Ancient DNA: Would the Real Neandertal Please Stand up?

Alan Cooper, Alexei J. Drummond and Eske Willerslev

Mitochondrial DNA sequences recovered from eight Neandertal specimens cannot be detected in either early fossil Europeans or in modern populations. This indicates that, if Neandertals made any genetic contribution at all to modern humans, it must have been limited, though the extent of the contribution cannot be resolved at present.