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Thread: What Does a Basic Racial Typology Describe in Europe?

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    Post What Does a Basic Racial Typology Describe in Europe?

    BRUNN

    Height and build
    typically tall,
    broad-shouldered,
    with big bones and heavy musculature
    Arms are long

    The Head
    large-headed
    mesocephalic to sub- brachycephalic
    Long-headed
    forehead is high and broad,
    heavy brow ridge,
    the face wide and often orthognathous
    malars are wide,
    the lower jaw deep and broad,
    and the chin is prominent and typically clefted

    Male Brünn facial features can be very ruggedly masculine, often with exaggeratedly pronounced browridges and deep jaws
    the degree of sexual dimorphism is high, and a corresponding ruggedness is seldom observed among the females. These are typically rounder-featured and larger-breasted than the European mean.

    The Nose
    The nose is moderately large,
    mesorrhine to leptorrhine,
    and straight in profile, with a considerable concave minority.
    The tip is somewhat thick, and frequently upturned.

    The Mouth
    The mouth is large and the lines around the oral cavity are deeply drawn, while the lips are moderately thick and little everted. The upper lip is characteristically long and convex

    The Skin
    The skin, typically freckled, is very fair, and does not easily tan

    The Hair
    The hair is brown and wavy, and often rufous (the Irish Brünn is known for its frequent red-headedness). Curly hair seems to be an Irish specialty, as it is not common with the Scandinavian type

    The Eyes
    The eyes are light-mixed blue in the great majority of cases.

    Measurements (mm)
    Height (cm)........................167 to 181
    Head Length.......................199 to 212
    Head Breadth......................154 to 162
    Minimum Frontal Breadth.......108 to 118
    Bizygomatic Diameter...........147 to 156
    Bigonial Diameter.................111 to 132
    Total Facial Height...............126 to 134
    Upper Facial Height...............72 to 80
    Nasal Height........................56 to 65
    Nasal Breadth......................35 to 48
    Biorbital Width.....................94 to 108
    Interorbital Width.................34 to 41
    Cephalic Index.....................73 to 81
    Facial Index.........................81 to 91
    Upper Facial Index.................46 to 54
    Nasal Index.........................54 to 86
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Sunday, November 9th, 2003 at 09:15 AM.

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    Post Borreby

    BORREBY

    Height and build
    typically very tall,
    broad-shouldered,
    with big bones and heavy musculature

    The Head
    large-headed
    brachycephalic
    occiput is nearly vertical and often slightly flattened
    The temporal bones are weakly curved, but parietal tuberosities are usually strong
    The forehead is broad, only slightly curved, quite high, and usually of but little slope,
    The face is typically square in appearance - due mostly to the great mandibular width and the prominence of the frontal and parietal tuberosities - while round faces are almost as common
    The jaw is rather deep, and the browridges of moderate size
    malars are wide,
    The face is usually short, broad, and somewhat flattish, with a strongly orthognathous profile,

    The Nose
    The nose profile is straight in about 5/6 of cases, and concave in the remainder; convexity is not common. The nose form is mesorrhine to leptorrhine.
    The nasion depression is usually great.

    The Mouth
    The mouth is large and the lines around the oral cavity are deeply drawn, while the lips are moderately thick and little everted. The upper lip is characteristically long and convex

    The Skin


    The Hair
    The hair is typically golden blond to light or medium brown. The total Borreby hair shade range runs from ash blond to dark brown, and the latter category accounts for some 30% of cases

    The Eyes
    Blue eyes are in the majority, but mixed and grayish blue are also common.

    Measurements (mm)
    Height (cm)........................172 to 184
    Head Length.......................197 to 210
    Head Breadth......................165 to 175
    Minimum Frontal Breadth.......114 to 128
    Bizygomatic Diameter...........148 to 158
    Bigonial Diameter.................115 to 127
    Total Facial Height...............120 to 149
    Upper Facial Height...............71 to 80
    Nasal Height........................54 to 65
    Nasal Breadth......................36 to 46
    Biorbital Width.....................96 to 106
    Interorbital Width.................35 to 44
    Cephalic Index.....................79 to 89
    Facial Index.........................76 to 94
    Upper Facial Index.................45 to 54
    Nasal Index.........................55 to 85
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Sunday, November 9th, 2003 at 09:12 AM.

