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Thread: The Origin of Races (by Carleton S. Coon)

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    Post The Origin of Races (by Carleton S. Coon)

    I will post, over the next few days, a summary of The Origin of Races by Carleton Coon. From this it will be obvious that the sub-species of man separated during the Homo Erectus stage more than 500,000 years ago. Also, it shows that the five sub-species (Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Australoid, Congoid and Capoid) evolved separately into Homo Sapiens with only minor gene mixture. Thus, the sub-species (races) are older than the species Homo Sapiens.

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    Post Australoid

    The Australoid sub-species has three races: (i)Australoid proper, (ii) Tasmanian and Papuo-Melanesian (iii) negritos.

    All are descended from Pithecanthropus which was Homo Erectus that lived on Java 500,000 years b.p. Pithecanthropus had the legs of an Australian aborignal and the skull was evolving in the same direction.

    Also found on Java was Solo Man who was also Homo Erectus and live there 100,000 b.p. Pithecanthropus and Solo have similar skull shape but Solo is larger. This shows that there was little evolution in the wet tropics of Java over a period of 400,000 years.

    Cranial capacity (male/female):

    Pithecanthropus: 900cc/775cc
    Solo: 1,150cc/1,040cc
    Modern Australians: 1,350cc/1,180cc

    There are some modern aborigine females living today with cranial capacity under 1,000cc. This indicates they are still at the Erectus/Sapiens threshold.

    A skull from the Niah Cave in North Borneo establishes the existence of Australoid Homo Sapiens 40,000 b.p.

    Wadjak, a Homo Sapiens, found also in Java had a cranial capacity of 1,475cc. It's age is between 10,000 and 40,000 years old.

    Sometime between Solo and Wadjak, the transition between Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens was made. This transition may not have ocurred on Java but from a gene flow from the mongoloid region to the north. Wadjak shows extraordinary facial flatness.

    Wadjak is as large and heavy as the Heidelberg jaw found in Germany. It is not known whether Heidelberg (which is at least 360,000 years old) was Erectus or Sapiens. The teeth are similar in size to many modern Europeans and the skull base was narrow which is indicative of Sapiens.
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Tuesday, August 19th, 2003 at 04:42 AM.

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    Post Mongoloids

    There are many details in this chapter which I have omitted because I would have to quote verbatim to do justice.

    "the Mongoloids of the world, from Madagascar to Tierra del Fuego, are a relatively homogeneous subspecies"

    "Of all the living subspecies of man they are also the most differentiated, and least like any of the others"

    It is assumed, and the evidence suggests it likely, that Mongoloids are descended from Sinanthropus. He was a Homo Erectus that lived in China 360,000 years ago and possibly longer. Sinanthropus had fire and was clever enough to keep from freezing in winter months by working skins. (Swanscombe found in England had fire 250,000 years ago. The oldest site in Africa known to have fire is only 59,000 years old. None of the early specimens of Java had fire.) Sinanthropus bones have been found not far from Peking. Some anthropologists have named Sinanthropus "Pithecanthropus pekinesis." Sinanthropus shows some similarities to Pithecanthropus but there are significant differences. I am not familiar with the reasons for anthropological nomenclature but I think it seems fitting given the differences to name Sinanthropus different from Pithecanthropus.

    There are five Sinanthropus skulls to compare with three Pithecanthropus. The cranial capacity of Sinanthropus range from 1,015cc to 1,225cc. Almost the same as Solo but greater than Pithecanthropus.

    Compared to Solo, Sinanthropus skulls are shorter and narrower but about equal in height. How, then, can they have the same capacity? The internal dimensions of Sinanthropus are 14mm longer and 7mm narrower than Solo, both have equal height.

    Although Solo and Sinanthropus had equal size brains, they were different shaped. And even though Sinanthropus lived 200,000 years before Solo, he was more highly evolved.

    Sinanthropus skull No. 3 was a juvenile of 8 or 9 years old. Of all Sinanthropi, it could pass as Homo Sapiens. The significance of this is that the sapiens condition of both brain proportions and brain floor anatomy is neotenous. "This evidence indicates that the difference in brain form, as apart from brain size, which distinguishes H. sapiens from H. erectus was a product of one or more neotenous mutations."

