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Thread: Information on IQ Tests

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    Question Information on IQ Tests

    I'm looking for reliable information on IQ tests, and was hoping some of you might be able to help me on the way. I'm not so much interested in the heredity of IQ as in the question what IQ really is. What do IQ tests really measure? How does IQ reflect traits like creativity, the ability to solve problems, etc? What are the practical implications of a high (or low) IQ score? Studies by certified psychologists are particularly welcome. Thanks in advance.

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    Post AW: Information on IQ tests

    Quote Originally Posted by Siegfried
    I'm looking for reliable information on IQ tests, and was hoping some of you might be able to help me on the way. I'm not so much interested in the heredity of IQ as in the question what IQ really is. What do IQ tests really measure? How does IQ reflect traits like creativity, the ability to solve problems, etc? What are the practical implications of a high (or low) IQ score? Studies by certified psychologists are particularly welcome. Thanks in advance.
    These sites (and the links they contain) might be useful if you are looking for sample IQ tests. I'll keep my eyes open for more specific studies.

    http://www.psyonline.nl/iq.htm

    http://www.psyonline.nl/en-iq.htm

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    Post Re: Information on IQ tests

    You can find out about a whole host of topics, including IQ at the site I mentioned in this thread:

    http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=34680

    The specific page form the site is this one: http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddeg...spx?doc_id=864

    I haven't looked at them in order to see hwo well they answer the questions you specifically ask about.

    A couple of good textbooks on the topic (maybe you can find them at a discount):

    http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg...24964?v=glance

    http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg...=UTF8&v=glance

    This second link deals specifically with the Wechsler Tests; however, it is very thorough and would answer all of your questions with regard to the Wechsler tests).

    You may be able to find information on the Harcourt website (the publisher of the Wechsler tests). I don't know, because I have not explored their web site.
    http://harcourtassessment.com/haiweb...US/default.htm


    The Wechsler tests are some of the more popularly used in the US. They measure both verbal and non-verbal abilities. Some other intelligence tests, such as Raven's Progressive Matrices, measures purely non-verbal abilities. Anyhow, if I come across anything else that may help you, let me know.

    I'm no expert,in fact, I am far from it, but I am trained in administration and interpretation of all the Wechsler tests. In grad school I worked in the Psychological Assessment Center for a semester, administering IQ, achievement, and personality tests, among other things.
    "I do not know what horrified me most at that time: the economic misery of my companions, their moral and ethical coarseness, or the low level of their intellectual development." Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf

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    Post Miscellaneous Info. on IQ

    Since everyone seems to be so fascinated with IQ lately, I thought I'd throw out some more miscellaneous information on IQ. I've already discussed some odds and ends about IQ in various other threads (usually unreferenced ).
    Most intelligence tests do not measure just one thing, in the sense that a scale measures only the gravitational attraction between an object and the earth. Instead, intelligence tests are made up of a number of component subtests, in which people are asked to perform different cognitive tasks.

    This brings us to the question of how the subtest scores are to be combined. Although there is some variation from test to test, the formal basis for test combination is a statistical procedure called factor analysis. Suppose that an intelligence test consists of K subtests. (To continue the analogy to the decathlon, K is usually 10 or 12.) A person's scores on the subtests can be represented by a K-dimensional vector. The collective scores of all people in the group can be thought of as a swarm of points in a K-dimensional space. Factor analysis attempts to reduce the K-dimensional space to a smaller P-dimensional space, where P is less than K and the axes defining the dimensions are orthogonal, or at right angles to one another. Unless the scores of two of the original tests are perfectly correlated, this always entails some loss of accuracy. The loss can be measured, so we can determine how much of the variation in the original K-space lies along a particular dimension in the reduced P-space.

    Fluid intelligence is the ability to develop techniques for solving problems that are new and unusual, from the perspective of the problem solver.
    Crystallized intelligence is the ability to bring previously acquired, often culturally defined, problem-solving methods to bear on the current problem. Note that this implies both that the problem solver knows the methods and recognizes that they are relevant in the current situation.
    Visual-spatial reasoning is a somewhat specialized ability to use visual images and visual relationships in problem solving, for instance, to construct in your mind a picture of the sort of mental space that I described above in discussing factor-analytic studies. Interestingly, visual-spatial reasoning appears to be an important part of understanding mathematics.

    In psychometric theories intelligence is calculated by determining a person's standard score on an IQ test. The standard score is the deviation of a person's absolute score of a test from the mean test score of a reference population, divided by the standard deviation (a measurement of the variability of scores in the reference population):
    zi = ( x i - ? )
    -----
    s

    where xi is the ith person's score in absolute units (usually the number of correct answers on a test) and ? and s are, respectively, the population mean and standard deviation. If this equation were applied strictly, a person of exactly average intelligence would have a score of zero, and people with below-average intelligence would have negative scores. Since the ideas of zero and negative intelligence do not seem reasonable, it is conventional to report IQ scores by rescaling standard scores, using the equation
    IQ = 15z + 100

    The general-intelligence model was first developed by Charles Spearman (1904, 1927), based on analysis of test results from English schoolchildren. In 1938 L. L. Thurstone challenged Spearman's conclusion because he found very little evidence for general intelligence in a sample of University of Chicago undergraduates. It was observed at the time that the discrepancy might have arisen because Spearman and Thurstone had taken data from people of widely different intellectual levels, which would be evidence that intelligence changes qualitatively as the level of mental competence changes. However, the results were not definitive because Spearman and Thurstone had used different tests.

