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Thread: Mongrelization: New Census Raises Questions on the Future of Race in America

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    Post Mongrelization: New Census Raises Questions on the Future of Race in America

    THE RACE AND ETHNICITY BEAT



    New Census Raises Questions on the Future of Race in America

    By JONATHAN TILOVE
    c.2000 Newhouse News Service

    Rainier Spencer, an assistant professor of Afro-American studies at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas and the author of "Spurious Issues: Race and Multiracial Identity Politics in the United States," says that all racial identity, mono-, mixed- or bi-, is bogus. (Photo by Marc Halevi)


    (UNDATED) Ward Connerly, who describes himself as a roughly equal mix of French Canadian, Choctaw, African and Irish ancestry and who is married to a white woman [She's actually half-Vietnamese, but to a Negro anyone not very dark is "white"; and sadly to a lot of European-Americans and even pro-white racialists, half-Asians and even sometimes full-Asians are "white. LOL], spent much of the last decade campaigning to end race-based affirmative action. Susan Graham, a white woman married to a black man, has spent that same decade working tirelessly as the founder of Project RACE -- Reclassify All Children Equally -- so that her two children and others like them could be counted in official statistics as "multiracial."

    For the first time in American history, respondents to the decennial census are able to identify themselves by as many races as they see fit. The tabulated results will yield 63 different categories and combinations -- or 126 considering that each of those 63 could also be either Hispanic or non-Hispanic. And that does not take into account the limitless possibilities for writing in some race of one's own devising.

    But when the 2000 census is completed, all the folks at both the Connerly and Graham households will be assigned the race of their nearest neighbors. Why? Because both Connerly and Graham, for their own very different reasons, refused to check any of the boxes on the race question.

    As America embarks on a new, more complicated era of racial counting, a look at how some of those close to the issue chose to answer the census race question presents a puzzle: Is this dawning age of mixed-race identities likely to loosen the hold of race on the American mind, or merely tie it up in tighter knots?

    "It is progress," said B. Reginald Daniel, a sociologist at the University of California at Santa Barbara. "Whether people understand it or not, we're undoing 300 years of racial formation. We have yet to see the after-effect, but it will be radical."

    Daniel, who grew up black in Kentucky, said he has been thinking about his racial identity since Dec. 2, 1955, when his first-grade teacher reported that Rosa Parks had been arrested for refusing to let a white passenger have her seat on the bus. "It's time we colored people stood up for our rights," the teacher told her students.

    Daniel was puzzled. He raised his hand and asked the teacher who "colored" people were. "Everyone in this school," the teacher, startled, replied. But, Daniel persisted, what color are they? "We're brown! We're Negroes!" the teacher replied.

    But Daniel's skin was tan, a blend of white and brown, and when he asked his mother about it she explained that while they were a mix of African, Irish, English, French, American Indian, Asian Indian and maybe even German-Jewish, they were still members of the "Negro race."

    Over time, Daniel came to identify himself as multiracial. He became a leading intellectual adviser, at one point to Project RACE and on a continuing basis to the Association for MultiEthnic Americans (AMEA) -- the largest of the organizations that pressed for a multiracial category on the census. The federal Office of Management and Budget rejected that possibility but in 1997, after four years of deliberation, announced that on the 2000 census respondents would be able to check as many races as apply.

    For Daniel, at least, filling out this year's form was thrilling. He checked "white," "Indian" and "black."

    "For me, for the first time in my life to go to a form and have the chance of reflecting myself in an authentic way is an incredibly liberating moment. And to know that I was part of that process," Daniel said. "We all need to start re-examining some of the taken-for-grantedness of all of our identities. Letting people check these multiple boxes is a very small step in some of the re-evaluation."

    But to Susan Graham, the form felt like one step forward and two steps back. Graham had wanted a separate multiracial category so that children like hers would not have to choose between their parents' racial identities, or end up some unclassifiable "other."

    Graham was also upset with new rules issued by OMB just before the census forms went out, indicating how the race results would be tabulated for the federal government's monitoring and enforcement of civil rights laws. Mixed-race individuals would be allocated back to the minority race or, if there were two or more races, back to the race that makes sense in the particular enforcement context.

    The intention was to make sure that people's right to identify themselves in all their racial complexity did not erode the civil rights protections afforded them because of their membership, in whole or in part, in one of these historically discriminated-against groups. (It should be noted that no individual's racial identity as recorded on the census is ever reported to anyone. It only contributes, anonymously, to aggregate statistics.)

    Graham saw it as the revenge of the one-drop rule, that vestige of slavery and white supremacy that defined anybody with a drop of black blood as black, period.

    On the 1990 census, Graham listed her children as white. She had been told erroneously by a census official in Atlanta, where she was living, that the race of the mother was determinative. But this year, had she checked both the black and white boxes for her children, the children would for many government purposes simply be counted as black.

    "I'm not about to have my children check more than one box only to be relegated back to the black category," said Graham, who now lives in Tallahassee, Fla. She left the race question blank.

    But the census cannot permit blanks, so, by a statistical method known as "hot deck imputation," Graham's family will be assigned races that blend best with their closest neighbors -- the assumption being that most people live in neighborhoods that match them racially. And, in Graham's case that is true, with immediate neighbors black, white and interracial.

    Rainier Spencer, a professor of Afro-American studies at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas, has studied the multiracial movement in his book, "Spurious Issues: Race and Multiracial Identity Politics in the United States." He faults Graham's logic.

    In Spencer's view, Graham and others in the multiracial movement deploy their distaste with the one-drop rule selectively. If they truly want its repeal, they must recognize that virtually all African-Americans are multiracial.