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    Post Hallstatt Nordic

    HALLSTATT NORDIC

    Height and build
    The typical Hallstatt Nordic is tall and lean, with relatively long legs and a short body, moderately broad shoulders and relatively short arms. The impression is of a long and slender type, and corpulence is rare among individuals

    The bones of the Hallstatt Nordic, and of the Nordic race as a whole, are small in comparison to the Brünn and Borreby races and the various blended Nordish types.

    The Head
    The face is oval to slightly rhomboid in shape, with a narrow, somewhat sloping forehead - but much less so than is the case with the Keltic Nordic type - and browridges which are present but rather weakly developed

    The lower jaw is long and deep with a well-developed chin, and the distance from the lower teeth to the chin is remarkably great. The gonial angles are compressed and usually not visible. The malars are small, and the zygomatic arches bowed outward to some extent

    The cephalic index mean of the modern Hallstatt Nordic is mesocephalic (cephalic index ca. 77), although dolichocephaly is not uncommon among individuals. The head, when seen from above, looks like a long oval, somewhat flattened on both sides. The occiput is curved or projecting

    The Nose
    The nasion depression is moderate, while the nose, which is typically parallel in slope with the forehead, is mostly straight or slightly convex, with a high incidence of wavy forms. The nasal index is leptorrhine, and there is usually a noticeable transition from the nasal skeleton to the soft parts of the nose

    The Mouth
    The mouth is small and the lips rather thin.

    The Skin
    The skin, which is a pinkish white, is typically fine-textured and thin. This thinness has the effect of pronouncing the bony parts of the face and making the muscles of the body stand out in relief.

    The Hair
    The hair color of the Hallstatt Nordic is characteristically and almost exclusively blond, with ash-blond shades in one-third to one-half of the cases, the remainder having golden blond to medium brown shades. Rufosity is virtually absent. There is a small brunet minority

    The Eyes
    The Nordic eye is typically light-mixed blue, with a large pure light-eyed minority. Here also there is a small dark-pigmented minority.

    Measurements (mm)
    Height (cm)........................172
    Head Length.......................194
    Head Breadth......................150
    Minimum Frontal Breadth.......
    Bizygomatic Diameter...........138
    Bigonial Diameter.................105
    Total Facial Height...............130
    Upper Facial Height..............
    Nasal Height........................
    Nasal Breadth......................
    Biorbital Width.....................
    Interorbital Width.................
    Cephalic Index.....................77
    Facial Index.........................94
    Upper Facial Index................
    Nasal Index.........................
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Friday, November 7th, 2003 at 04:54 AM.

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    Post Keltic Nordic

    KELTIC NORDIC

    Height and build
    tall,
    slender,
    broad-shouldered

    The Head
    mesocephalic
    low-vaulted, with foreheads of much greater recession than those of the Hallstatt type.
    The Keltic face is long and narrow, and the chin is strongly developed.
    The temples, malars, and gonial angles are typically compressed and not visible.

    The Nose
    The nose is long and high-bridged, and narrow to medium in breadth. The profile is usually straight, but wavy or concavo-convex forms are also common. The characteristic prominence of the Keltic nose is a good diagnostic for distinguishing between extremes of the two Nordic types.

    The Mouth
    The lips are thin to medium, and little everted.

    The Skin


    The Hair
    The hair, which ranges in color from a blackish brown to a platinum-like ash-blond, is most commonly medium brown in pigment. Keltic hair is generally of a much darker tone than what is common among Hallstatt Nordics

    The Eyes
    The eyes are predominantly light-mixed.

