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Thread: What is the 'Blut und Boden' Doctrine Exactly?

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    Senior Member Willigut's Avatar
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    Post What is the 'Blut und Boden' Doctrine Exactly?

    Does somebody know to explain what is exactly National Socialist 'Blut und Boden' doctrine? Did anybody read something of Richard Walther Darré's writings? Like 'Das Bauerntum als Lebensquell der nordischen Rasse' (1928) and 'Neuadel aus Blut und Boden' (1934) ("The Peasantry as Life Source of the Nordic Race" and "A New Nobility of Blood and Soil" respectively)? Agrippa's later threads about psychic/physical characteristics of Herder/Pastoral/Farmer people seems to be very close; but I' am interested about original Darré's, NS - 'Blood and Soil' Philosophy.

    Thanks in ahead!

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    Senior Member CountBloodSpawn's Avatar
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    Post Re: Blood and Soil ???

    I know that his writings were what invented ecofascism and merged the ideas of racial identity and ecology

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    Senior Member Wissen ist Macht's Avatar
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    Post Re: Blood and Soil ???

    If you are able to read German, you should have a look here:

    http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=37407

    The thread contains an introduction to the blood and soil idea by Darré himself.

    Nichts kann das zerstören, was auf der Wahrheit aufgebaut ist. Wir sind das reine Gold, das im Schmelztiegel getestet werden kann. Der Schmelztiegel möge glühen und prasseln. Nichts kann uns zerstören. Eines Tages werden wir uns erheben und wieder triumphieren. Hofft und wartet!
    (Savitri Devi Mukherji)

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    Senior Member Willigut's Avatar
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    Post Re: Blood and Soil ???

    Ok, I think I found the clue!? If somebody read Darre's works, please correct and/or add some staff. Material in this thread is from my Hard Disc, CD's and recent Web rummage, so I lost links for some numbers and references. Mean quotations I specified bellow, and whole post looks like a bad article of some low grade magazine . All sources are purely from the web so if you need originals you can easy find them via google.com.

    "Blut und Boden" phrase was first used by various Volkish movements during Weimar Era, known as the Wandervögel ('wandering free spirits') Youth. Their philosophy propagated:

    neo-Romanticism, Eastern philosophies, nature mysticism, hostility to reason, and a strong communal impulse in a confused but no less ardent search for authentic, non-alienated social relations. Their back-to-the-land emphasis spurred a passionate sensitivity to the natural world and the damage it suffered. They have been aptly characterized as 'right-wing hippies,' for although some sectors of the movement gravitated toward various forms of emancipatory politics (though usually shedding their environmentalist trappings in the process). [1]
    But the key man who gave to Hitler's Nazi Party "blood and soil" doctrine was, SS-Obergruppenführer, Richard Walther Darré (Born as - Ricardo, in Argentina). He was not simple Volkish ideologist who thought that "German man is segregate from his native soil (to which he is rooted) and brought to big, senseless, capitalist Cities, where Jews and corrupted wealthy Germans economically exploit him". No! Darré was a member (like also Heinrich Himmler and Rudolf Hoess) of extremely radical organization - Artamanen. In the beginning it was the Youth Movement led by racial 'Nordic utopian' writer Willibald Hentschel. His main work "Varuna" (1907) proposed to create human breeding farm in the eastern territories of Germany called "Mittgart". The People for settling the colony must be elected only from "the pure Nordic blood" population. The ratio between man and women must be about 1:10 (!), and marriages must be strictly control by the "racial bureau". [2] His Ideas in later years were partly rejected (especially by H.F.K. Günther) because he treated humans like an animals; man is not a pig or ox! He also propagated bestial polygamy, which is in total contrast with Nordic-Germanic patriarchal view of life. Darré thought, like his ideological conduktor Hans F.K. Günther that Nordic Race is "the bearer of all European cultures", if Nordic blood "dry off on European soil" this would be the and of all Western Civilization. He also accepted much of the radical ideas from Artamanen. In his book "A New Nobility of Blood and Soil" (Neuadel aus Blut und Boden, 1934) Darre declared that special "herd books" and "family records" are to be prepared for all women; "All virgins are to be divided into four classes to whom on the basis of special "breeding laws" marriage is to be permitted or denied according to their racial characteristics and fitness for childbearing". [3]

    But, take a look on some Günther's writings about relation between Nordic Race and Peasantry.

    About the fall of The Roman Civilization Günther wrote:

    The disappearance of the peasantry as a result of the import of corn from the colonies dealt the hardest blow of all to the racial strength of Rome (as it did afterwards to England's). It is in the countryside that the Nordic element seems to keep soundest and last longest. [4]
    In this part he discussed about waning of the Nordic Blood:

    The dying out of the Nordic race (to be examined into more closely in Chapters XI and XII) is, however, brought about through the very fact that there is always a stream of Nordic blood flowing from the countryside into the towns, whither the Nordic man has always been, and always will be, led by his lust for competition, for culture, for leadership, and for distinction. The flow of population from the land whose more capable and energetic members rise by way of the middle class into the leading professions, is, judging by the appropriate anthropological investigations, at the same time a flow of the more Nordic element, which thus, along with the upper section of society, often shows a tendency towards a lowered birth-rate. [5]

    And this is what (I think?!) Agrippa would call the competition of Schizothym and Zyklothym Psychical types of peoples in large cosmopolitan cities; in favour to non- Leptosomic Racial Types:
    (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=8778)