    To him, the whole notion of a multiracial identity depends on an assumption that racial identity is real. And as Spencer told some 100 students at the Pan-Collegiate Conference on the Mixed-Race Experience, held recently at Harvard University and Wellesley College, "All racial identity is bogus, no matter whether the prefix is mono, multi or bi."

    The "insurgent idea" of multiraciality can undermine the racial order by "demonstrating the absurdity of fixed and exclusive racial categories," he writes in his book. But the moment multiracial becomes an official category -- a box to be checked -- it no longer undermines the existing racial paradigm, but expands it.

    Moreover, Spencer said, while race may not truly exist, racism does, and OMB acted quite appropriately in ordering the racial data collapsed back into traditional categories for civil rights purposes.

    Spencer, whose mother is German and father black, reached the same conclusion on his own. When he filled in the census race question, he checked the "black" box.

    "Most people call me a black man," Ward Connerly writes early in his new book about his life, "Creating Equal." But, Connerly writes, "In fact, I'm black in the same way that Tiger Woods and so many other Americans are black -- by the `one-drop' rule used by yesterday's segregationists and today's racial ideologues."

    Those same racial ideologues, Connerly writes, opposed a mixed-race box "because they realize that so many of us would check it and thus administer a setback to the racial spoils system they have created."

    But, in an interview, Connerly said that he too opposes a separate multiracial category. It would only create "another interest group competing alongside all the others."

    Instead, Connerly wants to do away with all racial counting by government. He said he will seek to put a measure on the 2002 California ballot to prohibit collecting racial data there, except for medical purposes.

    Connerly frames his efforts to extract race from public life in the context of his own multiracial family life. His book ends with the birth of his daughter's first child (her husband is white): "When I held my new granddaughter, the tiny hand grasping my brown fingers was as white as snow, yet she was blood of my blood, life of my life -- living proof that the categories that are supposed to separate us in this world are an illusion."

    "I wondered," he writes, "which of the silly little boxes she would be required to check."

    Unfortunately, Connerly said in an interview, "Black people are never forced to confront their own multiracial identity. As a result it's just easier to identify yourself as `black' or `African-American.' When you begin to realize that some of your ancestors -- and this is probably the case for most black people -- are either Indian or white, it gives you an entirely different perspective on the issue of race."

    Levonne Gaddy of Tuscon, Ariz., president of the Association of MultiEthnic Americans, shares Connerly's perspective, though not his conclusions.

    Gaddy's grandmother was white. But in order to marry her grandfather, a black man, in North Carolina, she had to identify as mulatto. (Interracial marriage was illegal in some states until the U.S. Supreme Court's 1967 Loving decision.) When her grandmother died, Gaddy said, she was a "Negro."

    Gaddy was born looking as white as her grandmother -- white skin, freckles, green eyes, blond hair. "I look like a white person," said Gaddy, and throughout her life that is how people, including most blacks, treated her. Eventually, while living in California, Gaddy came to the multiracial identity she felt more appropriately described her. On the census, she checked three boxes -- "white," "black" and "American Indian."

    But, she said, "If we get rid of racial categories, it will open the door for white privilege."

    White privilege, of course, refers to those advantages whites benefit from -- advantages so much a part of the landscape that most whites don't see them as privilege at all.

    The census race question, after asking the respondent to "mark (x) one or more boxes," offers a list of choices: "black," "American Indian or Alaska Native," 12 different "Asian" and "Pacific Islander" possibilities and "some other race." But "white" comes first.

    It is an observation that Jennifer Chau, who is Chinese, white and Jewish, made at the recent Mixed-Race Conference:

    "I think it's interesting that `white' is up on top. I'd be really curious to see in a study how many people actually look past after they check off `white.' It's like, you don't have to deal with all this mess down here, you can just check it off and be on your merry way. Meanwhile, we all have to be like, `Oh, mmm, God ... we're forced to think about it."'

    Chau, a 1999 Wellesley graduate who has started a nonprofit group, Swirl, to work with mixed-race children in New York City, said she checked both "white" and "Chinese." But, she said, "the rest of my family thinks they're white, including my father." And, she noted, he's originally from Shanghai.

    Also at the conference was Matt Kelley, a student at Wesleyan University and founder of Mavin, a magazine of "the mixed-race experience." Kelley said the students were in the process of figuring out their own identities -- and wanting the right to self-identify as they see fit. They're only beginning to wonder whether they are part of some broader community, if they have the makings of any kind of movement.

    Kelley checked "white" and "Korean" on the census form. His use of the term "mixed-race" instead of "multiracial" is intentional.

    "I'm very wary of the so-called multiracial movement," he said. "It seems to me more intent on creating a new race than people who have the wholeness of their heritage. ... Aren't we simply replicating the same kind of exclusive ideas of community we in the past had been criticizing?"

    It does have the making of a riddle wrapped in a conundrum.

    Naomi Zack, a philosopher of race at the State University of New York at Albany, is writing a book on the fiction of race and how to dismantle it. The idea of race, to Zack, "rests on fantasies of racial purity" that mixed-race people can help to subvert.

    "Even with a small amount of racial mixture people's appearance doesn't fulfill any predictable expectation. It becomes socially unintelligible and that's a good thing," Zack said.

    And yet, she noted, sometimes -- as in the case of affirmative action -- the fiction of race can help the historic victims of racism, and "the truth that race is a fiction" can be used against them.

    So how did Zack, who is black and white, answer the race question on the census?

    "I wrote `mixed,"' she said, acknowledging that five minutes later she realized that she had meant to write "no racial affiliation." But, not wanting to risk a cross-out, Zack left her original answer.