    In lay man terms, what this means is Pithecanthropus, Solo, and Sinanthropus and their successive descendents have within them, the genetic capacity to evolve into Homo Sapiens. Whether they made this change by themselves or were aided by injection of genes is another question.

    THE BRAIN CASE
    The inner surface of the brain case show the paths of arteries. There are two types which I will not describe in detail here. Type A is shared by Austalopithecines, Pithecanthropus, Solo, Sinanthropus as well as the 400,000 year old Ternefine skull from Algeria and a 100,000 year old skull from Rhodesia. Type B is characteristic of the earliest skulls in Europe and modern man in general.

    THE FACE
    The people that lived in nothern China 360,000 years ago had faces of modern size (for females)* and smaller than the Australoids of Java who lived 300,000 years later. *Sinanthropus had great sexual dimorphism. That is the sexes were of different sizes. Mongoloids today have little sexual dimorphism.

    "Were one to enlarge the Sinanthropus brain by 300cc, reduce the brow ridge, shorten the palate and reef the zygomatic arches [cheek bones] by about 15mm" it would look like a modern Mongoloid.

    THE MANDIBLE (Jaw bone)
    Sinanthropus mandibles are typically Homo Erectus but have two special pecularities: the torus mandibularis and multiple mental foramina.

    The torus mandibularis is a solid, heavy bone with no spongy interior found on the tongue side of the jaw. All Sinanthropus have it and no other early fossil man had it.

    Torus mandibularis occurrences:
    contemporary Chinese: 15%
    Eskimo: 42% to 97%
    medieval Icelandic jaws: 68%

    It is just as common among northern Caucasoid jaws as northern Mongoloid.

    Multiple mental foramina is even more mysterious. These are holes on either side of the jaw bone just before the chin. Usually there is only one through which blood vessels and nerves pass to the cheek.

    None of the other early fossil man has this anomaly except Heidelberg from Germany and Ternefine from Algeria which have two holes on each side. Ternefine resembles Sinanthropus so closely they could have come from the single population. Multiple mental foramina turned up in some European Neanderthals as well.

    It is assumed that multiple mental foramina was to increase blood flow to the cheeks. This would keep the cheeks warm during cold winters. Mongoloids are the only subspecies that live in all extremes: the artic, the tropics and at elevations above 10,000 feet (Andes and Tibet). Studies have been done to how these Mongoloids keep their extremities warm during cold periods. The Alakalufs, people of the Andes in Chile, would go out in freezing weather with little or no clothing. They exposed themselves to heavy winds and pelting sleet and snow. They walked and swam in icy water. Their metabolism is 160% higher than whites. Eskimos hands also had an increase in blood flow when held in cold water. Alaskan Indians produce twice the blood flow of white men. Arrangement of veins and arteries may also be different.

    Mongoloids are adapted to sleeping and working in cold climates as a result of one kind of physiological adaption. The Australoids and Lapps are cold adapted in an entirely different way. Negros are adapted to wet heat and sensitive to cold. Most European Caucasoid and all Bushmen lack special adaption to heat and cold. In cold adaption Lapps are Caucasoid not Mongoloid as some assume.

    Since these adaptions are genetic, they may have been acquired in the Homo Erectus stage. Because of these adaptions, American Indians could have crossed the Bering Strait at any time when sea levels were low enough.

    THE TEETH
    Most Sinanthropus teeth fall within the modern range. Pithecanthropus had larger teeth and their ratios are retained in modern Mongoloid and Australoid peoples respectively. In Sinanthropus the emphasis is on the front of the mouth whereas in Pithecanthropus it is on the molars. The whole facial structure of Sinanthropus is concentrated on its forward portion which is still true of Mongoloids today.

    More convincing than dimensions in linking Sinanthropus to Mongoloids, is the shovel shape of the upper incisors. All five of the upper median and both upper lateral incisors are shoveled. They also have one to three tubercules or ridges running down the surface.

