is at least 7 mm. greater than that for these other Yugoslavs, excepting the Bosnians, who fill an intermediate position; the head breadth is about 6 mm. greater. The faces are correspondingly large; the minimum frontal mean is 112 mm., the bizygomatic 147 mm., and the bigonial 112 mm. The toal face height, 127 mm. in Old Montenegro, rises to a mean of over 130 mm. in Bida and the northern border tribes; the nose height reaches the remarkable elevation of 61 mm., while the breadth is 36 mm.

    The facial index, in view of the great size of both component diameters, lies at 89 in Old Montenegro, on the border between mesoprosopy and leptoprosopy; it rises to 91 in Brda and the northern border tribes. The upper facial index, 53 in Old Montenegro, has a mean of 55 in the north. The nasal index is hyperleptorrhine, with tribal means ranging between 58 and 60. The widest faces, the shortest faces, and the lowest upper facial indices, as well as the widest foreheads and jaws, are concentrated in the southwest, Old Montenegro. These excesses are not typically Dinaric; they suggest only one possible relationship, and that is with the unreduced Upper Palaeolithic races.

    The Montenegrins are prevailingly dark brown in head hair color; in Old Montenegro some 45 per cent of adult males belong to this class, while 20 per cent are medium brown, and 26 per cent auburn, or brown with a perceptible reddish tinge. The tribesmen of Brda and the northern border are somewhat darker, and show less rufosity. The beards are much lighter than the head hair; among Old Montenegrins 43 per cent are reddish brown, and 8 per cent contain a pure red element; only 17 per cent are dark brown. In Brda golden-brown beards are extremely common, as frequent as 39 per cent; in the northern border tribes, 24 per cent. The rufosity of the Montenegrins, and their tendency to golden blondism, is not only extreme, but is particularly unusual for this part of Europe. It will be recalled that the Serbians, traditionally close relatives of the Montenegrins, are much darker haired, and that the Slavs in general, when blond, favor the ash-blond side of the scale, being almost entirely deficient in rufosity.

    Twenty-five per cent of Old Montenegrins have pure dark eyes, and 10 per cent pure light ones. The pure darks are almost all mixtures between dark brown and light brown shades, while the pure lights are grayish blue. The mixed class, by far the largest, consists of 37 per cent green-brown, 20 per cent blue-brown, and 6 per cent gray-brown. The northern border tribes and BMa are lighter eyed than Old Montenegro, with only 20 per cent of pure darks. On the whole the Montenegrins have lighter eyes than the Serbs, and fully as light as the Slovenes and Croatians. Over 80 per cent have pinkish white unexposed skin color, ranging from von Luschan #3 to 7, 8, and 9; a small minority have skins which are as dark as light brown. About 25 per cent show some freckling, as is to be expected in association with rufosity.

    The head hair is straight or nearly straight among half the Old Montenegrins, wavy among the rest; in the other tribes the ratio of straight runs higher. The beard and body hair are, as a rule, moderate to abundant; the glabrosity of the eastern Slavs rarely appears here. Baldness, either partial or involving the whole crown of the head, is quite common. The eyebrows are as a rule thick, and concurrent in 80 per cent of the group. Exceptionally heavy browridges, rare among other Slavs, are found in about 20 per cent. The eyes are frequently deep set, with a narrow opening between the lids; three men cut of four have external eyefolds. A low orbit, a quite un-Dinaric character, seems frequent.

    The nose again in many cases diverges from a Dinaric standard; deep nasion depressions are common, and the nasal root is often of only moderate height and moderate breadth. The bridge is frequently but by no means always high, and of medium breadth. Among the Old Montenegrins, non-Dinaric nasal characters are commoner than among the other tribal groups. Fifty-two per cent of convex nasal profiles, however, retain the Old Montenegrins as a whole in the Dinaric class; the ratio is higher elsewhere. Fifteen per cent are concave, and 4 per cent definitely snubbed. The tip is of medium thickness in most cases, and inclined downward more frequently than upward. It must be remembered that in this case we are dealing with a series of men whose mean age is 40 years, and that among Dinaric peoples the depression of the nasal tip is a phenomenon of advancing age. On the whole the Montenegrins show a variety of nasal forms: the large hawk-beak for which they are famous is the most common, but alongside it is a large-tipped, low-bridged form which is less frequent but even more characteristic.