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    Take Your Choice: Expulsion/Genocide or Mongrelization

    White children of school-age fight the miscegenation battle every day. If they refuse to date non-whites they will be called racists and subject to abuse, not only from non-whites but also from their teachers and men-of-the-cloth. The highly successful campaign to miscegenate the White race is orchestrated at the highest levels, as you know, and promulgated by the mass-media.

    White parents could have prevented the destruction of their racial family. However, they chose to be politically correct,
    raise no dust, and "turn the other cheek." Instead, parents allowed their children to fight the battle in the trenches . Now it's too late. The resultant mongrels will have, among other disabilities, a markedly lower IQ.

    Kiss the blondes, redheads, and fair-skinned brunettes goodbye ------ forever !

    "Kill the Best Gentiles !"(Talmud)
    www.holywesternempire.org


    Take Your Choice: Expulsion/Genocide or Mongrelization

    Where two distinct species are located side by side history and biology teach that but one of two things can happen; either one race drives the other out, as the Americans exterminated the Indians, or as the negroes are now replacing the whites in various parts of the South; or else they amalgamate and form a population of race bastards in which the lower type ultimately preponderates.

    MADISON GRANT: The Passing of the Great Race

    http://www.churchoftrueisrael.com/pgr/pgr-toc.html
    http://www.churchoftrueisrael.com/pgr/pgr-07.html

    THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF RACE - Chapter 2

    It must be borne in mind that the specializations which characterize the higher races are of relatively recent development, are highly unstable and when mixed with generalized or primitive characters, tend to disappear. Whether we like to admit it or not, the result of the mixture of two races, in the long run, gives us a race reverting to the more ancient, generalized and lower type. The cross between a white man and an Indian is an Indian; the cross between a white man and a negro is a negro; the cross between a white man and a Hindu is a Hindu; and the cross between any of the three European races and a Jew is a Jew.

    MADISON GRANT: The Passing of the Great Race

    http://www.churchoftrueisrael.com/pgr/pgr-02.html

    One theory of the evolution of recessive genes in northern Caucasian populations is Salter's (1996) "blank slate hypothesis" in which recessive genes act as an individualist anti-cuckoldry mechanism. Because of the commonness among the "Aryans" of recessive genes affecting physical appearance, the offspring of Jews and non-Jews in Germany therefore would tend to resemble the Jewish partner, thus leading to beliefs on both sides of the "indelibility" of the Jewish character.

    www.prometheism.net/articles/chapt5.htm

    TAKE YOUR CHOICE: Separation or Mongrelization
    By Theodore G. Bilbo

    As long as the two races are in contact, the race problem will continue. Remedial measures may lessen racial friction, but the race problems exist until the races are either separated or amalgamated. Unless the races are physically separated the problems will continue until amalgamation has reached such a point that racial lines no longer exist. Then of course a Nation of hybrids and mongrels of mixed blood would have neither race nor race problems.

    Until we take the active steps necessary to adopt the program of physical separation of the races, we are on the road to amalgamation. If the white and Negro races continue to dwell together, they will eventually amalgamate and both races will be destroyed. "Where two distinct species are located side by side," says Madison Grant, "history and biology teach that but one of two things can happen; either one race drives the other out, as the Americans exterminated the Indians, or as the negroes are now replacing the whites in various parts of the South; or else they amalgamate and form a population of race bastards in which the lower type ultimately preponderates. This is a disagreeable alternative with which to confront sentimentalists, but nature is only concerned with results and neither makes nor takes excuses. The chief failing of the day with some of our well meaning philanthropists is their absolute refusal to face inevitable facts, if such facts appear cruel."

    Earnest S. Cox has written: "The nature of race problems limits their solution to that of amalgamation of the races, or that of the separation of the races.... Race problems endure. They last as long as races exist side by side. Race problems are eventually solved, but they cannot be solved except by mixing the races or separating them. The nature of race problems precludes other forms of solution. From the alternatives of separation or amalgamation we cannot escape and between these alternatives we must choose. We are witnessing the process of the solution of the Negro problem by the amalgamation of the races. If amalgamation is not to be the ending of the Negro problem in this nation, we are confronted by the need of devising means for a final separation of the races."

    Any student of biology knows that races which live side by side will eventually mix, and the mixing will occur, as it has in the United States, when organized society does its best to prevent it.

    In the Biological Basis of Human Nature, H. S. Jennings, one of the world's leading authorities, writes: "To the superior race admixture with the inferior one is adulteration; it means a lowering of quality. All other biological consideration give way to this one." And Lothrop Stoddard says: "Two things are necessary for the continued existence of a race: it must remain itself, and must breed its best.... Hence, when a highly specialized stock interbreeds with a different stock, the newer less stable, specialized characters are bred out, the variation, no matter how great its potential value to human evolution, being irretrievably lost.... And, of course, the more primitive a type is, the more prepotent it is. This is why crossings with the negro are uniformly fatal. Whites, Amerindians, or Asiatics - all are alike vanquished by the invincible prepotency of the more primitive, generalized, and lower negro blood."

    F. L. Hoffman in Race Traits and Tendencies says that the mulatto is inferior to the pure Negro and possessed of the least vital force of all races. According to Hoffman, mulattoes are physically and morally lower than blacks. but intellectually they are superior. A. H. Shannon writes: "The mulatto may be superior to the negro; he certainly is inferior to the Caucasian both in intellectual ability and physical vigor. At best, amalgamation can improve the negro only at the expense of the white race. Amalgamation is not, therefore, desirable on scientific grounds; it is revolting when considered in its ethical bearings."