    The disruption shows itself in the daily life. Elements from the lower class have become rich, elements that have built up no idea of honour of their own, that are held back by no traditional sense of dignity from using their wealth to the full. Everything now can be bought: the State can be bought, so can fair hair to make a pretence of noble blood; the nobility itself can be bought. The ideas of the former upper class become ridiculous to the people that is changing: the heroic age lies far behind. Customs belonging to the races of the pre-Nordic populations again make their appearance. Morals change; the class-divisions are effaced by an unbounded freedom and restlessness, but, above all, by the rise of the new rich. The racial mixture has broken up the nobility; the new rich control the State, and use their power against the free peasantry, who now have the comparatively purest Nordic blood. The land goes to waste, the towns grow. The general mixture of blood ('the blood chaos,' Lundborg), to which the flow of foreign racial elements contributes, breeds the mob of the great cities -- masses of men, who, as a result of the mixed blood, are utterly without goal, and exposed to any and every influence. Late Rome is a good example of this. [6]
    Walther Darre concluded that the future of Germany depends on the survivor of the Nordic peasantry in North-West German Provinces. Industrialization and Urbanization will foster this people to the "Racialy chaotic cities" and this "healthy, good blood will be lost forever".

    From his political carrier and goals I abstract fallow data:

    In 1929 Darre published 'The Peasantry as the Key to Understanding the Nordic Race', in which he concluded that 'kind providence laid a gift in the cradle of the Nordic race out of which grew perhaps its most significant characteristic. It is to the innermost need of the Nordic to place his life at the service of a cause and to develop inner moral principles for himself out of the necessities which determine this work. [7]
    Gradually drawn into politics, Darre became known as an independent "Nordic" racial theorist trying to lead North German farmers. He first popularized the memorable slogan "Blood and Soil", putting it on everyone's lips for future Nazi propaganda.

    In 1930, Hitler decided to offer the unemployed Darre the important salaried position as the Party leader for the peasant class - what became the Reichsbaurernfuhrer (Imperial Peasant Leader) after taking power in 1933. And at that relatively late date Darre agreed to join the Nazis. After the Nazi Party was given state power, Darre also became the first Minister of Agriculture for the Third Reich.

    "In July 1932, Hitler's Party attracted the largest vote it was to have before gaining power, 37.4% of the vote. In a system of multiple minority parties, it was an overwhelming victory. The North German Protestant farmers and villages and small towns had voted for Hitler - averaging some 78.8%. In some areas of the Geest, Nazi votes were 80-100% of the total. The smaller the village, the larger the proportion..."
    Darre was one of the ideological godfathers of the S.S., having helped mold the young organization. He introduced regular S.S. classes on racist theory. And in 1931, he convinced S.S. chief Himmler to make racial examination of all prospective brides of S.S. men a mandatory requirement. This fetish about women's biology was an obsession of Darre's (and many other Nazi men, as well). [8]
    As far as Darre was concerned, the peasantry constituted 'a homogenous racial group of Nordic antecedents, who formed the racial and cultural core of the German nation.' [9]

    He examined the finest nuances of the food physiology as well as agriculture geography and drew the following conclusion: "the Original Home [Urheimat] of the Nordic race is the forest zone of Northern Europe with their moderate climate." [10]
    What can be a 'homogenous racial group of Nordic antecedents, who formed the racial and cultural core of the German nation'??? The most Nordic regions in Germany are Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony, Eastern Frisia and Westphalia (See Günther's and Lundman's writings). On the whole these territories Nordic Race is partly brachycephalized (by Borreby and/or Alpine admixture) and mixed with Phalian Race ( Phalian = Fälische, Dalische, Faeled, Dalic, Falic, Fälisk, Västtysk, Dalonordid, Dalofaelid …). But this doesn't change "Blut un Boden" doctrine! In his early work (Das Bauerntum als Lebensquell der nordischen Rasse, 1928) Darre wrote and thought ONLY about preservation of NORDIC peasantry, Phalian Race was not wholly described by Scientists. Later (during '30thies) "Rassenkunde" evolved further and authors like Paudler, Kern, Günther and Clauss found striking resemblances between Nordics and Phalians mental attitudes. They described tall, blond Cro-Magnon German Type as war-like in mentality, with tendency to environmental and personal cleaning, love of nature and rural life, and very creative in spirit just like Nordic man. Thus besides the fact that Günther added Phalians as sixth European original race (in 1928, separated but akin to Nordic) everybody considered it as a sub-type of Nordic primary Race (see for example Lundman, Schwidetzky, Biasutti and Knussman taxonomies). In Racial criteria for membership in SS, Phalian phenotype was grinded almost like "Pure Nordic". [11]

    See for example:

    ~Racial Criterias in Allgemeine-SS: http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.p...312#post271312
    ~Hitler Youth Handbook: http://www.portal-ns.com/thecensure/hj.htm
    ~SS-Rassenkunde: http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.p...973#post312973

    Himmler pointed in Poznan:
    Thus this whole people is saturated with, and held together by Nordic-Phalian-Germanic blood, so that after all one could, and can, still speak of a German people. [12]
    In German documents you will find - "Der nordisch-fälische Mensch" and "nordisch-fälische Rasselemente" selection for eastern European SS colonization project.

    If you look at these maps it is obvious that on aforementioned zone north-west German Regions are the blondest (exempt predominantly Baltic eastern parts), the tallest and the least brachycephalized part of the state. Borreby racial element can be partly brachycephalized Cro-Magnon Race? (Otto Reche's hipothesis)




    Pigmentation Map (eyes and hair)




    Average Men Stature in 1906.




    Cephalic Index

    above maps are from "Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes", Hans F. K. Günther, J. F. Lehmanns Verlag München 1942.
    (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=38640)

    Follow map shows that the same area was very little industrialized and predominantly rural in these times:



    The industrial regions of the German Reich, 1936.


    Günther also pointed that rural population of north-west Germany preserved the oldest Germanic type of settlement (Haufendörfer). See maps bellow.

    http://forums.skadi.net/attachment.p...1&d=1126652886
    http://forums.skadi.net/attachment.p...1&d=1126652886

    So, Darre's sentence about 'homogenous racial group of Nordic antecedents' sounds very logical.

