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Thread: Racial History of Egypt

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    Racial History of Egypt

    Racial History of Egypt - Eugen Strouhal
    Taken from "Rassengeschichte der Menschheit - Afrika I: Nord- und Mittelafrika" (1975).

    Just some comments out of the book made by Strouhal who claims possible relative cultural and anthropological continuity in Egypt rather than foreign immigration:

    III. The Oldest Agricultural Populations

    1. Neolithicum:

    Findings from Badari brought 59 skulls, 83 skulls from Mostagedda und partly from Badari. The skulls are small, relatively gracile, predominantely dolichocran, medium- to high faces but relatively broadnosed. They differ from later series by having a high nasal index and in the non-metrical features (BERRY, BERRY, UCKO 1967). Its about prognathy, flat noses and other features in various individuals which could be interpreted as Negrid influences. Body height ranged from 150-180 cm, body build was gracile with weak muscles. Hair was black or dark brown, wavy or simple, but there were 12,2 percent frizzy hair (BRUNTON and CATON-THOMPSON 1928).

    The Sudan was at the same time inhabited by predominantely Negrid fisher, gatherer and hunter cultures (CHAMLA 1968).

    It can be assumed that the agriculture and animal husbandry was brought by a new population from the Middle East to Egypt (HAYES 1964).
    This new growing Neolithic population mostly absorbed the small mesolithic settlers. The immigration could date from the 7th to the 6th thousand B.C., in the beginning of the wet makalic (makalisch) phase. At this time was the Sahara habitable again and Europid population movements from the North met Negrids from the South (TRIGGER 1965). It came to a Negrid infiltration of the Upper Egypt population, but its possible that the specific environmental conditions added to the morphological differentiaton of Upper- and Lower Egypt.

    2. Predynastic Time:

    In conclusion we can say that the development of the Mediterranid type was related to the transition from the hunter-gatherer subsistence to agriculture and animal husbandry in Egypt.

    Its possible to see a local cultural and biological continuity from the original Badari population with stronger Negrid affinities from which the Egyptians evolved away.
    The length and breadth of the skull as well as the facial breadth increased, whereas the height of the skull decreased.
    The profile angle increased and the nose became longer and somewhat broader. The LBI increased and the LHI and BHI, the maxillary index, upper facial index and NI decreased.

    There were brachycran (always at the border to mesocrany) skulls especially in Lower Egypt and it can be discussed whether they were rather "Alpine" or Armenoid. Ferembach claimed that Alpines came up in the Middle East out of Protomediterranean or Mediterranean types (FEREMBACH 1966). They appear there for the first time in the Neolithicum and Chalkolithicum and more numerous in the Bronze Age, whereas "Armenoids" appear first in the Chalkolithicum sporadically (SAUTER 1945).

    The hypothesis could be made that the Egyptian brachycrany developed directly at the border of the Mediterranid range of variation.

    IV. The Populations of the Historical Time Egypts

    The type of the population of Lower Egypt is taller, more robust and appears therefore more virile than the shorter, more gracile and therefore more feminine appearing population of Upper Egypt.

    9. The Question of Negrid Admixture

    Egypt was neither very far away from Negrid areas nor isolated. Egyptians often expanded towards the South for various reasons (business, ressources, slave trade, political expansion etc.) On the other hand attracted the rich country inhabitants of the South in the rich land of the Lower Nile. Its not surprising that even in the primitive times (Badari-Culture) Negrids appear in Egypt (STROUHAL 1971), which numbers decreased later but rose again in the time of the New Empire (JUNKER 1927) and because of the Arabian slave trade. Negrid immigration determined the anthropological history of Nubia. In Egypt itself was the proportion of Negrids much lower, in contrast to the claims of DIOP (1962, 1967) about a predominantely Negrid character of the Old Egyptian civilisation. After the anthropological record we can estimate it about 1 to 5 percent, together with a proportion of mixed individuals.

    Some comments about Nubia:

    4. The Kerma-Culture:

    Negroid and non-Negroid elements were that mixed that they couldnt be separated with the exception of two markedly Negro-skulls.

    5. Pan Graves:

    In the 2nd intervening period appear in Lower Nubia and Upper Egypt flat, pan-alike graves with squatting positions. Its assumed that this are burials of Nubian mercenaries. They have even stronger Negroid admixture than the Group C of Lower Nubia. Their character together with the wide distribution in the South, to the 17th degree of latitude speak for a black African origin.
    EHGARTNER and JUNGWIRTH (1966) pointed to an old Protomediterranid or Eurafrican substratum. This could be rests of the mesolithic groups which are known from the environment of Wadi Halfa (STROUHAL and JUNGWIRTH 1971).

    Strouhal speaks in his overview about the "Negroidisierung" ("Negrisation") of the Nubian population with the exception of the New Empire which was a period of Europoid expansion. The differences between Lower and Upper Egyptians show the tendency to decrease, which might be primarily the result of mixture (S. 50).
    Last edited by Agrippa; Wednesday, November 1st, 2006 at 06:38 PM.
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    Re: Racial History of Egypt

    Some more comments on Egyptians:

    ...it seems that the Europid element of the Egyptians was from the predynastic times on predominantely Mediterranid, though there were Orientalid influences from Arabia.

    The fellahs and Copts of modern Egypt can be considered being the just insignificantly altered descendents of the Egyptians of late dynastic times. (roughly translated from BAKER 1974)

    Race depictions of the Old Egyptians (after E. CHANTRE 1904, from I. SCHWIDETZKY 1979):


    Taken from "Rassengeschichte der Menschheit - Afrika I: Nord- und Mittelafrika" (1975) and added as a supplementation of what I have written above.

    Skulls of Europid and Negrid character:


    The skulls from 7-9 are Badari skulls:
    7 is a male of predominantely Europid character.
    8 a male (?) with Negrid traits
    9 female with Negrid traits

    Skulls from the burial ground of the 4th dynasty in Sakkara (1-3)


    Historical depictions of ancient Egyptian personalities:


    More Egyptian skulls, the first is predominantely Europid, the other two show Negroid features:


    Change of the NI in Egypt over time (with various habitats):


    About North Africans in general:
    http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?p=368960
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    Last edited by Agrippa; Tuesday, January 24th, 2006 at 04:34 PM.
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