    The upper canines are large and long rooted and project beyond the level of the incisors and premolars. Instead of points as in apes and modern man, the lower canines have cutting edges. The upper canines are shoveled and fingered.

    THE LEG BONES
    A Sinanthropus male would have stood about 5' 1 1/2" tall. Similar to living Japanese, Eskimo and Ainu and shorter than Pithecanthropus. Solo man would have stood about 5' 10" -- similar to an Australoid male.

    Sinanthropus' femora are extraordinarily thick. Pithecanthropus had normal thickness. Of the apes, only the orang has thick walls. Sinanthropus femora are also extremely flat like those of apes. These features are found in neolithic Chinese and modern Fuegians (people of the Andes).

    Sinanthropus and neolithic Chinese had very powerful deltoid muscles. It is not known why. Sinanthropus had more features in common with Mongoloids than any other living subspecies. Coon quotes 17 features that link Mongoloids to Sinanthropus. Coon then goes on to describe bones found in other sites that show the transition from Sinanthropus to Mongoloids.

    Ting-tsun Teeth: (100,000 -150,000 years old) Northern China, smaller than Sinanthropus, within modern Chinese range. They are shoveled in Sinanthropus fashion.

    Changyang Maxilla (upper jaw bone): (100,000 to 150,000 y.o.) Closely resembles Sinanthropus but with direction to modern Mongoloids. Do not know if it is erectus or sapiens but was certainly on the theshold.

    Fragmentary Human Skull from Mapa: (100,000 to 150,000 y.o.) Indication that it was erectus on the verge of become sapiens.

    Humerous Shaft from Japan: (100,000 to 150,000 y.o.) Likely a woman who would have stood 4' 5" tall. Differs considerably from modern Japanese but does resemble Sinanthropus.

    Upper Pleistocene Woman from Tze-Yang, Szechuan: A Homo Sapiens about 50 years old when she died. She lived 100,000 to 150,000 years ago. Skull was 200cc more voluminous than Sinanthropus. Although the skull is sapiens it has archaic features reminiscent of Sinanthropus and Neanderthal. There is no doubt she was Mongoloid.

    Upper Pleistocene Man of Liu-Kiang Kwangsi: (50,000 to 100,000 y.o.) It is from this location that Mongoloids moved south to displace the Australoids and Negritos in SE Asia. The skull is mostly Mongoloid Homo Sapiens but there is some deviation in an Australoid direction.

    Lui-Kiang Bones: (50,000 to 100,000 y.o.) These bones are of very short people. About 4' 11" for male, 4' 9" for female. The only living people in eastern Asia to fit these bones are the Sakai who live in the Malay Peninsula -- of unknown origin. They are Australoid of the Negrito race. These bones seem mixed. The skull is mostly but not wholely Mongoloid with some Australoid or Negrito. The pelvic and vertabral bones suggest modern Sakai and the femora suggest a small Mongoloid.

    Tooth of Sjaru-Osso-Gol, Ordos: (50,000 to 100,000 y.o.) Morphological fits Sinanthropus but is smaller.

    Remains from Ti-Shao-Gou-Wan, Ordos: (50,000 to 100,000 y.o.) Stature of 5' 5" if male, 5" 3" if female. Shows continuity of Sinanthropus in the Upper Pleistocene.

    The Upper Cave of Choukoutien: (12,000 years b.p. with a large margin of error) These people were mass murdered. The male had the appearance of American Indians still living today. The two females are fully Mongoloid. This marks the end of the Sinanthropus/Mongoloid transition.

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    Quote Originally Posted by cosmocreator
    I will post, over the next few days, a summary of The Origin of Races by Carleton Coon. From this it will be obvious that the sub-species of man separated during the Homo Erectus stage more than 500,000 years ago. Also, it shows that the five sub-species (Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Australoid, Congoid and Capoid) evolved separately into Homo Sapiens with only minor gene mixture. Thus, the sub-species (races) are older than the species Homo Sapiens.
    If man separated into five distinct "sub-species" 500,000 years ago, then why does humanity apparently share a common ancestor ~200,000 years ago (ie, the mitochondrial eve)?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Prognathous
    If man separated into five distinct "sub-species" 500,000 years ago, then why does humanity apparently share a common ancestor ~200,000 years ago (ie, the mitochondrial eve)?
    Genetics is not my strong point. But what you say is interesting. Perhaps it is that gene injection that caused these others to be able to evolve to Homo sapiens.