    And briefly to Summarized, this post becomes some tire. In period between 1933 and 1939 as a Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture, Peasant Leader and director of the Race and Settlement Office ('Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt' - RuSHA), Darre seek to tie Nordic-Phalian yeoman to his native soil. He believed (in according with strictly scientific arguments!) that north-west Germany is original Nordic "Racial breeding-ground". With specific laws and measures he patronize the yeoman and his environment (because of that today people regard him as most representative man in "Green wing of Nazi Party"). Darre obtained to reduce peasant interest rates to a maximum of 2% on farm loans, rise peasant's production market by 200%, and ensure that rural families retained their ancient right of hereditary ownership [13]. By the National Inheritance Law of September 29, 1933, farmers were relieved of the burdens of the capitalistic land law which treated land as an article of trade. From now on peasant estates are fundamentally non-saleable, non-distrainable, and indivisible. Any further pernicious breaking up of peasant holdings is thereby checked. The Reich Food Estate Law of September 13, 1933, supplied the legal basis for organising the agricultural estate itself. Darre launched a series of measures designed to regenerate German agriculture by encouraging organic farming and replanting techniques. Reich Law for the Protection of Mother Earth was passed "in order to stem the steady loss of this irreplaceable basis of all life." Planning ordinances were designed for the protection of wildlife habitat and at the same time demanded respect for the sacred German forest. The Nazi state also created the first nature preserves in Europe. In 1935 unprecedented "nature protection law" not only established guidelines for safeguarding flora, fauna, and "natural monuments" across the Reich; it also restricted commercial access to remaining tracts of wilderness.


    All in all by "Blut und Boden" doctrine Darre aspired to preserve Nordic-Phalian yeoman of north-west rural parts of Germany; on his ancestral land; this would provide constant supplement of most desirable blood to Racially-Biological elite of the Reich - the Schutzstaffel (SS).


    During the WWII "Blood and Soil" philosophy developed further and proceed German boundary, from 1938. In occupied Poland (1939-1940) Darre and Himmler recovered large amount of Poland arable territory (see Nuremberg trials), which was previously German property, and planned to colonize it with SS families. This should be Geopolitical and Racial boundary between "East and West". Later, with German advance over Soviet Russia, this strictly Rural and Nordic-Phalian colonial boundary [14] was planned to move further east [15]. See map bellow. All plans are break down with German war defeat.

    Comments are welcome from those who are interested and/or read something about this topic!





    Sources:

    [1] Fascist Ecology (http://www.social-ecology.org/)
    [2] Field, Geoffrey, 'Nordic Racism'.
    [3] "The Nation in the Light of Modern Race Theories" by Rudolf Rocker.
    [4] Chapter VIII - Part Three, 'The Racial Elements of European History', 1926.
    [5] Chapter III, Ibid.
    [6] Chapter VIII - Part Three, Ibid.
    [7] R.W. Darre, 'The Peasantry As The Key To Understanding The Nordic Race' in Barbara Miller Lane & Leila J. Rupp (Ed.) 'Nazi Ideology Before 1933: A Documentation' (Manchester University Press, 1978), p.105.
    [8] Review of Dr. Anna Bramwell's Blood and Soil, the biography of Nazi Reichsminister R. Walter Darre.
    [9] 'Blood And Soil', op. cit., p.24.
    [10] DIE BIOLOGISCHE GRUNDLAGE DER NORDISCHEN WELTANSCHAUUNG - WLADIMIR AWDEJEW.
    [11] Eugenics and the Third Reich By Stephen B. Saetz, Originally published in The Eugenics Bulletin, Winter 1985.
    [12] Speech of the Reichsfuehrer-SS at the meeting of SS Major-Generals at Posen October 4th, 1943.
    [13] The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by Wiliam Shirer.
    [14] Karsten Schulz, Nationalsozialistische Nachkriegskonzeptionen für die eroberten Gebiete Osteuropas, vom Januar 1940 bis zum Januar 1943.
    [15] Geheim-Erlaß vom 7. Oktober 1939, Vorläufer des "Generalplan Ost"…


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    Last edited by Willigut; Wednesday, September 14th, 2005 at 03:51 AM.

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    Senior Member Oskorei's Avatar
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    Post Workers Power and the Ultraright/Blood & Soil

    Great article in Synthesis, explaining the tradition of "workers power" in the ultraright.

    http://www.rosenoire.org/articles/Ultraright.php

    The following group was actually considered fascist both in contemporary discourse as well as upon its inception, however, it’s ideology had much more incommon with syndicalism than what is generally definedas fascism. The Faiscieau was formed in 1925 by George Valois, a one time anarcho-syndicalist who had met with the brilliant radical thinker Georges Sorelas well as Charles Maurras, he was also the founder of the Cercle Proudhon, a group of intellectuals committed to a national syndicalist France. Though the Faiscieau certainly had some fascist dressing,mostly in the aesthetic sense(marches, uniforms, ect.) but also claiming an admiration for Mussolini, from the start they were not your typical fascist party. While authentic fascist Benito Mussolini is quoted assaying: “Fascism should more properly be called corporatism because it is the merger of state and corporate power”, Valois wished to see the economy run by those actually involved in manufacturing goods. This would clearly mean that workers would have control over the means of production as they are most involved in the manufacturing process.Valois also saw his fascism as a revolt against bourgeois rule,which differs from authentic fascism which was committed to protecting the interests of the ruling class against the tide of Marxism. Valois was also committed to an absolutely free trade unionism.

