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Thread: Capsian Culture: The Berber People and North Africans

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    Capsian Culture: The Berber People and North Africans

    The Capsian culture, people and later Neolithics definitely played a role in forming Mediterranids in the narrower sense in North Africa, but this question is similar if looking at Nordids, were they more replaced or did the locals gracilise and leptomorphised. For Nordids the later is more probable at least for a higher percentage, for NA we can think of stronger replacement too because we can see similar trends in Egypt.

    But this didnt brought up Atlantomediterranids only, but also even smaller, more gracile Mediterranids, just darker Southern Mediterranids close to European Gracilmediterranids especially along the North West African coast. Ferembach said that Capsians which could be classified were basically Protomediterranid (Mediterranéens primitifs). The Iberomaurusiens were mostly Cromagnoid (Mechtoid), Ferembach even saw similarities to Oberkassel. They mostly survived in the mountainous areas where I assume they became partly Alpinised, what lead to those typically light Alpinoid variants which were classified by the French as just being "Alpine".
    In the Neolithics more gracile Mediterranids appear, so we basically have all ingredients we need for what I said above, not mentioned Negroid admixture so far.

    Ferembach showed some maps which show how mixed NW-Africa is, with all the types mentioned and stronger Negroid admixture South of a certain line. I could quote others too but I dont have the time for that at the moment. I would assume that many Atlantomediterranid-like types (Eurafrikanid) in NA are the result of Mediterranid-Berberid mixture and reselection towards a tall, somewhat lighter, leptodolichomorphic type = Eurafrikanid.

    Eurafrikanids were in some systems more or less Atlantomediterranids or Atlantomediterranid like - tall, light, leptodolichomorphic Mediterranids. I would use it to describe Europid NA without clear Cromagnoid, Gracilmediterranid, Arabid etc. influences and no non-Europid admixture obviously. Most French anthropologists used European terms to describe pure Berbers, ranging from classic Mediterranid, over Alpine (~Alpinised Berberids) and Nordique (local depigmented A-M and real Nordid admixture from Europeans) to Atlantomediterranid (for NA ~Eurafrikanid is better, because of genetical and morphological differences) - and as a local variant, Mechta-Afalou type (Berberid). Basically the same was said for Guanches.

    Eurafrikanid means just Atlantomediterranid in most German systems. Knußmann said Eurafrikanids are taller, more robust boned than Gracilmediterranids, but slim build, long-narrow faced, distribution primarily in Northern Spain and Liguria. He uses Berberid primarily for the broad-faced Cromagnoid variant (Mechtoid), but distinguishes a tall-lean variant in the Tuareg (- which some others (Baumann) considered being strongly influenced by Eurafrikanids - mainly the highest caste of them obviously, I already wrote about that) typical for the Sahara - a specialised desert type with similarities to Orientalids.

    Berberids being also present in Southern Spain, otherwise in all of Northern Africa, especially coastal regions, Western Sahara and Egypt, but mixed with other variants, especially Orientalids which are present in most Arabic speaking regions and Negrids, especially going South and in lower classes. Eickstedt, Biasutti, Baumann, Alcobe y Noguer and others wrote about the racial composition of North Africa and mentioned the Tuaregs.

    Alcobe y Noguer stated in Historia Mundi they have 3 to 4 strata: Upper class (Imoshag) mostly Eurafrikanide/Saharide, main body of common free, vasalls and warriors Berberid (Imrad), lower class mixed, Aethiopoid forms partly or even fully Sudanid (Iravellan). This was interpreted as a migration of a very warlike group of pure Europids moving South and taking local slavs. The Negroid percentage increased over time as does admixture. So the upper class was purer 100 years ago...

    There is a longer informative thread on Stirpes with posts of Mynnyd about the Berber:
    http://forum.stirpes.net/showthread.php?p=67032

    Egyptians have a Berberid, Mediterranid base more or less, but various admixtures, mainly Negrid and Aethiopid coming from the South and Orientalid (Arabid) and Armenoid from the East. The North-South gradient is obvious. Some Arabic tribes, which migrated as a whole to North Africa, are still predominantely Arabid even in areas in which the majority is of another racial type.


    Mechtoid skull from North Africa (Cromagnoid) and a Capsian skull:




    Iberomaurisiens (male and female) from Taforalt in Algeria from D. Ferembach, Histoire raciale de l'Afrique du Nord:



    Neolithic Protomediterranid skull from Kef-el-Agab in Tunisia from D. Ferembach (after photographs from L. Balout), Histoire raciale de l'Afrique du Nord:




    More examples of living racial examples can be found here:
    http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=36081
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Click image for larger version. 

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    Last edited by Agrippa; Tuesday, November 22nd, 2005 at 10:21 PM.
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    Post Re: The Berber People and North Africans

    I corrected my comment, made the Capsian origin of the 2nd skull more clearer, though I think the 2nd is, even if less rugged and clearly different (the other skull is a real extreme), still in the Cromagnoid-Mechtoid range rather than out of it.
    For better illustration of what I have written above I added drawings of Iberomaurusien and of a typical Protomediterranid Neolithic skull.

    German site about the Iberomaurusien (German Archaeological Institute):
    http://www.dainst.org/index_588_de.html
    They could prove the existence of Bell Beakers in the East of Marocco for the first time and closed the gap between the Iberomaurisien and the Neolithic time more or less:
    Die herkömmliche Lücke von ca. 8000 bis ca. 5000 v. Chr. zwischen spätem Ibéromaurusien und Neolithikum konnte nun weitgehend geschlossen werden. Erstmals in Ostmarokko nachgewiesen wurden Glockenbecher.

    An Iberomaurusien burial:
    Last edited by Agrippa; Tuesday, November 22nd, 2005 at 10:28 PM.
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    Re: The Berber People and North Africans

    Abstract

    We have typed 275 men from five populations in Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt with a set of 119 binary markers and 15 microsatellites from the Y chromosome, and we have analyzed the results together with published data from Moroccan populations. North African Y-chromosomal diversity is geographically structured and fits the pattern expected under an isolation-by-distance model. Autocorrelation analyses reveal an east-west cline of genetic variation that extends into the Middle East and is compatible with a hypothesis of demic expansion. This expansion must have involved relatively small numbers of Y chromosomes to account for the reduction in gene diversity towards the West that accompanied the frequency increase of Y haplogroup E3b2, but gene flow must have been maintained to explain the observed pattern of isolation-by-distance. Since the estimates of the times to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCAs) of the most common haplogroups are quite recent, we suggest that the North African pattern of Y-chromosomal variation is largely of Neolithic origin. Thus, we propose that the Neolithic transition in this part of the world was accompanied by demic diffusion of Afro-Asiatic–speaking pastoralists from the Middle East.
    http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/article...medid=15202071

    Compare with:
    http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=40328

    On ancient Egyptians:
    http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=46777
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