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Thread: Non-European Admixture in Afrikaners?

  1. #31
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    Genetic studies would solve this. One of the questions is how many of these mixes were not accepted into the white population.

    http://africanhistory.about.com/od/s...ikanerGene.htm

    How 'Pure' was the Average Afrikaner?

    The ideology of Apartheid was based on segregation of races, yet if you look at the origins or heritage of the Afrikaner people the ideology is rather ironic. Just how 'pure' was the Afrikaner? Not very if you look closely at historical records.

    An Era of Slavery

    The first documented marriage between European settler and a slave was in 1656 at the Cape. Jan Woutersz married Catherine of Bengal – Jan was a caretaker on Robben Island and the family lived without discrimination in the community.

    In 1664 a Danish soldier, Pieter van Meerhoff, became the first white person to marry a Khoikhoi, Eva. She acted as an unpaid interpreter and intermediary between Jan van Riebeeck, the governor of the Cape Colony, and various Khoikhoi chiefs.

    It was also possible for a non-white to take a white bride. Christoffel Snyman, the son of a freed slave Anthony of Bengal and Catharina of Palicatte, married Marguerite de Savoy. The De Savoys were a prominent Huguenot family in the Cape.

    Such 'mixed' marriages were initially more common amongst soldiers and lower grade Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VOC) officials, but once burghers were allowed to pursue faming for their own account, rather than being directly tied to the VOC, it became more widespread. Senior grade VOC officials tended not to marry in the Cape since they would at some stage be returning home to Holland, where a mixed marriage would be frowned upon, or posted to another colony after a relatively short period. Soldiers and others tended to stay.

    Genealogy of Afrikaners

    Exhaustive research was carried out by Professor JA Heese for his book Die Herkoms van die Afrikaner (The Origins of Afrikaners) published in 1971. Professor Heese studied parish registers and numerous other sources to track down how many European (Dutch and German, mainly) settlers married non-European brides.

    Between 1652 and 1800 over 1200 marriages were performed between white and 'black' or white and 'mixed blood' people. By that figure Professor Heese determined that approximately 7.2% of Afrikaner heritage is non-white. (Similar studies have suggested this might be as much as 10% in reality).

    Professor Heese suggested a genetic mix for the average Afrikaner to be: 35.5% Dutch, 34.4% German, 13.9% French, 7.2% African/Asian/Khoi, 2.6% British, 2.6% Other European, and 3.5% undetermined. Hardly the ancestry you'd expect from such ardent segregationalists.

  2. #32
    Senior Member Soten's Avatar
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    Professor Heese's study seems like a rather poor way of determining non-European ancestry in Afrikaners.

    1,200 marriages took place between Europeans and Africans/Asians. That leaves a lot of questions, most importantly - How many children resulted from these marriages? and Were the children of these marriages absorbed into the European population?

    I think the answer to the second question should be readily apparent by the size of the "Coloured" community in South Africa.

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    Senior Member troepie's Avatar
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    Wow, it really seems you people have no idea what you are talking about. We definitely need to set some reality into these outrages comments. Please, never go into an Afrikaner bar and tell them they are mixed with blacks.

    Race mixing are happening in every country that I know of. There are no races that don’t have people in them that bats for the other side. For some people it is natural and it doesn’t bother them but for most Afrikaners it a non-discussible topic.

    There are races in our country that are mixed and some of them are also with whites. In the early day when the cape colony were established women did came short and the colonists took black woman to be their wives. They eventually formed the Cape Coloureds that are still living in the cape today. It is a lethal combination as these people do show incredible intelligence with black aggression and a domestic violence reputation to back it up with. The Coloureds do get lighter in years passing as it seems that nature have the intension to rectify the mistake.

    Racial mixing do still take place in the country but mostly by people emigrating from other countries. You do get your Afrikaner here and there that do this hideous acts. I simply can’t see how they can do it. First you have to live with the ugliest faces known to the baboon world. Then you have to face the smell that know known cleaning chemical can get rid off. Then there are the intelligence gap, and tribal differences. It just doesn’t seem possible if you are a self respecting intelligent white person.