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    Senior Member Oskorei's Avatar
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    Post Blood and Soil

    Another important article from the National-Anarchists of Terra Firma, dealing with the concept of Blood and Soil, its history and implications today.

    http://www.national-anarchist.org/ar...bloodsoil.html

    Quote Originally Posted by Southgate
    WHILST the modern world appears to be in a state of great disarray, the perpetual relevance of Nature both as a guide and a source of inspiration continues to invite our utmost respect and admiration. Sadly, however, the vast majority of people have become alienated from their origins, detached from their racial and cultural heritage, and cut off from their roots.

    ............................

    The term originated in Germany during the early-1920s and was first coined by August Winnig, an ex-Social Democrat who had resigned from the centre-left SPD due to its obsession with internationalism. In 1927, the Transylvanian exile, Georg Kenstler, launched his 'Blood and Soil' magazine as a means of safeguarding the 'integral link between the tribe and the land, to be defended by blood, if necessary.'(3) For rural Germans, therefore, blood and soil became 'a code word implying the protection of a real personality. It stressed the kinship element, and the peasant's demographic role. City-dwellers did not breed - peasants did. They were the life-blood of the nation in a literal sense as well as its spiritual and cultural basis.'(4) But the very notion that a race is somehow rooted to a territory which has been drenched in the pioneering blood of its ancestors, is something that goes far beyond the terminological inventiveness of Weimar Germany. In a similar vein, it would be extremely unwise to dismiss blood and soil as a phenomenon which simply accompanied the emergence of National-Socialism, or even to suggest that twentieth-century romantics like the German Youth Movement and various nudist colonies had merely revived the medieval spirit of Aryan yeomanry for their own amusement. Not so! In fact the image of the heroic farmer and his devoted spouse extends far beyond the trappings of Teutonic legend, and blood and soil each represent inextricable components of the natural order and should not be estimated in historical terms alone. To those who aspired to such an ideal, it became a living testimony to the Nordic soul, an 'unwritten history of Europe, a history unconnected with trade, the banditry of the aristocracy, and the infinite duplicity of church and monarchy.'(5) Indeed, throughout the centuries the growth of materialism has become enshrined within a capitalist-marxian axis, leading to an inexhaustible plethora of ideological variants which come and go like empires founded upon sand. Meanwhile, of course, the self-appointed lords of the manor have forcibly extracted their financial dues from the sweating brow of many a broken and bitter serf.

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    Senior Member sheriff skullface's Avatar
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    The chthonic spirit and the metaphysics of blood and soil

    Chthonic: from Beast to Godhead (by Vadge Moore)

    The ancient Greek word chthonic is commonly defined as dark, primitive and mysterious. Chthonic is of the earth or under the earth. The ancient, infernal, carnal, gods Set, Pan, Bacchus, and Dionysus traditionally represent it. According to Professor Carl Jung the chthonic gods are connected to the blood and to the soil. To be chthonic means to be rooted in the ground sunk into the earth where all things die decompose and rejoin the primal elements. Chthonic represents the instincts that awaken the soul.

    The serpent is a powerful chthonic animal that is always low to the ground, connected to the earth. Jung writes, "The serpent is the age-old representative of the lower worlds, of the belly with its contents and the intestines." The lower intestines are where the Hindu doctrine locates the sleeping serpent kundalini; ever ready to awake and journey up the initiates spine stimulating each chakra center until supreme enlightenment occurs at the top of the head.

    The serpent is an ancient symbol that has always represented wisdom, occult knowledge, the cycles of nature and the death and rebirth of all things through the shedding of its skin. In the Garden of Eden the serpent is Satan tempting Eve with ultimate knowledge of all things. The Norse god Odin transforms himself into a snake and descends into the earth to obtain the Mead of Inspiration. The Greek god Hermes carried the caduceus, a rod coiled with two snakes.

    The chthonic process is an occult "awakening" that includes the very lowest instinctual elements of the human psyche leading to the very highest elements. It is the base, primordial material that the psyche needs in order to evolve and grow. Chthonic is the soil, the fertilizer, and the dark, primitive unconscious material that can turn the beast into a god. Chthonic is depicted in all myths as the Underworld, Hell or Hades. Jungian author James Hillman considers this Underworld to be the residence of the soul, the place the hero must descend in order to find his essence.


    http://www.rosenoire.org/articles/chthonic.php
    go here for the rest of the article

    it seems very true that their is a metaphysical connection between the Chthonic spirit and the blood and soil ethos, that which connects our primordial collective soul to the land and enviroment, what really intrigues me is that Chthonic is depicted as the underworld in all of these traditions, and that this is descibed as a place to heroically find some sort of enlightment or knowledge,

    I'm interested as to what your thoughts would be on these metaphysical concepts

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    Lightbulb Re: the chthonic spirit and the metaphysics of blood and soil

    Quote Originally Posted by sheriff skullface View Post
    it seems very true that their is a metaphysical connection between the Chthonic spirit and the blood and soil ethos, that which connects our primordial collective soul to the land and environment, what really intrigues me is that Chthonic is depicted as the underworld in all of these traditions, and that this is desrcibed as a place to heroically find some sort of enlightment or knowledge,

    I'm interested as to what your thoughts would be on these metaphysical concepts
    Yes, this is all true. I will expand on this in relation to my Pax-Aryocratic IMPERIVM idea:

    Blood & Soil is a mostly chthonic doctrine (thus not very solar); that is very obvious (chthonic: from Greek khthonios, of the earth, from khthn, earth; see dhghem- in Indo-European roots). It could even be argued that it [the Blood & Soil doctrine] draws from pre-Aryan European socio-political systems (often matriarchal ones) and that Aryan socio-politics, which are more Solar/patriarchal/celestial are less about the soil (obviously); as the Aryans are/were conquering/colonizing tribes.