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    Post Caucasoids (Part One)

    There are more skeletal remains in the NW quadrant of the Old World than in all the others put together. Yet no skulls of Homo erectus have been found there. The oldest ones are already sapiens. They are not as old as erectus found elsewhere but they are the oldest sapiens.

    The Caucasoid area includes Europe, western Asia which includes Turkey, all Arab nations, Israel, Iran, Afghanistan, West Pakistan, Kashmir, NW India and parts of Russia west of the Tian-Shan mountains. North Africa is also part of the Caucasoid area but it didn't become such until about 10,000 years ago.

    The inhabitants of Europe, western Asia and Africa were culturally unified in that all made hand axes throughout the Middle Pleistocene (150,000 - 500,000) years ago. During the Upper Pleistocene (12,000 year b.p.), this unity broke down. Europe and Asia followed a single tradition, the Africans a tradition of their own.

    The skeletons found in Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran and Uzbekistan are all Caucasoid as those found in Europe. The African skeletons are racially different.

    All the modern inhabitants of western Asian countries, where no ancient skeletons have been found: Turkey, Syria, Arabian peninsula, most of Iraq, all of Afghanistan, West Pakistan, and NW India, are all Caucasoid with a few exceptions. Of all these countries, only southern Arabia which is part of the Ethiopian faunal region, contain non-Caucasoids. In southern Arabia, hand axes and clevers that are distinctly African, are being found. Southern Arabia was an extension of the Caucasoid/African zone which has had contact as early as the Middle Pleistocene (150,000 - 500,000 years ago) but was broken off later.

    Western Asia is a crossroads where Africa, Asia, and Europe meet. Over time, this area has seen the movement of many different animals. The Caucasoids that evolved there could have been in peripheral contact with other subspecies: the Australoids of India, the Capoid in North Africa and the Congoid in southern Arabia. It is unlikely they had any direct contact with Mongoloids. During most of the last 500,000 years, Mongoloids would have only had contact with Australoids. Congoids were likely in contact with two: Capoid and Caucasoid.

    The following is broke down into four consecutive periods:

    (i) Beginning of the Middle Pleistocene to the end of the Great or Mindel-Riss Interglacial (500,000 to 260,000 years ago)

    (ii) The Riss glacial period to the Last or Riss-Wurm Interglacial (260,000 to 150,000 years ago)

    (iii) Early Wurm to Gottweig Interstadial (150,000 to 40,000 years ago)

    (iv) Middle and Late Wurm, beginning in the Gottweig Interstadial and ending with the last retreat of Scandinavian ice (40,000 to 10,000 years ago)

    One may initially think of western Asia as the cradle of the Caucasoid. But only in Europe is the sequence of human remains adequate for comparison from period to period. In western Asia, only the third period is well documented. The third period is a time of evolutionary discontinuity in Europe.

    In Europe, remains indicate that man had reached the threshold of Homo sapiens by at least 250,000 years ago. In period 2, no change is evident and it seems the same people continued to live there until the onset of period 3 or a little earlier when a new element was added, Neanderthal man, who was more primitive morphologically than his predecessors. Either an invading people absorbed the earlier population or the earlier population evolved backwards.

    Nanderthals continued to live in Europe until about 40,000 years ago when they disappeared with the arrival of the people of period 4, the Upper Paleolithic Europeans.

    The people of period 1 and 2 were the same and their cultures show uninterrupted continuity. The culture of period 3 was derived from period 2 with a few modifications. The culture of period 4 was new but it was old in that similar types of implements were used by earlier Europeans. Some of the tools of Upper Paleolithic have been traced back 250,000 years earlier.

    It is possible that Neanderthals of period 3 evolved uniquely out of the people of period 2 but the Upper Paleolithic of period 4 could not have evolved out of Neanderthals.