  4. #34
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    Quote Originally Posted by Soten View Post
    I think the answer to the second question should be readily apparent by the size of the "Coloured" community in South Africa.
    Supposing that 5% to 10% of female mitochondrial DNA in Afrikaners is non-European then it would rarely be obvious in the phenotype, and going on the size of the coloured community is no help.

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    Senior Member Soten's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by OneEnglishNorman View Post
    Supposing that 5% to 10% of female mitochondrial DNA in Afrikaners is non-European then it would rarely be obvious in the phenotype
    Where do you get that information? I didn't see that in your post.

    and going on the size of the coloured community is no help.
    And of even less help would be counting 1,200 inter-racial marriages for 200 years then.

    But surely the coloured community came from somewhere, and that means the number of these inter-racial marriages that produced offspring can be considered more towards creating that community than blending in with the Afrikaner community.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Soten View Post
    Professor Heese's study seems like a rather poor way of determining non-European ancestry in Afrikaners.

    1,200 marriages took place between Europeans and Africans/Asians. That leaves a lot of questions, most importantly - How many children resulted from these marriages? and Were the children of these marriages absorbed into the European population?

    I think the answer to the second question should be readily apparent by the size of the "Coloured" community in South Africa.
    Indeed! What an unscientific way to determine ethnic breakdown. Of course almost all of the mixed marriages were incorporated into the Coloured community. Prof Heese was just one of those left-wing academia who were determined to undermine the white Afrikaner's spirit -- I am sure you all know what we are dealing with here. Like the American academia who want to argue through "evidence" that there is no such thing as race, and the like. Nonsense.

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    This is seemingly the only study online at the moment which says anything about inter-continental admix in Afrikaners.

    http://www.africandna.com/ScienPaper..._Afrikaner.pdf


    Deconstructing Jaco: Genetic Heritage of an Afrikaner

    J. M. Greeff∗

    Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa

    Summary


    It is often assumed that Afrikaners stem from a small number of Dutch immigrants. As a result they should be genetically homogeneous, show founder effects and be rather inbred. By disentangling my own South African pedigree, that is on average 12 generations deep, I try to quantify the genetic heritage of an Afrikaner. As much as 6% of my genes have been contributed by slaves from Africa, Madagascar and India, and a woman from China. This figure compares well to other genetic and genealogical estimates. Seventy three percent of my lineages coalesce into common founders, and I am related in excess of 10 times to 20 founder ancestors (30 times to Willem Schalk van der Merwe). Significant founder effects are thus possible. The overrepresentation of certain founder ancestors is in part explained by the fact that they had more children. This is remarkable given that they lived more than 300 years (or 12 generations) ago. DECONSTRUCT, a new program for pedigree analysis, identified 125 common ancestors in my pedigree. However, these common ancestors are so distant from myself, paths of between 16 and 25 steps in length, that my inbreeding coefficient is not unusually high (f ≈ 0.0019).

    ......

    Given that genealogists could show that as much as 7% of Afrikaner genetic heritage is not of European descent (Heese, 1971), I find it curious that a system such as apartheid worked in South Africa. Seven percent is not a trivial amount, and is equivalent to having slightly more than a great-great-grandparent who was non-European. Since most of this non-European genetic heritage came into the Afrikaner population via female slaves, one would expect that as much as 14% of Afrikaner mitochondrial DNA is not even European. This female bias influx stems from the fact that emigrants were predominantly male, resulting in a male biased sex ratio of adults (Gouws, 1981).

    Similarly, genetic studies also give support for this mixed racial ancestry. Working with a number of blood group gene frequencies, Botha & Pritchard (1972) estimated that between 6–7% admixture between western European and slaves from Africa and the East, and/or Khoikhoi, would be required to explain the allele frequencies. Nurse et al. (1985) listed a number of alleles typical to the Khoisan and Bantu-speaking peoples that are found in low frequencies in Afrikaners (ABO system: Abantu; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: GdA− and GdA; Rhesus: R◦ ; Haemoglobin C).