    I find the obviously chthonic Blood & Soil doctrine very interesting and I realize that it is central to Nationalsocialism (at least historical NS); and I can relate to it very much as I feel much connection to the Icelandic and European soil. But, I do think it should not be and is not central to the ideal Aryan IMPERIVM idea -- the idea which I believe in and promote; my golden age past and future Utopia.

    The ideologists of the Aryan IMPERIVM idea have and should do well to combine ancient and modern Imperial spiritual doctrines, like that of Evola, with more biological/Blood & Soil doctrines, like that of Darré and Himmler.

    Why do I not think the Blood & Soil doctrine should be central to the Aryan IMPERIVM idea?

    Be cause the Aryan IMPERIVM idea, and/or the society promoted in/by that idea, is much less chthonic/heimaat than it is Solar/virile. What I am saying is that the Aryans are a conquering race -- they established IMPERIVM'S around the globe; Asia, America, Africa (that is Egypt) and Evrópa (not sure about Australia) -- and that the globe, by divine right (that is might), is theirs.

    Sure, Blood & Soil is useful; and it is often needed; a definition of a heartland and a sacred central place; perhaps a romantic mount Olympus of a sort, is very important. But the place [the soil] really shouldn't be the most important thing! Places change, climates change (great disasters or eruptions for example) but the kingdom of heaven remains. The Solar Empire is from above, not from underground. I'm saying a Pax-Aryocratic SACRUM IMPERIVM is a virile/active entity that doesn't lay dormant at just one place forever... it is patriarchal & conquering, ever seeking to expand and seeking something greater; to improve itself and all around it.

    It's citizens are (Imperial) crusaders in and at heart... bringing sacral (sun)light & Order to the darker (more primitive) & chaotic lunar realms.
    "I have reached these lands but newly
    From an ultimate dim Thule
    From a wild weird clime, that lieth, sublime,
    Out of SPACE — out of TIME
    ."
    Edgar Allan Poe


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    Sv: Re: the chthonic spirit and the metaphysics of blood and soil

    Great answer, Thulean. I agree with your analysis, and only wish to add an aspect. Evola says that prolonged contact with the Hyperborean tradition can give a bloodline/biological race a spiritual "chrism". The same is true with the Soil, as seen especially in the rites that Aryan peoples used when they settled new land to make them parts of the ordered Cosmos. Seen in this light, there is the possibility of a holy Soil connected to a holy Blood. A possibility rarely realized though.

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    Blood & Soil

    BLOOD & SOIL: REVOLUTIONARY NATIONALISM AS THE VANGUARD OF ECOLOGICAL SANITY by Troy Southgate

    "One day the sewage of the cities will cease to be poured into the rivers, and will be returned to the land, to grow fine food for the people. One day salmon will leap again in the clear waters of a London river; and human work will be creative, and joyful. One day the soul of man, shut in upon itself during the long centuries of economic struggle, will arise in the light of the sun of truth." - Henry Williamson

    WHILST the modern world appears to be in a state of great disarray, the perpetual relevance of Nature both as a guide and a source of inspiration continues to invite our utmost respect and admiration. Sadly, however, the vast majority of people have become alienated from their origins, detached from their racial and cultural heritage, and cut off from their roots.

    Even as far back as 1833, Wiliam Cobbett had rightly announced to the world that English folk had become 'deserters from the plough'[1]. As if by magic, the smoking chimneys and windowless factories of the Industrial Revolution had arrived to force people away from the fields and into the expanding towns. Meanwhile, however, as Howard Newby suggests, even today the countryside offers its stubborn resistance to 'reassure us that everything these days is superficial and transitory; that some things remain stable, permanent and enduring'[2]. Indeed, the glory of rural life sanctions the status quo. Not the status quo of the Establishment or the bland sterility of modernism, on the contrary, the great tenacity our our forests, clifftops and dales are a lasting reminder that man can return to his ancestral sanctuary whenever the futile quest for scientific infallibility has run its inevitable course and he has finally begun to withdraw from the hedonistic negativity of the burgeoning metropolis. So what is meant by blood and soil, and why is it so vital in the shift towards a decentralised proliferation of small village communities?

    The term originated in Germany during the early-1920s and was first coined by August Winnig, an ex-Social Democrat who had resigned from the centre-left SPD due to its obsession with internationalism. In 1927, the Transylvanian exile, Georg Kenstler, launched his 'Blood and Soil' magazine as a means of safeguarding the 'integral link between the tribe and the land, to be defended by blood, if necessary.'[3] For rural Germans, therefore, blood and soil became 'a code word implying the protection of a real personality. It stressed the kinship element, and the peasant's demographic role. City-dwellers did not breed - peasants did. They were the life-blood of the nation in a literal sense as well as its spiritual and cultural basis.'[4] But the very notion that a race is somehow rooted to a territory which has been drenched in the pioneering blood of its ancestors, is something that goes far beyond the terminological inventiveness of Weimar Germany. In a similar vein, it would be extremely unwise to dismiss blood and soil as a phenomenon which simply accompanied the emergence of National-Socialism, or even to suggest that twentieth-century romantics like the German Youth Movement and various nudist colonies had merely revived the medieval spirit of Aryan yeomanry for their own amusement. Not so! In fact the image of the heroic farmer and his devoted spouse extends far beyond the trappings of Teutonic legend, and blood and soil each represent inextricable components of the natural order and should not be estimated in historical terms alone. To those who aspired to such an ideal, it became a living testimony to the Nordic soul, an 'unwritten history of Europe, a history unconnected with trade, the banditry of the aristocracy, and the infinite duplicity of church and monarchy.'[5] Indeed, throughout the centuries the growth of materialism has become enshrined within a capitalist-marxian axis, leading to an inexhaustible plethora of ideological variants which come and go like empires founded upon sand. Meanwhile, of course, the self-appointed lords of the manor have forcibly extracted their financial dues from the sweating brow of many a broken and bitter serf.