    In western and central Asia, there are no sharp cultural or racial changes. In period 3, there were less extreme Neanderthals than those of Europe and other non-Neanderthal people in Palestine. It is possible, Upper Paleolithics and their culture originated in western Asia.

    THE MAUER MANDIBLE OR HEIDELBERG JAW

    Mauer is as old as Sinanthropus and the Ternefine mandible found in North Africa -- at least 360,000 years old.

    Mauer is large, massive, chinless and has blunted gonial angles. However, both Sinathropus and Ternefine are larger in most dimensions and more robust.

    Mauer is quite similar to some Pithecantropus mandibles in measurements. Mauer had 3 mental foramina on the left and 2 on the right. There was no mandibular torus. It looks very different than Sinathropus especially in the width.

    Bicondylar width:

    Mauer 133mm
    Sinathropus 148mm

    The Heidelberg skull base was narrower than Sinathropus and a narrow base is a sapiens feature.

    Of the teeth, all the molars are in the Sinathropus range but the others are below it. The teeth are large but within the range of Australian aboriginals. The emphasis is on the cheek teeth as in Australoids and Negroids, rather than on the front teeth as in Mongoloids and Capoids.

    Mauer's lower teeth resemble those of later Europeans and are not that different from Australian aboriginals and African Negroes but are different than those of Sinathropus and living Mongoloids.

    Since the cranium is missing, we do not know whether he was Homo erectus or H. sapiens.

    THE STEINHEIM CRANIUM

    This is the skull of a woman that lived in what is now Germany 300,000 years ago. She lived during a warm period. Her cranial capacity was 1,150cc to 1,175cc which was similar to Chinese and Javanese H. erectus. The skull shape is radically different though.

    -- the occiput is smoothly rounded as in modern skulls
    -- neck-muscle attachments are slight and low
    -- the forehead is low but fairly steep
    -- browridges are thin
    -- skull base is narrow
    -- side walls of the skull are parallel as in modern crania instead of convergent as in eastern H. erecti.

    There are many other features which I won't list here that are similar to modern crania. Steinheim is typically Caucasoid.

    THE SWANSCOMBE CRANIAL BONES

    These bones were found near the Thames river in England. They are the bones of a woman that lived 300,000 years ago. Her cranial capacity is estimated to be between 1,275cc and 1,325cc which is the range of modern European women. Its breadth and height are also modern.

    "The brain cast of the occiputal lobes and of the cerebellum are sapiens in configuration, and the channels of the middle meningeal artery are full and complex although of a pattern rare in modern peoples."

    It is quite possible that both Steinheim and Swanscombe were Homo Sapiens.

    FONTECHEVADE (FRANCE)

    Fontechevade 1 & 2 are definitely tied to the Taycian fauna ~200,000 years ago. No.2 suggests death by violence at an age of 40 or 50. Shortly after death, the bones were charred. If male, his cranial capacity would have been 1,470cc, and 1,460cc if female. The skull is long, broad and low and it verges on brachycrany (round-skulled) with an estimated index of 79. Fontechevade resembles Swanscombe closely.

    Fontechevade No. 1 is a small piece but is very interesting. It is the upper part of the face of an adult. It's browridge is less developed than the majority of living Europeans. This is not to say that all the people of Fontechevade's time lacked brow ridges.

    SACCOPASTORE

    In a gravel pit, just outside the walls of Rome, the skull of a 30 year old woman and a 35 year old man were found. They lived 150,000 years ago.

    Neither of these skulls are very large. The female cranial capacity was 1,200cc, the man's 1,300cc. The brain cast shows that the frontal and temporal lobes, impressions of the cerebellum of the occiput were similar to modern man.

    These skulls look primitive in some respects and simply strange in others. The low vault, long face and great prognathism of the upper face is characteristic of Homo erectus but the morphology of the brain and neck-muscle attachments are modern. Most anthropologists do not call these skulls sapiens. To Coon, they had crossed the threshold but carried many features of an earlier grade with them. The face is Caucasoid but the vault form is very different from earlier cranium.

    THE EHRINGSDORF REMAINS

    These remains were found in the eastern part of Germany. They are about 100,000 years old. The implements found at the site suggests a mixture between several related populations.