    When colored writers such as Thomas plead for the amalgamation of the races, do they not admit that the Negro race can not equal the achievements of the white race? When he says, "The future American negro will part, undoubtedly, with many of his racial characteristics as he approximates in color and conduct the white race," does he not acknowledge the superiority of the white race? Of course, he does. In fact, he frankly states the Negro's inferiority by saying: "As we have already shown, the pure negro people are, by the very nature of their characteristic endowments, precluded from reaching a high degree of efficiency. Whatever the freedman has achieved in the way of intelligence and character is due to alien characteristics incorporated into his being through race amalgamation."

    Any Negro who pleads for the mixture of the blood of the races is condemning the blood of his fathers. He may wish, as did Thomas, to improve the Negro race "by an infusion of virile blood," but no gain to the black race is worth the destruction of the Caucasian. And we certainly have the right to question the motives of some of the advocates of miscegenation. Is their primary desire to improve the Negro race or is it to make everyone else mongrels like themselves?

    Negroes who do not value their racial integrity should be interested in the following observation which was made by a Southern writer: "Of the five races with which the Earth is peopled, only one, the Negro, is ashamed of his race and tries to be something other than what GOD made him. Neither the Red, Yellow nor Brown races want to be white; as the Negro ever strives to become. Instead of having that pride-of-race attached to the white, red, yellow and brown races, the black race is wholly lacking in that attribute; ashamed of his ancestry, and always trying to get as far from it as possible - deluding himself with claims of equality with the white race that are not borne out by his appearance, his present attainments nor his background in recorded history."

    In I926 and I927, C. B. Davenport and Morris Steggerda made a study of miscegenation under the auspices of the Carnegie Institute of Washington. After studying whites, blacks, and hybrids, the authors compiled the results of their findings in the book, Race Crossing in Jamaica. The conclusions which were drawn from the many tests that were given were that the mix-breeds graded much closer to the blacks in differential traits than they did to the whites. It was shown that black traits were perhaps dominant in the mix-breeds, and they showed no evidence of what has been referred to as hybrid vigor.

    In a speech before the House of Representatives, Congressman Joseph R. Bryson, of South Carolina, said: "On the basis of test performances, whites are superior to Negroes. The testing of the drafted soldiers during World War I gave the first extensible body of data on Negro-white differences in this country. In a special analysis of the results of this study by C. Brigham, Princeton University Press, 1923, the conclusion was reached that there was clear evidence for the innate intellectual superiority of whites over Negroes. R Pintner, Intelligence Testing, 1931, after summarizing the results up to 1930, came to the following conclusion: 'All results show the Negro decidedly inferior to the whites on standardized intelligence tests.... These results are sufficiently numerous and consistent to point to a racial difference in intelligence. ' "

    Congressrnan Bryson continued: "P. L. Boynton in his Intelligence, Its Manifestation and Measurement, 1933, concludes: 'That most studies point so definitely to the superiority of the average white over the average Negro that it would seem justifiable to assume this condition to exist.' P. C Young, for example, administered the national intelligence test to 282 whites and 277 Negro children in Baton Rouge and Lake Charles, Louisiana. Principals and teachers assisted in labeling the Negro subjects lighter, darker, and miscellaneous. He found a 'noticeable decrease of intelligence as we go from the white child to light Negroes and then to dark Negroes' and concluded that the light Negroes were on the average I9.7 per cent more intelligent than the dark Negroes. This may be explained by the hypothesis that white blood makes them more intelligent than the dark Negroes."

    Mongrelization works nowhere in the Animal Kingdom from snakes to mankind. The white race produces men and women who possess a greater physical beauty than the colored races. "Does some one say that physical beauty is a poor, inferior thing at best - that beauty of soul is alone sufficient and only desirable? We deny it outright," says Professor Smith. "Beauty of form and colour has its own high and inalienable and indefectible rights, its own profound significance for the history alike of nature and of man. Even if the intermingling of bloods wrought no other wrong than the degradation of bodily beauty; the coarsening of feature and blurring of coloration, it would still be an unspeakable outrage, to be deprecated and prevented by all means in our power."

    We are fully aware that every race and every man have particular ideas of beauty, but since the white man is in the majority in this country, he has not only the right but the duty to preserve his own ideal of perfection - the womanhood of his race. Ira Calvin of Brookline, Massachusetts, has made an able plea for the preservation of the white race, and he has interwoven throughout his book, The Lost White Race, a profound appeal for the protection of the pretty pink skin, blue eyes and blonde hair" of "our lovely women." Says Mr. Calvin:
    Even Nature cries out that a pretty white girl is its supreme effort to produce a living being both beautiful and intelligent. It displays its displeasure at a union of black and white by making the offspring neither beautiful nor very intelligent. A female of such a union finds that the lovely clothes displayed in the shop windows do not blend with her dusky skin, and that every pretty color is made for pure white skins only. She finds also that her features and lips are negroid.... White men haven't protected and preserved the delicate whiteness of their women's skins these thousands of years to wind up by handing them over to the colored races to despoil. They will die first!
    http://www.churchoftrueisrael.com/tyc/tyc_toc.html

    The half-breed Negroes in the United States are objectionable factors to our Nation and to our civilization. Many of them specialize in agitating the race question and promoting conflict between the white and black races. "They are dangerous from whatever point we may elect to view them, says Dr. Shufeldt, "as they may possess all the vicious and sensual traits of the negro, without the color of the latter's skin as a warning flag to the unwary. In any question at issue they will invariably choose sides with the colored race, and from their keener wits and higher intelligence they are capable of giving a greater amount of trouble. Then, too, mulattoes have better opportunities to contract white alliances in marriage, and thus insidiously perpetuate their savage blood. This is most deplorable; for, as I have frequently remarked, the negro has absolutely nothing of the slightest value in his organization that can be added to our own; while, on the other hand, nearly everything about him, mentally, morally and physically, is undesirable in the highest degree. . Mulattoes have no higher sense of our civilization than has the black stock from which they are derived. I have found them equally superstitious, treacherous, mendacious, and unreliable. The better class of hybrids command place and position in this country; many regard them as colored doctors, colored lawyers, colored clergymen, colored poets and authors and so on; whereas, as a matter of fact, they are nothing of the kind - they are hybrids, nothing more nor less, and often with a very minute tincture of the African blood in them."

