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Thread: 'Taxonomy of Homo Sapiens' by Egon von Eickstedt

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    Post Taxonomy of the Homo Sapiens

    Here the racial classification of the whole mankind by Egon von Eickstedt. I made some additions and slipped some modifications from newer works into it, especially at the point of the Altrassen: Eickstedt counted Australomelanesids, Weddids and so on to the Negrids. But this theory cannot be adhered to, at best a nearer connection of the Altrassen in Southern Africa (Khoisanids) is probably. Nevertheless, I excluded all Altrassen who cannot be directly counted to Europids, Negrids or Mongolids and summed them up at the end.

    I kept Eickstedt's race names in German. It's no problem to "translate" them (Zentralide - Centralids ...). Just note that the ending e is the German plural form, so Europide are Europids and so on.


    EUROPIDE:


    In Europe:

    I. Northern belt of the depigmented forms:
    1.) Nordide (sub-formes: Teutonordide, Dalonordide, Fennonordide)
    2.) Osteuropide

    II. Central belt of the brachycephals (mountain races belt; continued in Asia):
    1.) Alpinide (Eickstedt counts the Lappide as a pushed aside form of the Alpinids, but that's quite doubtful)
    2.) Dinaride

    III. Southern belt of the dark dolichocephals (brown races belt; continued in Asia):
    Mediterranide

    In Asia:

    I. Brachycephal belt:
    1.) Armenide (sub-form: Anadolide)
    2.) Turanide (europid-mongolid contact race)

    II. Dark dolichocephal belt:

    1.) Orientalide
    2.) Indide (sub-forms: Nordindide, Grazilindide, Indobrachide)


    MONGOLIDE:


    In Asia:

    1.) Tungide
    2.) Sinide (sub-forms: Nordsinide, Mittelsinide, Südsinide)
    3.) Palämongolide (sub-formes: Palaungide, Neside)
    4.) Sibiride (sub-formes: Westsibiride [old mongolid-europid contact race?], Ostsibiride)

    In America:

    I. Eskimide (race of the arctis of America and Greenland)

    II. Indianide:
    1.) Pazifide (inhabitants of the Pacific North-Western coast)
    2.) Silvide (North American Wood [and Prairie] Indian)
    3.) Margide (North American margin and rest race)
    4.) Zentralide (original inhabitants of Central America)
    5.) Andide (the highland race of the Andes)
    6.) Pampide (=Patagonide; the steppe race of the Pampas: Patagonians and relatives)
    7.) Brasilide (in the jungle of Brazil, the Northern savannah and the Antilles)
    8.) Lagide (race of Lagóa Santa: in Southern savannah and retreat areas; sub-form: Fuegide)


    NEGRIDE:


    I. Negrid-Europid contact zone:
    Äthiopide

    II. Bush and savannah zone (neo-Negrid arch of grassland Negroes):
    1.) Nilotide ("knee" of the arch)
    2.) Sudanide (neo-Negrid Northern wing)
    3.) Kafride (=Bantuide; neo-Negrid Southern wing)

    III. Rain forest zone:
    Palänegride


    ALTRASSEN:


    In Africa:

    I. Bambutide (=Pygmide; African Pygmies)

    II. Khoisanide: (sub-forms: Khoide, Sanide)

    In Asia:

    I. Ainuide

    II. Weddide (contact race of Australo-Melanesid old stratum with younger Europids?); ((Indo-)Melanide: Weddid-Europid contact form)

    III. Negritide (Negritos; sub-forms: Andamanide, Semangide, Aetide)

    IV. Australomelaneside:
    1.) Australide (sub-form: Tasmanide? Or: splinter group of the Palaemelanesids?)
    2.) Melaneside (sub-forms: Palämelaneside, Neomelaneside, Tapiride [? - Perhaps only a local type of the Neomelanesids])

    V. Polyneside (Europid-Mongolid-Melanesid contact race? Or: Melanesid-Mongolid contact race?)
    Last edited by Nordgau; Wednesday, June 25th, 2003 at 12:04 PM.