    There is no question these bones are sapiens. They show a closer resemblance to Steinheim and Swanscombe than to Fontechevade or Saccopastore.

    THE STONE BRAIN FROM GANAVCE, CZECHOSLOVAKIA

    These remains are about 100,000 years old, the same as Ehringsdorf. The skull had a capacity of 1,320cc. The skull was long, narrow and lower than any yet studied except Saccopastore and possibly Steinheim.

    The brain was H. sapiens but at a fairly low sub-grade. It shows no evolutionary advance over Swanscombe and resembles Saccopastore most closely.

    THE ROUND-HEADED PEOPLE OF KRAPINA

    The material is from Krapina, Croatia. There are 9 archaeological levels but human material come only from the 3rd level from the bottom. It dates to about 150,000 years ago. There are bones from every part of the body but only five skulls labeled A through E are complete enough to identify.

    Skull A belongs to a child of 3 to 5 years old. It is undoubtedly brachycephalic. This is the most modern European skull yet discussed.

    Skull C probably belonged to a young female. It is medium sized with a capacity of at least 1,200cc. It is brachycranial with an index of 83.7. This is the earliest brachycranial skull from anywhere in the world.

    Skull D has the same shape as C but it is much larger with a capacity of 1,450cc. It has an exceptional breadth of 169mm giving a cranial index of 85.5, hyperbrachycranial.

    Skull E is that of a child. It also is brachycranial.

    These skulls are compete enough to give an idea of the head shape and they are like those of living Croats. The faces of the skulls are Caucasoid but not fully modern but they are fully sapiens.

    THE TEETH OF THE EUROPEANS OF THE LAST INTERGLACIAL

    The teeth of Krapina, Saccopastore, Montmaurin, Monsempron, Ehringsdorf and Taubach constitute a single population in respect to size. All are within the size range of living people but some are larger than modern Europeans. Heidelberg and Swanscombe could be included.

    It could be concluded that over the last 500,000 years, not much as changed in the size of European teeth. Some changes, however, may have taken place in the relative size of the three molars. The size order of Montmaurin is very primitive.

    The teeth of Saccopastore, Montmaurin, Monsempron, Ehringsdorf, and Krapina show some but not all similarities to Sinathropus and later Mongoloids but not to the same extent.

    Caucasoids and Mongoloids may have had met for the first time during the Last Interglacial some 150,000 years ago.

    POST CRANIAL BONES OF THE LAST INTERGLACIAL
    THE EVIDENCE FROM KRAPINA

    Many of the post cranial bones are within the modern European range but they are a little small.

    The humeri are rather small and slender but European except that the lower arm could be bent backwards at the elbow as in gorillas and some modern women. Fifty percent of the very primitive Caucasoid Veddas of Ceylon have this.

    Krapin's wrist bone is large like modern Europeans. The pelvis are similar to modern Europeans. However, they do not include the upper branch of the pubic bone which is something shared with later Neanderthals.

    We know from the leg bones that these people lived outdoors and squatted while at rest.

    These people were definitely Caucasoid though they were rather small and would probably resemble marginal Caucasoids of Asia like the Veddas and Dravidians more than the sturdily built central Europeans.

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    Post Caucasoids (Part Two)

    THE NEANDERTHALS OF EUROPE

    Neanderthals came into existence about 75,000 years ago (or possibly a little earlier) and ended about 40,000 years ago. They lived in Europe, western and central Asia. Their culture was Mousterian, a complex of earlier tool-making techniques.

    The Mousterian culture began during the latter part of the Last Interglacial, 100,000 years ago as a derivative of the Acheulian, Clactonian-Tayacian and Levalloisian flake techniques.

    The Acheulian hand-axe culture extended from Europe to the Arab countries, southern Iran, India and also into Africa. The Clactonian-Tayacian flake culture was mostly European and Near Eastern, the Levalloisian was concentrated in Western Asia.

    Did some of these early Caucasoids penetrate into the homeland of Sinathropus and the Mongoloids? Likely they did. The flints from Ting-tsun are dated to the Last Interglacial and they are similar to Mousterian flints.