    The danger of amalgamation may be stated very simply - it means the destruction of the white race. When the blood of the white and Negro races mix, the fair-skinned Caucasian is lost beneath the black flood. This result can not be denied. And because miscegenation means the death of the white race, every white person not only has the right but the duty to do all in his power to prevent such destruction.

    Just as every white man has the right to marry a white woman in preference to a Negress so he has the right to join with the majority of his fellow citizens to prohibit any other member of his race from forming such a union. When the majority believes that society is endangered by the marriage of whites with Negroes or Mongolians, they may prohibit such unions by statute. This right is a fundamental principle of our Reptlblican form of government.

    At the close of the War Between the States, a Confederate soldier inscribed a poem on the back of a Confederate note. These are the words which he wrote on the worthless piece of paper:
    Represenating nothing on God's Earth now
    And naught in the waters below it
    As the pledge of a nation that passed away
    Keep it, dear friend, and show it.
    Show it to those who will lend an ear
    To the tale this trifle will tell
    Of Liberty born of a patriot's dream
    Of a storm cradled nation that fell.
    Amalgamation can write the same obituary for the United States of America by insuring that the future generations of Americans will sink into hopeless depths of mongrelization from which there can be no return. On the other hand, a white America can guard and protect the white blood in her veins, guarantee the right of Caucasian racial integrity to generations yet unborn, maintain her civilization and continue to rise in strength and power.

    White America: The American Racial Problem as Seen in a Worldwide Perspective
    by Earnest Sevier Cox: http://www.churchoftrueisrael.com/cox/

    Speaking of the race types of India, Madison Grant says, "The Aryanized Afghan and Hinku of northern India speak languages derived from Old Sanskrit and are closely related to the Mediterranean race. Aside from common dolichocephaly, these peoples are entirely distinct from the Dravidians of south India, whose speech is agglutinative and who show strong evidence of profound mixture with the ancient Negrito substratum of southern Asia. Everywhere throughout the Asiatic portion of its range the Mediterranean race overlies an even more ancient Negroid race. These Negroids still have representatives among the pre-Dravidians of India, the Veddah of Ceylon, the Sakai of the Malay Peninsula and the natives of the Andaman Islands." (The Passing of the Great Race, p. 148.)

    When occupying the Punjab, the Aryans did not expel the mixbreed white-yellow-black populations whom they conquered (as yet the Aryans were not in contact with the blacks in the south of India). Throughout the history of their conquests, the Aryans have not expelled a subjugated people whom they could profitably enslave. Modern Aryans in North America did expel the red man, but they imported the black. There has ever been a deplorable freedom between the white and non-white races which has resulted in an increasing number of mixbreeds. In India, caste prevented interracial marriage, but was incapable of preventing illegitimate unions. The Aryans, intent upon retaining race purity, yet unable to restrain men of their race from unions with colored women, and, in most instances unable to discover the guilty white, turned with a terrible wrath upon the helpless mixbreed.

    Of the "220,000,000" so-called Aryans of India it is not likely that one-tenth of one per cent are whites of the Aryan race. "Even the haughty Rajputs, formerly of the Kshatria (military) caste, have long lost their racial purity, and are now largely intermingled with Bhils and other primitive non-Aryans" (Keane). "Men who call themselves Hindoos still exist, Sanskrit derivatives are still spoken, but the Hindoo spirit, however, is dead; the noble blood has been lost in the Indian quagmire, in the yellow-black-white swamp." (A.P. Schultz, Race or Mongrel, p. 61)

    Races dwelling in common territory will eventually amalgamate; and by observing the present, we are conscious that a slow amalgamation of white with non-white is occurring even in Saxon circles, and we know that amalgamation has already proved the end of hope in many Latin possessions. With the present in mind, we are able to understand the problems confronting ancient India and realize the Aryan's hopeless task in seeking to institute laws and customs that would perpetuate his breed and the civilization which proceeded from his breed, and which perished with it. The history of race contact will establish that the Aryans undertook an impossible task. They brought religion, law and caste to their aid, the most carefully devised agencies the world has known. But the human intellect has never proved equal to the task of regulating sex relations. The Aryan conquerors of India utilized every remedial measure but one; they did not attempt geographical separation of races.

    "A single half-caste race, with here the Negro and there the Indian predominating over the conquering Spaniard, obtains from the Atlantic to the Pacific..from the frontier of the United States to the southern limits of the continent...American Indians, Negroes, Orientals, and Europeans of different origin, are creating the race of the future in homes in which mixed blood is the rule...The Negroes of the Congo have mingled equally with the Spaniard and the Indian. The African woman satisfied the ardor of the conquerors: she has darkened the skin of the race... The Negro is a formidable influence in America (Latin America). But they are revenged for their enslavement in that there blood is mingled with that of their masters...The black race is doing its work and the continent is returning to its primitive barbarism. This retrogression constitutes a very serious menace. In South America civilization is dependent upon the numerical predominance of the victorious Spaniard, on the triumph of the white over the mulatto, the Negro and the Indian." (Latin American: Its Rise and Its Progress, by F. Garcia Calderon, with Preface by Raymond Poincare' of the French Academy, now Prime Minister of the French Republic. Calderon is a Peruvian diplomat. His work published in 1913 is of great importance in that the author sees that it is miscegenation that is working the ruin of Latin America.)