    ......

    Even though my pedigree is 17% incomplete, the accumulation curves suggest that as few as 7 more founder ancestors remain to be discovered. This is due to the substantial ancestor loss to which I will return below. It does mean that what I have calculated here with regards to my composition is unlikely to change substantially as additional lineages are completed. The fact that my average lineage, including myself, is almost 12 generations long and that the average gene in me is now spending almost its 11th generation on this continent show that, although there are some founder ancestors that immigrated here more recently, most contributions stem from the early immigrants. One may thus expect a fairly close agreement between my composition and the average Afrikaner as calculated by Heese (1971).

    Considering the nationalities of contributors I contain 12% more French genetic heritage than Heese’s calculations (Table 3). This increase is balanced by an 8% loss from German, a 3% loss from other European, and a 1% loss from non-European genetic heritage. The fact that most non-European genetic heritage came into the Afrikaner population via German immigrants (Heese, 2005) probably explains the drop in non-European genetic heritage. However, my high relatedness to the more recent immigrant, Rosalyn van Macao, who contributed 25% of my non-European genetic heritage, ‘reconciled’ this mismatch between my data and that of Heese’s (1971).

    It is not clear if my higher estimate of French contribution is because of a systematic mistake in Heese’s (1970) estimate, or if it is because of a quirkiness in my own ancestry. It seemed to be the case that when a lineage hit the French Huguenots it stayed in this group. It will be interesting to compare the degree of inbreeding of the early generations of Huguenots to the other early immigrants. In the light of the calculations of Heyer et al. (2005) there is an interesting possibility that the cultural inheritance of fitness may have led to a systematic bias in Afrikaners, since Huguenots tended to be more educated and trained than German emigrants who tended to be soldiers. We are currently investigating this hypothesis.

    It is unclear how the 2% contribution by women known only as van die Kaap should be allocated. At least one of them, Maria Bastiaans van die Kaap, carried an M mtDNA haplotype, which suggests an Asian and possibly Indian ancestry (Maca-Meyer et al. 2001). Although more slaves came to the Cape from Madagascar than from Guinea, Guinea contributed almost 5 times more to my gene pool than Madagascar. This is through the fertile contributions of a woman known as Lijsbeth Sanders van die Kaap. From her social associations it is believed that she was from Guinea (Hattingh, 1980). Of the slaves, however, a large number of women from India contributed to my genes.

    My estimate of 6% non-European genetic contribution is in close agreement with genealogical (Heese, 1971) and genetic (Botha & Pritchard, 1972) estimates. I am not aware that this estimate has been validated for any other Afrikaner individual, but it will be interesting if this can be confirmed for more Afrikaners. Presently, most white and black South Africans are equally incredulous at the prospect that Afrikaners have such a rich genetic heritage. Hopefully, with time all South Africans will celebrate the fact that Afrikaners are, and continue to be, a proudly south African concoction.

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    Quote Originally Posted by OneEnglishNorman View Post
    This is seemingly the only study online at the moment which says anything about inter-continental admix in Afrikaners.

    http://www.africandna.com/ScienPaper..._Afrikaner.pdf
    Again, the conclusions this guy jump to have nothing to do with actual genetic testing. Where is the test result, and what markers were identified? mtDNA? Y-line? None!! It brings nothing new to the argument.

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    Senior Member Soten's Avatar
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    The full text of this work should be found: (Botha & Pritchard, 1972)

    That is where he supposedly gets the non-European genetic input percentage.

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    He doesn't go into that much detail. The stated result appears to bear out his known non-European ancestral history.

    This was done by the Human Genomic Diversity and Disease Research Unit, sequencing HVRI and HVRII of the mtDNA and scoring the bi-allelic markers as well as 7 STRs on the Y-chromosome.
    Is around 6% non-European admix really that surprising for a population descended in large part from pioneers.

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