    Measurements (mm)
    Height (cm)........................171 to 182
    Head Length.......................188 to 202
    Head Breadth......................151 to 156
    Minimum Frontal Breadth.......108 to 111
    Bizygomatic Diameter...........137 to 142
    Bigonial Diameter.................106 to 107
    Total Facial Height...............127 to 131
    Upper Facial Height..............72 to 77
    Nasal Height........................60 to 61
    Nasal Breadth......................36
    Biorbital Width.....................88
    Interorbital Width.................26
    Cephalic Index.....................74 to 83
    Facial Index.........................89 to 96
    Upper Facial Index................51 to 56
    Nasal Index.........................59 to 60
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Wednesday, November 12th, 2003 at 06:41 AM.

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    Post Anglo-Saxon

    ANGLO-SAXON

    Height and build
    tall,
    broad-shouldered,
    more than average-sized hands and feet.

    The Head
    Large head and face
    over-all mesocephalic, with a minor tendency towards brachycephaly
    The face is long, and shows a marked skeletal relief, giving it a somewhat rugged and angular impression.
    the forehead is high and the browridges heavy, and the jaw is prominent. Both Brünn and Borreby features are visible.

    The Nose
    The nose is large, very leptorrhine, and usually straight, with a convex minority

    The Mouth
    The lips are rather thin.

    The Skin


    The Hair
    hair color range runs from golden blond to medium brown, with the latter in the majority. There is a minor tendency towards rufosity, but much less so than is the case with the Trønder type

    The Eyes
    The eyes are pure blue or light-mixed.

    Measurements (mm)
    Height (cm)........................172 to 175
    Head Length.......................203
    Head Breadth......................157
    Minimum Frontal Breadth.......107
    Bizygomatic Diameter...........148
    Bigonial Diameter.................109
    Total Facial Height...............126
    Upper Facial Height..............75
    Nasal Height........................62
    Nasal Breadth......................32
    Biorbital Width.....................97
    Interorbital Width.................38
    Cephalic Index.....................73 to 77
    Facial Index.........................85
    Upper Facial Index................51
    Nasal Index.........................52
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Thursday, November 6th, 2003 at 05:09 AM.

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    Post Tronder

    TRONDER

    Height and build
    Very tall,
    slender,
    bones are larger and heavier than typically Nordic.
    Females are not heavily boned due to sexual dimorphism

    The Head
    very high-vaulted,
    long-headed,
    high mesocephalic though some type are dolicho-mesocephalic
    face is of considerable length

    The forehead is very high, and at the same time both broader and much less sloping than that of the Hallstatt Nordic.
    Frontal bosses, a non-Nordic trait, are frequently found, and the temporal region is much fuller.

    In addition, the transitions from frontal to temporal and frontal to parietal regions are smooth and difficult to find, whereas on the Nordic head they are clearly marked.

    Zygomatic arches of the Trønder type are less prominent than those of the Hallstatt Nordic, and the gonial angles are compressed and not visible. The skull is more rounded and the occiput less prominently curved than that of the Nordic type.

    The Nose
    Typically straight or convex, with a wide display of wavy forms
    and the transition between bone and cartilage is difficult to locate without palpation (feeling with the fingers).

    The Mouth
    The lips are rather thin.

    The Skin
    The skin is coarser in texture and tougher than regular Nordic skin

    The Hair
    The hair is wavy and ranges in color from brown to golden blond. Rufosity is common, whereas ash-blond shades, a typical Hallstatt Nordic trait, are rarer.
    And the hair is more abundant on beard and body.

    The Eyes
    One of the world's bluest-eyed racial types - light-mixed blue is the predominant eye color.

    Measurements (mm)
    Height (cm)........................167 to 178
    Head Length.......................195 to 200
    Head Breadth......................155 to 161
    Minimum Frontal Breadth.......104 to 115
    Bizygomatic Diameter...........138 to 143
    Bigonial Diameter.................102 to 116
    Total Facial Height...............129 to 138
    Upper Facial Height..............68 to 77
    Nasal Height........................54 to 63
    Nasal Breadth......................36 to 40
    Biorbital Width.....................90 to 94
    Interorbital Width.................32 to 39
    Cephalic Index.....................78 to 83
    Facial Index.........................90 to 100
    Upper Facial Index................49 to 56
    Nasal Index.........................57 to 74
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Sunday, November 9th, 2003 at 09:21 AM.