    In North America the Caucasian, after three centuries of contact with colored races, constitutes ninety percent of the population. In Latin America the Caucasian constitutes less than ten percent of the population. The remaining ten percent of the inhabitants of North America are divided between the black and red races and the mongrel offspring of these rases mixed with each and with the white. The remaining ninety percent of the inhabitants of Latin America are likewise divided between black and red and their mongrel offspring resulting from their unions with each other and with the white. North America is nine-tenths white; Latin America in nine-tenths colored. North America possesses a vigorous, expanding, self-sustaining civilization; South America, a puny restricted, dependent culture which, apart from the extreme south of the continent, is receding before a "terrible hybridism."

    Let us understand the Spain that conquered South America. It is the sixteenth century. Spain is possessed of a remarkable history. Its original inhabitants were small brunets (Mediterraneans), but Nordic Gauls conquered the country about 500 B.C., and introduced the Aryan speech. The Gauls quickly mixed with the natives and the inhabitants were known to the Romans as Celtiberians. Before the Roman times, Phoenicians and Carthagenians had formed trading posts along its shores. Then came the Romans, who remained for seven centuries. Roman domination reached far inland, everywhere except in the northern mountains. When the Roman Empire was being overrun by Germanic tribes, Spain was occupied, in whole or in part, by Alan, Suevi, Vandal, and Goth (Visgoth). The invaders were at no time a numerically great host. The Vandls, when leaving Spain for conquest in North Africa, numbered but 80,000, old and young men, women, children and slaves. The invaders were few, but formed in Spain, as elsewhere, a conquering aristocracy. The Gothic line of rulers began in Spain in 531 A.D. In the norther there were a Caucasian people, unmixed with colored blood, the Basques, whom neither the Germans nor their Roman predecessors could fully subdue. These people are to play an important part in the civilizing of South America. Chile, that is, white Chile, is Basque and Gothic.

    The German tribes, supported by Spanish factions, engaged in generations of warfare with each other. Gothic supremacy was attained, and then came the great Muhammadan invasion from North Africa. The Arab-Berber-Negro hosts came to stay for centuries.

    Early inhabitants of the Spanish Peninsula offered many physical similarities to the whites and near-whites of North Africa. In North Africa, and in Spain as well, Negro blood had left its impress prior to the conquest by the Moslems (Muhammadans). Not upon all, but it was unmistakably there, and was to be greatly augmented in later centuries, first by the large Negroid element marshaled under the Crescent, and even more so at a later date when Spain and Portugal entered upon the African Negro slave trade. Negro blood has qualified materially the race type of large numbers of Spanish (in Spain as well as in the Spanish colones), and this alien element in the Spanish race is not to be overlooked. What Negro blood did to the Spanish immigrants of the New World, it did also to the Spanish of the south of the peninsula; lowered them in the racial and cultural scale.

    It required more than seven centuries to rid Spain of the powerful Muhammadans. Teutonic armies had arrested the advance of the Muhammadans in Europe as they had previously crushed the Hun, who threatened to subjugate white Europe beneath the heel of the mixbreeds of Asia.
    The German feuds of Spain were finally healed through the intermarriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, "red haired Goths." These great rulers expelled the Moors (Muhammadans), but their reign is marked by a much great event.

    The Lombards, another Germanic tribe, had conquered and settled in North Italy. They retained race and institutions for centuries. The so-called Italian Renaissance" was in reality a Lombard or Nordic renaissance. From Nordic Italy there came to the Nordic court of Spain a blond wanderer who believed the world to be round, and that by sailing west a new route to India might be discovered. Snorted at as a visionary, he was denied aid. For a period of eighteen years he urged the possibility of a western passage. A woman listened and believed, and the New World sprang into existence. How much the Latin world owes to Isabella and how much the Teutonic world owes to Elizabeth! These women believed men who were called "visionaries," and supported their ambitions.
    But Spain was a mongrel, not a Gothic country. The Goths were ever a minority, and the centuries intervening from the Gothic conquest to the present have eliminated the pure Goth, apart from the nobility, by process of miscegenation. ("The Gothic and hereditary nobility is foreign to the evolution of the Peninsula." (Calderon.)) From mongrel Spain, presided over by a Teutonic aristocracy, came swarms of adventurers to the New World. The Muhammadans had been expelled, but not until their blood had been indissolubly mixed with that of the south Spaniards. A mongrel people with dissimilar aptitudes and race traits transferred to the Western World would not lose their ethnic tendencies, and this fact should make the understanding of Latin American history an easier matter. Add to this the varying degree of blood mixture of the spanish conquerors with the Indians, whom the Spanish found in possession of the continent and with the Negroes whom they imported from Africa, and you will have the racial background which constitutes the fundamental viewpoint in interpreting history.
    England sent Saxons. Spain Basques and mongrels ruled by a Gothic aristocracy. The Saxon settlers in North America slowly extended their boundaries, moving before them the savage and barbarian tribes with whom they were in contact. The Spaniard, instead of removing the aborigines and implanting his race in their stead, conquered and ruled over them, marrying their women. In Central America and the northern part of south America, the European conquerors were in contact with the relatively advanced cultures of Mexico, Colombia and Peru. These barbarian civilizations were in process of decay and were possessed of great riches, the results of centuries of accumulation. The riches were a powerful factor in determining the disaster which has attended the white race in Latin America. The Spanish sought the treasures of the new World and, to retain rule with ease, the conquistadors married the Indian aristocracy; the soldiers and other adventurers formed unions with the lesser nobility and the wealthier middle class. The history of colonial control will establish that such alliances promote peace between conquerors and conquered; promote peace for a period, but beyond this is revolution and anarchy.