    An important study by Douglas Detterman and Mark Daniel (1989) showed that the relations between subtests do change as the level of scores changes. Among other things, Detterman and Daniel examined correlations between subtests of the WAIS and found higher correlations between subtest scores for people with below-average IQ than for people with above-average IQ.

    The sociologist Christopher Jencks (1992) has observed that genetic explanations that stop with a heritability coefficient are unsatisfactory because they do not specify how intelligent behavior is produced. No one inherits an intelligence-test score in the sense that one inherits eye color. What must be inherited is a physiological capacity for paying attention, learning and reasoning that allows us to extract from our experiences the knowledge and problem-solving techniques required to solve test problems. We have very little idea about what these physiological mechanisms might be, especially insofar as they are related to variation in abilities within the normal range of intelligence.
    http://www.americanscientist.org/tem...d/24538/page/1


    Mensa membership is open to the top 2% of people who sit an approved intelligence test. Importantly, there are a large number of tests with different scales and some intelligence tests don't use IQ scores at all. There are no on-line tests that can be used for admission to Mensa.

    IQ ranges, average IQ scores, and IQ ratings are usually only relative - and they can change over time and with different tests.
    That said, it is generally accepted that for any IQ test that the average score is 100. The standard deviation (a statistical measure of the spread of results away from and average) is typically 15.
    Statistically this means:
    2.5% of people are mentally deficient / impaired / retarded (under 70)
    50% of people have Intelligence Quotient scores between 90 and 110
    2.5% of people are very superior in intelligence (over 130)
    0.5% of people are near genius or genius (over 140)

    IQ results are best considered as IQ ranges - even so-called average IQ scores of 100 are only an approximation.
    And IQ results are relative - your IQ results for a test can only be compared with other people who have taken the same test.
    To improve accuracy and predictability of test, statistical measure like standard deviation - these measures allows reasonable comparisons between very different sets of individuals - essentially they allow apples and oranges to be be measured against a yardstick called 'fruit'.

    IQ testing and IQ test scores vary according to the IQ scales you are using - always get a second (and third!) opinion
    http://www.remarkable.co.nz/learningweb/iq.htm

    As mentioned on the Answers page, the majority of high IQ societies do not give weight to online IQ tests due to the possibility of people cheating, and too because few online IQ tests have had verification of their accuracy. Nevertheless, online IQ tests can be entertaining while giving a general indication of one's IQ range.
    We do not in any manner whatsoever support nor endorse any of the 'free IQ test' websites listed on this page. Each test is however useful as a quick general reference of IQ testing. The following tests may or may not provide an online score, but as with many online IQ tests, some companies hope to be paid ten to twenty dollars for a full IQ report. Whether a person chooses to pay for the report or not is the person's decision. The links are being provided for their entertainment and educational value alone, nothing else.


    The Tickle? website has a short IQ test with a decent array of questions suitable for tricking the uncareful eye into choosing wrong answers. Is the IQ test accurate? Does "sort of" answer the question? The IQ test's score does not give a percentile ranking nor compare it to other people's scores, so there is no way to know if the scores are within a reasonable range or not, but we suspect it may be within about 5 to 10 percentile points.


    http://www.sesquiq.org/freeiqtests.html

    Heritability estimates are often interpreted as assigning the dominant role in determining individual differences in IQ to genes, leaving environment with a minor residual role.
    (Flynn has been mentioned in other threads here on Skadi. Below are equations for 3 models on heritability estimates. See photos at bottom-- Model 1= photos eq1, eq2, eq3, eq4&5; Model 2- shows final eqautions only; Model 3- shows final equation only)

    Source:
    Title:Heritability Estimates Versus Large Environmental Effects : The IQ Paradox ResolvedAuthor(s)ickens, William T., The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC
    Flynn, James R., Department of Political Studies, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandSourcesychological Review, Vol. 108(2), April 2001. pp. 346-369.


    I don't often care for Wikipedia, but it does have some good, concise info on IQ.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IQ

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    "I do not know what horrified me most at that time: the economic misery of my companions, their moral and ethical coarseness, or the low level of their intellectual development." Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf

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    Post Re: Miscellaneous Info. on IQ

    A couple more links I came across a few minutes ago:

    http://library.thinkquest.org/C00570...php3?tqskip1=1

    http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/
    "I do not know what horrified me most at that time: the economic misery of my companions, their moral and ethical coarseness, or the low level of their intellectual development." Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf

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