    It is quite possible that Caucasoids similar to those found in Europe entered Central and Northern China from the west, mixed with the local population, and left their tools behind when they died. If the Chinese population had not yet crossed the erectus/sapiens threshold, this injection of genes could have been the catalyst of the transition. Chinese paleontologist and archaeologists have found no clear sapiens older than the Fen Valley flints.

    These invaders could have picked up some Sinathropus genes, then returned to the west. This could be what produced the Sinathropus-like features found in the Last Interglacial specimens, such as mandibular torus, shoveled incisors, dental pearls, and a degree of facial flatness not seen in Steinheim.

    THE WESTERN NEANDERTHALS

    Europeans of the Last Interglacial (150,000 years bp) varied considerable. Neanderthals of Wurm 1 (100,000 bp) are much alike. They are so much alike that indication is that deviant individuals were pruned.

    All had large brains, 1,525cc to 1,640cc for males, 1,300cc to 1,425cc for females. The sex difference of 200cc is great and is reminiscent of Sinathropus.

    The Neanderthal face, though archaic, is Caucasoid.

    The jaws have multiple mental foramina. Those that have a single hole, the hole is large. Some have mandibular torus. Both are associated with cold weather.

    The teeth are similar to modern Europeans except for some of the Krapina teeth. The proportions of the teeth are normal for Caucasoids. Many of the morphological features are reminiscent of Sinathropus and modern Mongoloids.

    Western Neanderthals were powerfully built. It appears they had a short neck. "The wings of the sacrum rise to a higher level than the central body. This is a a super-Caucasoid; it is found in 21.5 per cent of living Europeans and is rare or absent in other races." They had deep chest. Their feet were wide in heel, ball and toe and the toes were very short except for the great toe.

    Neanderthals stood about 5' 4 1/2" tall and probably weighed 160lbs or more.

    In Spain, Upper Paleolithic tool-making techniques were found in the Mousterian industry. This implies contact between Neanderthals and Upper Paleolithic peoples. Neanderthals probably became extinct in the usually human form, extinction by absorption. Neanderthal genes likely ended up in the UP pool.

    CENTRAL EUROPEAN NEANDERTHALS

    Compared to France, Italy and Spain, Central Europe was very sparsely populated probably because it was too cold and remains are poor.

    Two mandibles were found in Moravia Czechoslovakia. They are like the Western Neanderthals except they are considerably prognathous. In this sense, they are more like their central European predecessors of Ehringsdorf and Krapina.

    The teeth have similar features to Sinathropus.

    In Croatia, Upper Paleolithic remains have been found with the Neanderthal culture. So Spain and Croatia may be two places where, the two met.

    Crimea was a favorite spot of Neanderthals. A child's skull found there is surprisingly modern. This skull is an example of either a modern Caucasoid Homo sapien, a product of a mixture with Neanderthals, or the end result of evolutionary progression from Neanderthal to modern man.

    NEANDERTHALS FROM UZBEKISTAN

    The remains of a 9 year old boy have been found here. He was living when Upper Paleolithics were living 150 miles south in Afghanistan. He looks like the child from Spain in all pertinent details. It shares many similarities with western Neanderthals but is more modern looking. His body was less Neanderthaloid than his skull. He was not unique though. Others like him have been found in Iraq, Palestine and Lebanon.

    NEANDERTHALS IN THE MIDDLE EAST

    A few teeth have been found in Turkey. A few skeletons have been found in Iran. One stood 5' 7" or 8" -- 4" or 5" taller than the French ones. Morphologically he resembles the French ones. He had a cranial capacity of 1,700cc. Remains from the Last Interglacial (150,000 years ago) are virtually non-existent but remains from Wurm 1 (100,000 years ago) are fairly abundant. Only one deserves to be called Neanderthal in the strict sense. Others are modern Caucasoid and yet others are intermediate between the two. One appears to be Australoid. These bones may be the key to modern Europeans and western Asiatic Caucasoid origins.

    All Palestinian skeletons can be divided between an older one including Galilee and Tabuns and a younger one including Skhul, Jebel, Qafza and Shukba.