    Revolutionary Nationalism, on the other hand, or what in some circles is described as National-Anarchism, is more than a political ideology. It is able to recognise and understand that the relationship between a community and the land is something both immeasurable and spiritual. But, as Dr. Anna Bramwell has explained, blood and soil 'is implicit rather than explicit'[6] and, in practical terms, can often be seen today in 'European nations such as Greece and France, and several states in the United States of America, [where] farm purchase by non-nationals is either forbidden or tangled up with so many booby-traps as to be made extremely difficult. The position in the Third World is much more exclusivist and racialist.'[7] In short, to fully appreciate blood and soil one must come to terms with the fact that it is far more than just a political concept. As long as future attempts to initiate a blood and soil renaissance take this fact into account, however, the process will remain as natural and organic as possible.

    Few people would doubt that Hitler's Reichsbauernfuhrer, R. Walther Darre, was primarily a political animal, but he was also intelligent enough to realise that if Germany was to retain her fine rural tradition the incoming National-Socialist government had to ensure that the existence of the peasantry was not in any way undermined. Indeed, Darre did not wish to see the vocational heritage of the country's agricultural backbone reduced to a fleeting plaything of the urban escapist or become the profitable sideline of exploitative fatcats. But Darre was an idealist, and never likely to be taken seriously by an opportunist and a politician like Hitler.

    On March 6th, 1930, the National-Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) published its 'Official Party Manifesto on the Position of the NSDAP with Regard to the Farming Population and Agriculture'. This document claimed that the 'Maintenance of an efficient agricultural class, increasing in numbers as the general population increases, is a central plank in the National-Socialist platform'[8]. Furthermore, the Partly rightly acknowledged that the German peasantry was under attack from several quarters, namely 'the Jewish world money market - which really controls parliamentary democracy in Germany . . . the competition of foreign agriculturalists, who work under more favourable conditions . . . the extravagant profits made by the large wholesale middlemen, who thrust themselves in between producer and consumer . . . [and] . . . the oppressive rates the farmer has to pay for electric power and artificial manures to concerns mainly run by Jews.'[9] In place of this exploitation the NSDAP proposed that, amongst other things, land ownership be exclusively available to German citizens, that such land be made inheritable property (enabling peasants to become rooted to the soil), and that large areas be set aside for colonisation by an expanding German population. But whilst such policies were understandably attractive to ordinary peasants and back-to-the-land enthusiasts alike, when the Hitler government finally came to power in 1933 they were never put into practice. In 1940 Otto Strasser attacked the regime's Patrimonial Farm Law for the simple reason that it extended only to a portion of the peasantry and 'created three kinds of agricultural entrepreneur: peasants whose holdings were so small as to be unviable; middle and great peasants who are tenant-farmers; and great landowners who run their estates on purely capitalist lines.'[10]

    Meanwhile, Walther Darre (who did not actually join the Party until 1930) had acquired a reputation as a man of great principle after resigning from his post in the East Prussian Trakhener Stud (Warm Blood Society), an animal breeding centre where he had come into direct conflict with his superiors. In 1926, Darre had writen an article condemning those who were seeking to revive plans for a colonial German empire, regarding the idea as 'inimical and destructive to the concept of a German homeland.'[11] Darre, therefore, seemed an unlikely figure for a Party which unashamedly advocated the forcible colonisation of occupied land for German settlement. Several years later, when Hitler ordered the seizure of Moravia and Bohemia from the Czechs, Darre recorded an entry in his diary claiming that, by creating an empire at the expense of her own national interests, Germany was repeating the errors made by England. Nevertheless, when Hitler had realised that Darre's immense popularity could provide him with the rural vote the NSDAP needed in order to obtain power, the latter rose to the challenge and vowed to use his new position in the government to defend the interests of his beloved peasants.

    Modern ecologists would do well to emulate the honesty and integrity of men like Walther Darre. Sadly, however, unlike their National-Socialist predecessor most of them are too frightened to accept that Race has a great part to play in the restoration of the natural order. As far as Darre was concerned, the peasantry constituted 'a homogenous racial group of Nordic antecedents, who formed the racial and cultural core of the German nation.'[12] In 1929 Darre published 'The Peasantry as the Key to Understanding the Nordic Race', in which he concluded that 'kind providence laid a gift in the cradle of the Nordic race out of which grew perhaps its most significant characteristic. It is to the innermost need of the Nordic to place his life at the service of a cause and to develop inner moral principles for himself out of the necessities which determine this work'.[13]

    Initially, Darre did little more tha reduce peasant interest rates to a maximum of 2% on farm loans and ensure that rural families retained their ancient right of hereditary ownership. However, once Hitler had made it perfectly clear that he had no real intention of honouring the original agricultural principles outlined in the 'Twenty-Five Points of the NSDAP', Darre realised that he had to use his time as constructively as possible in order to stave off the rising challenge of his closest rival, arch-technocrat and Hitlerian sycophant Herbert Backe. At Goslar, an ancient medieval town in the Harz Mountains, Darre established a 'peasants capital' and launched a series of measures designed to regenerate German agriculture by encouraging organic farming and replanting techniques. His 'dream was to make Goslar the centre of a new peasants' international; a green union of the northern European peoples. Here he made speeches condemning the fuhrer-princip and attacking imperial expansion. Visitors flocked to him. Organic farming enthusiasts from England welcomed Darre's plans and admired the hereditary tenure legislation. Representatives from Norwegian and Danish peasant movements joined the conferences on blood and soil.'[14] But Darre's overall strategy was even more radical, and he intended to abolish industrial society altogether and replace it with a series of purely peasant-based communities. In his view, '[c]apitalism and industry would soon wither away (a view held by many people in the Depression era) and with it the age of mass urbanisation and mechanisation. an urbanised society was incapable of survival. As it collapsed - helped by farmers blockading the cities - it would be replaced by a new society formed from a core of healthy, sound peasants'.[15] Darre realised, therefore, the extent to which cities have to rely upon extracting their sustenance from the rural periphery. He knew, in other words, that by encouraging German peasants to deprive the country's blood-sucking industrial regions of their agrarian lifesource, it was possible to hasten the self-destructive process of capitalism itself.