    It was the half-castes of Haiti who fomented the murder of the whites. The mixbreeds of Haiti, as the mixbreeds elsewhere, turned to the blacks when refused equality with the whites. The Indian and the Negro give but little trouble to the whites; the agent of unrest is the disgruntled and touchy mixbreed Grant the mixbreed equalization with the white and he becomes a cruel oppressor of the black. This was true in South and Central America, in Africa, and notably true in the united States prior to 1865, where an increasing number of mulattoes, quadroons and octoroons were slave owners and had become the fieriest upholders of slavery.

    Deny the partly black full and unrestricted access to the white man's homes and daughters and you transform him into the bitterest enemy of the white man. Were it not for the super-sensitive mongrels of North America, there would be no clamor for "equality" of races; nor would there be any eminent "Negroes." Booker Washington was a mulatto, Frederick Douglas was a mulatto. Bruce, Turner, DuBois, Miller; these are not Negroes! Were they white men they would be obscure, but by social custom and by law they are recognized to be Negroes, and as such they stand at the head of their race.

    Imagine the mulattoes and the nearer whites of the United States to be greatly augmented in numbers. Suppose they constitute two-thirds of the population. They possess the ballot. The white one-third of the population is the cultural aristocracy, but is divided into factions. Let us say that the Democratic Party, in order to make its ascendency sure, lays special claim to the Negro and mixbreed vote, promising full social and political equality. The Democrats would secure the support of the Negroids and control the nation. Caucasian ideals would assert a dwindling influence in politics, economics, and social aims. No white could hold high office without mongrel support, and the prospective officer holder could not obtain such support without special concessions to the mixbreed element. White politicians would vie with each other in making promises which sooner or later would have to be fulfilled. Eventually the nation would cease to reflect Caucasian ideals and cease to represent Caucasian culture. The pall of Africanism would settle upon the land. Mulatto senators! Revolutions! Creative ingenuity gone, the arts and industries would decay, sky-scrapers would crumble, plantations would be weedgrown, as they are in Haiti. The halls of the national capitol, once familiar to the noblest of the Saxons, would echo to the tread of mulattoes, and a mixbreed would sit as President. This picture is repugnant and we refuse to visualize it, but Egypt knew it in all its essentials; and India, and what is more Germanic at this point Latin America.

    The history of Latin America countries shows a steady rise of the mixbreed to power. Ofttimes the residue of whites in the various Latin American governments was divided into factions. The whites in their bitter enmity would seek aid from the mixbreeds. White or near-white leaders led the mixbreed to ascendency. The white influence became less and less and Latin America fell lower and lower in the cultural scale in keeping with concomitant loss in the racial scale.

    There are many North Americans who are not aware that the African Negro was enslaved in Latin America a century before his arrival at Jamestown. The Caucasian of the southern continent has had more than a hundred years longer in which to interbreed with the Negro than the Caucasian of the northern continent. The Spanish and Portuguese brought Negro slaves to their colonies in 1502. The Latin American Negroes came from Africa, as did those of North America. Between 1759 and 1903, 642,000 Negroes entered Brazil, and between 1792 and 1810 Cuba received 89,000. There are eleven million Negroes and Negroids in the united States at the present time, but there is still greater number in the Latin American countries.

    Apart from the numbers of African Negroes whose destination was Brazil and Cuba, tens of thousands more were distributed throughout northern South America dn Central America. Argentina, Uruguay and Chile, at the south of the continent, received but few, but with such numbers as they did receive they interred. As a pure black, the Negro does not exist in these latter countries. However, the race types of these states are only slightly modified by the Negro, but rather by the Indian. There are pure whites in the south who are descended from the early colonials. To these whites there have come large additions of the European born which has served to augment the Caucasic element. In Central America the inhabitants of Costa Rica are more nearly white, hardly influenced by the Negro, and not hopelessly so by the Indian.

    In spite of the mistakes of the past, Latin America is not hopeless. The country is sparsely populated, and there is room for millions of immigrants. Around the nucleus of whites now there, others from Europe and North America will come, and parts of the continent will be saved for the Caucasian. Ever closer relations of the parts hopelessly mongrelized are to be maintained with the white world, and these portions, such as Mexico, Central America. Cuba, Haiti, Santo Domingo, Venezuela, Columbia, Peru and northern Brazil are destined to possess a culture above their race ability. It will be an imposed culture, but it will be permanent.

    Brazil, in its northeastern provinces, possesses a race mixture distinctly more African than European in composition. South Brazil has the whiter of the Portuguese and is further strengthened by the presence of nearly half a million Germans, Swiss and other Nordic elements. Of this number the Germans constitute possibly 250,000. The Germans "are established in southern Brazil, when they rule the municipalities, enjoy rights of self government, despite the Negroes and half castes, and live in aristocratic isolation." (Calderon) The German colonial, true to the instinct of the Teutonic breed, avoids intermarriage with the Negroes and mixbreeds, but he does marry the Portuguese, who in turn marry Negroes readily, and it would seem that miscegenation would thus reduce the German increase, though it should not succeed at an early date in eliminating the Teutonic type.
    The Germans, together with the white Portuguese and newly arrived Europeans, constitute the sole progressive element of Brazil, though they form less than half of the population of some twenty-six million. Agassiz, when traveling in Brazil shortly after the American Civil War, warned his countrymen to be content with freeing the blacks and not to interbreed with them, as did the Brazilians. Later travelers have told us that Brazil was a country in which whites and blacks were interbreeding, and that the prosperity of Brazil was substantial recognition that miscegenation was not injuring the nation. The advocates of miscegenation overlook the fact that white Brazil is both a geographical and racial fact, and that it is visibly distinct from black Brazil. White Brazil (south Brazil) is the source and center of Brazilian progress. Such writers might as well credit the mixbreeds of the United States with American advancement as to assert that Negroid Brazil is responsible for Brazilian prosperity. Such progress as there is arises from the whites of the south and from the large influx of European immigration and capital.