    The lips are usually of moderate integumental and slight membranous thickness; eversion is usually slight, and this last feature may be associated with a 25 per cent incidence of the primitive edge-to-edge manner of dental occlusion. Although the malars are rarely prominent in the forward plane, the zygomatic arches frequently jut widely to the side; the gonial angles are of exaggerated prominence in nearly half the group. In the back of the head, occipital protrusion is usually slight to absent; occipital flattening is present in 43 per cent of the Old Montenegrins, and even commoner in some of the other groups. Lambdoidal flattening is even more frequent; few heads show no flattening in either the lanibdoid region or below it.

    The Montenegrins, after a detailed examination, are seen to be far from typical Dinarics in many features; they are too large-bodied, too large-headed, and too broad-faced; their noses are too frequently broad and thick-tipped. They are also far too rufous for the ordinary Dinaric type. Taking the Montenegrins individually, one finds many who do conform to standard Dinaric specifications, but are all taller than most Dinarics elsewhere; there are also some short, thick-set Alpines, and a minority of tall, brunet dolichocephals or near dolichocephals whom we shall also find farther south in Albania. But the Montenegrin of distinctive type, concentrated in Old Montenegro, is a very tall, large-bodied man, with a large, full-vaulted head abbreviated at the rear; his face is very broad, his jaw heavy, his brows overhanging, and his nose large and thick-tipped. It is this type which bears the rufosity in hair color, the freckling, and a tendency to light-mixed eye color. Most of the Montenegrins are intermediate between this type and a more conventional Dinaric.

    The Old Montenegrin type, concentrated in the southwestern mountain fringe of Montenegro, just north of the Lake of Scutari, in the most conservative part of the kingdom culturally, and the ethnic center of the Montenegrin nation, is nothing more nor less than a local unreduced brachycephalized Upper Palaeolithic survival or reemergence, comparable to those found in northern Europe and northern Africa. Its growth to an extreme size is a local specialization, in which selection may have played a part, as well possibly as nutritive factors associated with life on a limestone mountain. Mixture with this Borreby-like type, and a response to the same selective and environmental influences, have elevated the stature of the accompanying Dinaric factor as well. Montenegro is not, therefore, simply a Dinaric nucleus; Montenegro is a Borreby-like or Afalou-like outcropping within a Dinaric nucleus. We know little or nothing of the prehistoric archaeology of Montenegro. So far there is no evidence to prove or disprove the presence of an Upper Palaeolithic European racial strain in this region. How this strain got to Montenegro, far from its other centers of survival, is a problem which cannot be solved without further facts.

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    Quote Originally Posted by AWAR
    ANTHROPOLOGY

    Coon on Montenegrins:

    The Montenegrins, who are the tallest people in Europe, live on a barren limestone mountain upland, where they, for centuries, succeeded in maintainingn their Christianity and their freedom while surrounded by the Turks. They, like the northern Albanians, preserve their old exogamous clan organization, and their clan loyalties and feuds. They are linguistically Serbs, but there can be no question that they are to a large extent Slavicized Illyrians; the cultural continuity between the two peoples is striking, the only real differences being those of language and religion. Although the Montenegrins are divided geographically into several sections, the racial differences between these are not great, and for the present purpose the Montenegrins will be dealt with as a whole.
    Interesting stuff. I skimmed over a bunch of it but I will be sure to read the material more thoroughly when I have some time.

    It appears that Montenegrins, though from the Blakans, have strong "Nordish" elements.

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    Thank you, Awar, for this informative read.

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    I'd love to see a similar thread about Slovenians here. We live so close, but I know very little.

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    Quote Originally Posted by AWAR
    I'd love to see a similar thread about Slovenians here. We live so close, but I know very little.
    I am working on a sticky. You should make a digest, too - terse and informative and we'll make another sticky. In fact, every (Slavic nation in the Vortex) deserves one. The point is that everyone should be able to read the infor they desire, and some are only interested in the most basic data, so a summary would also be welcome.

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