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    Post Falish

    FALISH

    Height and build
    Tall,
    broad-shoulders,

    The Head
    Typically sub-brachycephalic and not seldom brachycephalic
    The facial and upper facial indices are mesoprosopic and mesene to euryene

    The Nose
    Moderately leptorrhine
    Usually straight, but there are local tendencies toward convexity and snub-nosed concavity.

    The Mouth


    The Skin


    The Hair
    Typically golden blond

    The Eyes
    Blue

    Measurements (mm)
    Height (cm)........................172 to 182
    Head Length.......................190 to 197
    Head Breadth......................160 to 163
    Minimum Frontal Breadth.......113 to 117
    Bizygomatic Diameter...........140 to 152
    Bigonial Diameter.................110 to 120
    Total Facial Height...............122 to 132
    Upper Facial Height..............72 to 74
    Nasal Height........................57 to 60
    Nasal Breadth......................35 to 38
    Biorbital Width.....................91 to 102
    Interorbital Width.................33 to 41
    Cephalic Index.....................81 to 86
    Facial Index.........................80 to 94
    Upper Facial Index................47 to 53
    Nasal Index.........................58 to 67
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Tuesday, November 11th, 2003 at 09:29 PM.

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    Post North Atlantid

    NORTH ATLANTID

    Height and build


    The Head


    The Nose


    The Mouth


    The Skin
    The skin is not particularly darker than the northern European mean. Pigmentation is lighter than with the Paleo-Atlantid group.

    The Hair
    Dark brown and blackish hair is in the majority

    The Eyes
    The eye pigment is often scarce, and blue and green eyes are commonplace.

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    Post Paleo-Atlantid

    PALEO-ATLANTID

    Height and build


    The Head


    The Nose


    The Mouth


    The Skin
    The skin is not seldom darker than the northern European mean, and tending more towards a southern European Mediterranean color.

    The Hair
    Dark brown and black hair is unsurpassed in the majority

    The Eyes
    Brown and dark-mixed eyes are the rule.

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    Post Neo-Danubian

    NEO-DANUBIAN

    Height and build


    The Head
    very round-skulled, and their cephalic indices frequently exceed 85 (brachycephaly)
    Head form is globular, and the forehead is steep and not seldom protuberant.
    Face is square to oval in shape, and the combination of a round face and a plump cheek is common. There is often a slight flatness to the Neo-Danubian face.
    The cheek furrows are as a rule strong.
    A fatty deposit - on the malars - seems to be a secondary sex character, as it is most common among women.
    The malars are only moderately projecting, especially when compared to those of East Baltics and Ladogans.

    The Nose
    The nose is moderately leptorrhine, straight to concave in profile, and often snub-tipped in a Ladogan fashion. The nasal skeleton is rather low, with a broad tip.

    The Mouth
    The upper lip is long and convex,

    The Skin

    The Hair
    Ash-blond hair to golden blond hair.

    The Eyes
    Median eyefolds are indicative of a low orbit a heavy deposit of fat in the upper lid
    Blue or grey

    Measurements (mm)
    Height (cm)........................164 to 171
    Head Length.......................180 to 189
    Head Breadth......................161 to 162
    Minimum Frontal Breadth.......109 to 113
    Bizygomatic Diameter...........144 to 148
    Bigonial Diameter.................107 to 111
    Total Facial Height...............123 to 126
    Upper Facial Height..............72 to 74
    Nasal Height........................55 to 56
    Nasal Breadth......................34 to 36
    Biorbital Width.....................85 to 99
    Interorbital Width.................30 to 37
    Cephalic Index.....................85 to 90
    Facial Index.........................83 to 88
    Upper Facial Index................49 to 51
    Nasal Index.........................61 to 65
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Sunday, November 9th, 2003 at 09:26 AM.

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