    Latin America is an extraordinarily rich country. Its created wealth and natural resources in the hands of its present inhabitants incite European cupidity in much the same way and to the same extent as did its wealth of four centuries ago. The Monroe Doctrine protects its political independence. The Monroe Doctrine has prevented the continent from being peopled by an able race. From this viewpoint the United States may be said to have stood between Latin America and civilization.
    In Latin America there are twenty nations. If you read their federal constitutions, you will find that they have modeled their governments after that of the United States. Nearer our borders are the Central American states which, in common with the rest of the Latin American states, have copied, with but little modification, the Constitution of the United States. But "Industry, commerce, and agriculture are in a state of decay, and the unruly imagination of the Creole expends itself in constitutions, programmes, and lyrical discourses; in these regions anarchy is sovereign mistress...The double and inevitable influence of tradition and race cannot be destroyed by means of improvised laws. Central America borrowed from the United States their mode of suffrage, the federal system, the organization of the jury, and the Code of Louisiana. But popular agitation condemned the institution of the jury; the codes borrowed from the United States did not annihilate barbarism, and the federal system was powerless to enforce unity." (Calderon).

    There is a tradition among Saxons that they are not as the Latins, who readily intermarry with colored peoples. The Saxon seems to believe that his race pride alone will preserve his race when he is in contact with the colored. This sense of security is unwarranted. The Saxon ideal does not extent in practical application to all the members of the Saxon race. The Saxon does not intermarry readily with the Negro and other colored races; not readily, but he does intermarry. Hollanders in South America and in the East Indies; British subjects in the West Indies and in South Africa; Americans in the Philippines, Hawaii, and in the United States when the laws will permit; Germans, in all countries other than the former German colonies, have established that the Saxon's reliance upon s sense of race superiority is an illusion.

    The author listened to a remarkable series of incriminations and counter incriminations among Northernborn and Southernborn Americans in manila. While discussing the "squaw men" of the Philippines, the Northernborn Americans affirmed that it was the Southernborn Americas who took unto themselves the greater number of colored wives. This assertion was hotly denied by the Southerners. Then followed a mentioning of numerous Americans by name who had married colored women. Most of them were proved to be of Southern birth; one was the son of a Kentucky judge, two or three were from the author's native state, Tennessee. The Southerners said that they were not prepared to enumerate the offenders, but were sure that the balance was on the other side. The Saxon ideal has certainly not proved so successful elsewhere as in the Southern States. The color line is there after three centuries of contact with the Negro. But the residence of many individual Southerners in the Philippines, and the intermarriage of not a few of their number with colored women, seems to imply that the South has been saved by legal prohibition of intermarriage with the colored rather than by a sense of race superiority.

    While the Saxon has sinned but little against race and institutions through the legal ceremony of marriage between blacks and whites, he has sinned much by illegal intermixture. The mixbreed, whether by marriage or by concubinage, offers the same social problem and in the end the same social danger.

    The German colonial government and certain of the states within the American Union were aware that race pride is not sufficient to preserve the race, and they instituted laws to control the sub-normal whites who gravitate Negroward, but with these exceptions the Saxon peoples have been content to rely upon race pride rather than legal prohibition. The Boers of the Transvaal and the Free State had a legal color line, but in South Africa the Boer ideal of race purity, never unkindly applied, has been greatly weakened by the British domination of the country. The German colonies having passed to Britain and France, it remains to be seen whether the color line will be maintained.

    One great value of the legal prohibition of interracial marriage lies in the fact that through illegal unions the mixbreeds are accredited to the black race, whereas through legal unions the mixbreeds find entrance to white circles. Legal unions blacken the white race; illegal union whiten the black race. Marriages between the whites and the blacks destroy the color line. Illegal unions between the whites and blacks create an element of perpetual danger, but the mixbreeds may not immediately imperial the color line. The white race, if Saxon, will remain white for centuries if interracial marriage is made unlawful. Such prohibition would also lengthen the purity of the Latin peoples, who everywhere interbred with colored races.

    It should not be overlooked by North Americans that the aggressive dominating, conquering "Latins" who extend civilization to much of the Western World were, in reality, Nordic in origin, men of the North European breed. It was the Gothic aristocracy of Spain and Portugal who sent the explorers. It was France, as yet dominated by Teutonic (Frank) blood and ideals, which first disputed Spain's supremacy in America; and the first colonists of the French islands were "Normans, Bretons and people from the west of France; Flemings and Picards, later on Rhenish Germans and Alsatians; men and women of the Nordic race." (The Negro in the New World, p. 132, Sir Harry Johnston.) The same race stock that peopled North America discovered and dominated South America. Possibly the sole reason for the difference in the cultures of the two continents lies in the fact that the Nordic element among the Latins was an aristocracy only, numerically weak. The Nordic element in the Latins was not of sufficient volume to clear the forests, remove the aborigines, and perpetuate European race and culture. From this let us learn that Teutonic people, in adverse environment, may be unable to stem the agencies of devolution which invariably accompany race contact. Races in contact will eventually mix.

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