    Needless to say, the leaders of the NSDAP were eager to claim these magnificent achievements for themselves and, by August 1937, Darre became completely disgusted with a statement made by Hermann Goering at the International Dairy Conference, during which the overweight usurper had declared that '[n]o country can withdraw today from the world economic system. No country can ever say again, we decline the world economy and are going to live and produce for ourselves alone.'[16] By April 1939, Goering's Four-Year Plan for the industrialisation of Germany in accordance with a total war economy had taken young people away from the land and into cramped munitions factories in the cities. This led to Darre attacking the Nazi regime for its 'economic imperialism, which makes one anxious for blood and soil ideals'[17]. In 1942, Darre was demoted from his ministerial position and inevitably replaced by the odious and far less dangerous Herbert Backe. From that moment on he had no doubt whatsoever that Hitler had cruelly betrayed the German peasantry. In the words of the aforementioned Dr. Bramwell: 'Hitler found Darre a useful theorist and organiser for a period of crisis, but when he kept faith with his vision he was, like many other revolutionary ideologues, discarded.'[18] More importantly, however, whilst Darre was far too modest to concede the fact, the Fuhrer had deprived Germany of her finest ecological pioneer; a man who is truly the patriarch of the modern Greens.

    But Darre was not the only radical in the NSDAP. On the contrary, he was just one of many disaffected anti-capitalists who attempted to make the Party more radical by working from within. In this sense, at least, Darre surpassed most of them because the likes of 'Feder and Strasser did not see their ideas carried into effect.'[19] But, despite his agrarian radicalism, Darre never fully realised the futility of his association with the NSDAP until it was too late. On the other hand, if Darre had not been appointed Agricultural Minister in the first place he would not have been able to implement his blood and soil policies at all. This does not validate the gradualist strategy of those who continue to put their trust in the System, however, it merely demonstrates that - despite the legacy passed down to us by Darre and his closest followers - it is only possible to achieve a certain amount within the context of the existing governmental framework. Indeed, by 1942 Darre would have said the same thing himself, believing, as he did, that only a Green Revolution can sweep away the old Establishment and pave the way for a New Agrarian Order.

    Darre's concern for the environment was also shared by Corneliu Codreanu and the Romanian Legionary Movement (Iron Guard), mainly due to the fact that prior to the Second World War the Romanian peasantry made up some 90% of the total population. The defiant streak of anti-urbanism which characterised the green-shirted fighters of Europe's most spiritual bastion of National Revolutionary struggle to date, is epitomised by the slogan 'up above, we will defend the life of the trees and the mountains from further devastation. Down below [in the towns], we will spread death and mercy.'[20] This view obviously concords with those in contemporary National-Anarchist circles and their commitment to destroy capitalism from within whilst creating a brand new order from without. Codreanu was a man who often sought release from the tortures of self-doubt by wandering into the wilderness, eagerly savouring the comfort and solace offered by the beautiful Romanian mountains. In his moving and emotional autobiography, 'For My Legionaries', Codreanu describes his self-imposed experience of solitude thus: 'It was getting dark. Not one living soul around. Only trees with vultures shrieking around the barren cliffs. I only had with me my heavy coat and a loaf of bread. I ate some bread and drank some water springing from among the rocks.'[21] Codreanu undoubtedly appreciated the spiritual realities of his ancestral homeland. Another example of the vast importance the Iron Guard attributed to the notion of blood and soil can be found in the Legion's symbolic commitment to Romania in terms of the country's physical and spiritual immortality. In 1927, twenty-seven legionaries made a solemn vow to defend their fatherland by distributing between themselves small leather sacks conatining Romanian earth. But whilst some may view this ceremony as a purely theatrical affair, as Codreanu himself rightly notes, such earth was representative of the very soul of the nation, which, in turn, means 'not only all Romanians living in the same territory, sharing the same past and the same future, the same dress, but all Romanians, alive and dead who have lived on this land from the beginning of history and will live here in the future.'[22]

    In Spain, however, the concept of blood and soil was not at all shared by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera's Falange. In fact the Nationalist leader 'stringently attacked the blood and soil gut patriotism typical of Romanian and German National-Socialism, together with Romantic Nationalism and its emphasis on the pull of the land'[23]. According to Hugh Thomas, '[p]atriotism had to be anchored, not in the heart, but in the mind'[24]. But despite the worthy idealism of the Falange prior to its involvement with self-important reactionaries like General Franco in the 1936 Civil War, the Movement's attitude towards agrarian issues was woefully inadequate. Jose Antonio wanted his country to dominate the world stage and, therefore, failed to appreciate the fact that a naturally-rooted peasantry is far from 'backward' or 'anachronistic'. Unfortunately, many of his 'economic and social policies followed the modernising path of Mussolini and the aims of Mosley.'[25] On the other hand, the Spanish leader was extremely critical of those who wallowed in the contaminating decadence of city life: 'Our place is in the fresh air, under the cloudless heavens, weapons in our hands, with the stars above us. Let the others go on with their merrymaking. We outside, in tense, fervent, and certain vigilance, already feel the dawn breaking in the joy of our hearts.'[26]