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    Exclamation Main genetically dintinguishable divisions

    Source

    1) Bowcock et al. [7] observed that the 14 populations clustered into the five continental groups, as depicted in Figure 1. The African branch included three sub-Saharan populations, CAR pygmies, Zaire pygmies, and the Lisongo; the Caucasian branch included Northern Europeans and Northern Italians; the Pacific Islander branch included Melanesians, New Guineans and Australians; the East Asian branch included Chinese, Japanese and Cambodians; and the Native American branch included Mayans from Mexico and the Surui and Karitiana from the Amazon basin. The identical diagram has since been derived by others, using a similar or greater number of microsatellite markers and individuals [8,9]. More recently, a survey of 3,899 SNPs in 313 genes based on US populations (Caucasians, African-Americans, Asians and Hispanics) once again provided distinct and non-overlapping clustering of the Caucasian, African-American and Asian samples [12]: "The results confirmed the integrity of the self-described ancestry of these individuals". Hispanics, who represent a recently admixed group between Native American, Caucasian and African, did not form a distinct subgroup, but clustered variously with the other groups. A previous cluster analysis based on a much smaller number of SNPs led to a similar conclusion: "A tree relating 144 individuals from 12 human groups of Africa, Asia, Europe and Oceania, inferred from an average of 75 DNA polymorphisms/individual, is remarkable in that most individuals cluster with other members of their regional group" [13]. Effectively, these population genetic studies have recapitulated the classical definition of races based on continental ancestry - namely African, Caucasian (Europe and Middle East), Asian, Pacific Islander (for example, Australian, New Guinean and Melanesian), and Native American.

    2) Most recently, Wilson et al. [2] studied 354 individuals from 8 populations deriving from Africa (Bantus, Afro-Caribbeans and Ethiopians), Europe/Mideast (Norwegians, Ashkenazi Jews and Armenians), Asia (Chinese) and Pacific Islands (Papua New Guineans). Their study was based on cluster analysis using 39 microsatellite loci. Consistent with previous studies, they obtained evidence of four clusters representing the major continental (racial) divisions described above as African, Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander. The one population in their analysis that was seemingly not clearly classified on continental grounds was the Ethiopians, who clustered more into the Caucasian group. But it is known that African populations with close contact with Middle East populations, including Ethiopians and North Africans, have had significant admixture from Middle Eastern (Caucasian) groups, and are thus more closely related to Caucasians [14]. Furthermore, the analysis by Wilson et al. [2] did not detect subgroups within the four major racial clusters (for example, it did not separate the Norwegians, Ashkenazi Jews and Armenians among the Caucasian cluster), despite known genetic differences among them. The reason is clearly that these differences are not as great as those between races and are insufficient, with the amount of data provided, to distinguish these subgroups.


    The boldness and italics are my emphasis - Loki

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    Lightbulb 'Taxonomy of Homo Sapiens' by Egon von Eickstedt

    I'd like to see picture examples of all the types listed in Taxonomy of Homo Sapiens by Egon von Eickstedt.

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    I havn't got the technical equipment to post here picture stuff from me.

    Hell, am I the only one here who has got Eickstedt's book?

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    I put this link about von Eickstedt which I saw in the Andaman link of Euclides into here, just as an interesting biographical information, though the text is "critical" against v. E. and race science generally.

    http://www.andaman.org/book/app-a/a-eickstedt.htm

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    Post The terminology of v. Eickstedt

    Rassenkunde 1 behandelt die Einteilung der Spezies Homo sapiens nach Rassenkreisen(Subspezies), Rassengruppen(Series), Rassen(Varietas) und Unterrassen(Subvarietas) n. v. Eickstedt.
    Aus Historia Mundi 1. Band, Frühe Menschheit
    Die prioritätsgerechten Bezeichnungen der menschlichen Varietäten (Rassen) in der binären und trivialen Nomenklatur:


    Familie: Hominidae
    Genus: Homo
    Spezies: Homo sapiens Heutmenschheit

    Subspezies I.: Homines sapientes albi Europide

    Series A: Homines s. albi xanthochroici Blondrassengürtel
    - Varietas 1: Homo sapiens europaeus Nordide
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. eu. nordicus Teutonordide
    b.)H. s. eu. dalofaelicus Dalofaelide
    c.)H. s. eu. finnus Fennonordide
    - Varietas 2: H. s. slavonicus(intermedius) Osteuropide
    Series B: Homines s. albi melanochroici Braunrassengürtel
    - Varietas 1: Homo s. pelagius(meridionalis) Mediterranide
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. p. mediterraneus Grazilmediterranide
    b.)H. s. p. eurafricanus Eurafrikanide
    c.)H. s. p. atlanticus Berberide
    - Varietas 2: Homo s. arabicus Orientalide
    - Varietas 3: Homo s. indicus Indide
    a.)H. s. i. indogracilis Grazilindide
    b.)H. s. i. indoafghanus Nordindide
    c.)H. s. i. indobrachimorphus Indobrachide
    - Varietas 4: Homo s. occidentalis Polyneside
    a.)H. s. o. polinesianus Polyneside
    b.)H. s. o. carolinensis Mikroneside
    Series C: Homines s. albi brachimorphi Bergrassengürtel
    - Varietas 1: H. s. alpinus Alpinide
    a.)H. s. a. cevenolicus Westalpinide
    b.)H. s. a. lappo Lappide
    - Varietas 2: H. s. dinaricus Dinaride
    - Varietas 3: H. s. syriacus Armenide
    - Varietas 4: H. s. eurasicus Turanide
    a.)H. s. eur. turanicus Aralide
    b.)H. s. eur. pamiriensis Pamiride
    Series D: Homines s. albi protomorphi Alteuropide
    - Varietas 1: H. s. veddalis Weddide
    a.)H. s. v. ceylonensis Wedda
    b.)H. s. v. gondicus Gondide
    c.)H. s. v. malicus Malide
    d.)H. s. v. toala Toalide
    e.)H. s. v. siamesis Ostweddide
    - Varietas 2: H. s. eurilanus Ainuide
    Subspezies II.: Homines sapientes leiotrichi Mongolide
    Pars a: H. s. asiaticus Mongolide
    Series A: Homines s. asiatici arctici Polargürtel
    - Varietas 1: H. s. hyperboreus Sibiride
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. h. ugrianus Westsibiride
    b.)H. s. h. palaeasiaticus Ostsibiride
    - Varietas 2: H. s. groenlandus Eskimide
    Series B: Homines s. a. badii Nordmongolide
    - Varietas 1: H. s. tatarus Tungide
    - Varietas 2: H. s. sinicus Sinide
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. s. borealis Nordsinide
    b.)H. s. s. medius Mittelsinide
    c.)H. s. s. meridianus Südsinide



    (Series C: H. s. asiatici meridionalis Südmongolide)
    - Varietas 3: H. s. palaemongolicus Palämongolide
    Subvarietas a.)Homo s. p. palaunicus Palaungide
    b.)H. s. p. shanicus Schanide
    c.)H. s. p. protomalayus Protomalayide
    d.)H. s. p. deuteromalayus Deuteromalayide
    Series D: H. s. subnigri Khoisanide
    - Varietas 1: H. s. hottentotus Khoisanide
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. h. austroafricanus Khoide
    b.)H. s. h. huzuana Sanide
    Pars b: H. s. americani Indianide
    Series D: H. s. americani cuprei Nordindianide
    - Varietas 1: H. s. pacificus Pazifide
    - Varietas 2: H. s. centralis Zentralide
    - Varietas 3: H. s. colombicus Silvide
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. c. planidus Planide
    b.)H. s. c. apalacidus Appalacide
    - Varietas 4: H. s. marginalis Margide
    Series E: H. s. americani mesembrini Südindianide
    - Varietas 1: H. s. andinus Andide
    - Varietas 2: H. s. patagonus Patagonide
    - Varietas 3: H. s. brasilianus Brasilide
    - Varietas 4: H. s. lagoanus Lagide
    - Varietas 5: H. s. lagol-maritimus Fuegide
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. l. fuegidus Südfuegide
    b.)H. s. l. huarpidus Huarpide
    Subspezies III.: H. sapientes afri Negride
    Series A: H. s. europoafri Kontaktgürtel
    - Varietas 1: H. s. africanus Äthiopide
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. a. nuba Nordäthiopide
    b.)H. s. a. abessomalis Ostäthiopide
    c.)H. s. a. massaicus Südäthiopide
    d.)H. s. a. saharicus Zentraläthiopide
    e.)H. s. a. maurusianus Westäthiopide
    - Varietas 2: H. s. indomelanicus Indomelanide
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. i. karnaticus Südmelanide
    b.)H. s. i. kolidus Nordmelanide
    Series B: H. s. eafro-medegassi Westnegride
    - Varietas 1: H. s. niger Sudanide
    - Varietas 2: H: s. niloticus Nilotide
    - Varietas 3: H. s. cafer Kafride
    - Varietas 4: H. s. palaeniger Palänegride
    Series C: H. s. alfuri Ostnegride
    - Varietas 1: H. s. papuensis Neomelaneside
    - Varietas 2: H. s. melaninus Palämelaneside
    - Varietas 3: H. s. australasicus Australide
    Series D: H. s. pygmaei Pygmide
    - Varietas 1: H. s. akkalis Bambutide
    - Varietas 2: H. s. negrito Negritide
    Subvarietas a.)H. s. n. philippinensis Aetide
    b.)H. s. n. semang Semangide
    c.)H. s. n. mineopaeus Andamanide
    Magna Europa est patria nostra
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