    But whilst capitalism is chiefly responsible for the destruction of the natural world, Marxism does not even take it into consideration. As one of the great modern pioneers of organic farming and self-sufficiency, John Seymour, has explained: 'Karl Marx, who spent most of his life in the reading room of the British Museum Library, probably came as little into contact with nature as it was possible to do and still stay alive. The result was that his philosophy ignored everything not human absolutely completely. He was aware (just) that food came from the country. He was aware that there must be some people out there somewhere who grew it. It was his object to rescue these imaginary people from what he called 'the idiocy of rural life'. What is that to the idiocy of spending all your life in the British Museum Library?'[27]. Since then, of course, the practical implementation of this individual's philosophy in Eastern Europe has proved beyond any doubt that Marxism is opposed to ecological order. One ridiculous consequence of Soviet agrarianism led to Russia - the greatest continuous wheat-growing area in the world - being forced to import its grain from abroad. If this is an example of Marxist state-planning in action, it is hardly surprising, therefore, to learn that Stalin eventually condemned millions of peasants to misery, squalor and mass starvation. The Red dictator's agricultural incompetence was soon hurriedly obscured by diverting the world's attention towards the steady industrialisation of Russia. Marxism, it seems, relies far more upon blood than soil.

    Returning to the present, until those involved in ecological struggle can learn to appreciate the spiritual reality which binds man to his environment, reactionaries, liberals and leftists alike will continue to delay the replenishment of the natural order. We revolutionaries can only revitalise and reclaim the natural world from the clutches of capitalism once we have discovered that which lies within ourselves. It is vital for us to come to terms with the fact that, by springing from the very soil of which we have always been a part, we are inevitably destined to return to it at the end of our brief sojourn upon this earth. This is summed up very beautifully by Knut Hamsun, the great Norwegian storyteller who, in a poem entitled 'My Grave', wrote the following emotive words:

    Oh Lord, I pray thee do not let me die
    In a bed with sheets and blankets piled upon
    And with dripping noses about me.
    Nay, smite me someday without warning,
    That headlong I fall into the forest some place
    Where no one will come around nosing.
    I well know the forest, I am its son,
    It will not deny my humble request
    To die on its cranberry bog.
    Thus will I give back without word of complaint
    My mighty cadaver to its creatures all,
    To the crows, the rats and the flies.[28]

    So without a recognition of our inherent racial qualities and the ancestral territory that determines our nationhood, we will remain as much a threatened species as the white rhino, the giant panda and the large blue butterfly. As Europe and North America struggles to cope with the catastrophic results of inner-city habitation and suicidal race-mixing, National Revolutionaries must never forget that we humans are the natural guardians of the soil and our extinction would be possibly the greatest ecological disaster of all. This is why we must seek to re-establish ourselves in the heart of the rural countryside, so that one day we can proudly declare that, in the words of Walther Darre: 'Here is anchored the eternalness of a racial stock of unique character.'[29]



    This article was originally published online by National Vanguard News.

    Notes:
    William Cobbett, quoted in Alun Hawkins' 'Deserters From The Plough' in 'History Today' magazine (1993), #February, Volume 43, p.32. [Back]
    Howard Newby, quoted in David Lowenthal's 'Heritage And The English Landscape' in 'History Today' magazine (1991), #September, Volume 41, p.10. [Back]
    Anna Bramwell, 'Blood And Soil: Walther Darre And Hitler's Green Party' (The Kensal Press, 1985), p.55. [Back]
    Anna Bramwell, 'Ecology In The 20th Century: A History' (Yale University Press, 1989), p.191. [Back]
    'Blood And Soil', op. cit., p.54. [Back]
    Ibid., p.6. [Back]
    Ibid. [Back]
    Gottfried Feder, 'The Programme Of The NSDAP And Its General Conceptions' (BP Publications, 1980), p.10. [Back]
    Ibid., p.11. [Back]
    Otto Strasser, 'Germany Tomorrow' (Jonathan Cape, 1940), p.156. [Back]
    'Blood And Soil', op. cit., p.24. [Back]
    Ibid., p.55. [Back]
    R.W. Darre, 'The Peasantry As The Key To Understanding The Nordic Race' in Barbara Miller Lane & Leila J. Rupp (Ed.) 'Nazi Ideology Before 1933: A Documentation' (Manchester University Press, 1978), p.105. [Back]
    'Blood And Soil', op. cit., p.105. [Back]
    Anna Bramwell, 'Was This Man Father Of The Greens?' in 'History Today' magazine (1984), #September, Volume 34, p.8. [Back]
    'Blood And Soil', op. cit., p.115. [Back]
    Ibid., p.119. [Back]
    Ibid. [Back]
    Ibid., p.5. [Back]
    Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, 'For My Legionaries' (Liberty Bell, 1990), p.225. [Back]
    Ibid., p. 146. [Back]
    Ibid., p.313. [Back]
    'Ecology In The 20th Century: A History', op. cit., pp.163-4. [Back]
    Hugh Thomas (Ed.), 'Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera: Selected Writings' (London, 1972), p.30. [Back]
    'Ecology In The 20th Century: A History', op. cit., pp.164. [Back]
    Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, in a speech to mark the foundation of his Movement on October 29th, 1933, quoted in 'Falange' by Stanley Payne (Stanford, 1961), p.41. [Back]
    John Seymour, 'The Ultimate Heresy' (Green Books, 1989), pp.87-8. [Back]
    Knut Hamsun, quoted in 'Voice From The Forests' by Padraig Cullen in 'The Scorpion' magazine, Issue #11, p.25. [Back]
    R.W. Darre, 'The German Peasant Formed German History' in George L. Mosse (Ed.) 'Nazi Culture' (Grosset & Dunlap, 1966), p.150. [Back]

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