    The general morphology of the Tabun bones fall between the central and western Europeans. They also have some features similar to Neanderthal of northern Iraq.

    The skulls of Skhul show both Neanderthal and modern Caucasoid features. Some skulls are neither Neanderthal or Caucasoid but instead belong to a whole other racial line.

    "Skhul 4 looks like an evolutionary product from an earlier eastern Neanderthal base through Tabun toward a rugged, long-headed modern Caucasoid. Skulls which are called Nordic and which resemble it in general form but with smaller brow ridges appear in northern Europe from the neo-lithic onward, and particularly in the Iron Age."

    The skulls of this groups show an orderly progression from Neanderthal to modern European form.

    Skhul No 5 is unique. He neither looks like Neanderthal before him or the Nordics after him. He was non-Caucasoid, about 35 years old. He stood about 5' 11" and had a cranial capacity of 1,518cc. His index of upper facial flatness is 13.5, below any living racial mean and closest to some ancient Australoids, notably Wadjak. He is essentially Australoid.

    Ratios between teeth size and the proportions of the skull base and face is racial diagnostic. And the comparison is clear. There is a sequence from Krapina to Tabun to Skhul.

    The post cranial skeletons are not divided into the same three categories as the skulls. Tabun 1 and Skhul 7 are one category and all the others are in another category. Skhul 4 and 5 which are different cranially, are alike in that both were tall slender men with slender limb bones, long forearms and lower legs. Their bones are similar to Australoids and Negroids but are not aout of the modern European range.

    Coon expressed the opinion, later shared by others, "that the Mount Carmel population was the product of a mixture between a local Neanderthal group comparable to those found in Western Europe and a more modern stock."

    And because of Skhul 5, there is a strong indication that there was contact between Caucasoids and Australoids in some parts of souther Asia.

    Jebel Qafza skull No 6 is the same as Upper Paleolithic skulls found in Europe.

    A skeleton of a male child was found in Lebanon. He was about 7 when he died and he lived 50,000 to 100,000 years ago. The brain case is modern, no brow ridge, forehead steep, the face orthognathus, the chin firm. He was a modern Caucasoid and would have probably developed into an UP type.

    It is clear, eastern and western Neanderthals were derived at least partly from preceding Caucasoids of the Last Interglacial. It is not certain whether these traits arose through mutation and selection or were introduced into Europe and western Asia by mixture with non-Caucasoids.

    The Saccopastore people who were the first to appear Neanderthal could have been the product of mixture between local Caucasoids and North Africans. The skeletons of South African Bushmen are surprisingly similar to Tabun 1 and the Western Neanderthal La Chapelle aux Saints. The resemblances are too numerous and too striking to be dismissed as coincidental. The ancestors of the Bushmen, who were then a full size people, probably lived in North Africa at the time of Saccopastore and the remains we have resemble Sinanthropus in face, jaws and teeth.

    THE UPPER PALEOLITHICS AND THEIR CULTURE

    Between 40,000 to 29,000 BC was a time of racial and cultural change. Neanderthals were replaced by Upper Paleolithic people similar to modern Europeans. The Neanderthal's Mousterian flake culture was succeeded by a blade culture that endured up to about 8,000BC. Similar, but not identical, blade cultures have been found in Siberia, northern Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine.

    Coon believed that the Upper Paleolithic culture and racial type were imported into Europe and could only have come from the East, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon and possibly western Iran.

    THE RACIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UPPER PALEOLITHIC EUROPEANS

    The UP that lived 30,000 to 10,000 years ago were modern Caucasoids in appearance. The men were not notably tall. The mean stature was 5' 8" with the tallest being 5' 11" and the shortest 5' 3." The mean stature of women was 5" 1." Not only were the females shorter, their skulls were smaller as well. The male cranial capacity was 1,580cc, the females 1,370cc -- about the size of Swanscombe.

    The long bones are slender and a lean body build is indicated. The skulls are very long and moderately broad and have a high brain case. The face is moderate to great length and considerable breadth. The bizygomatic diameter (width from cheek to cheek) exceeds the cranial breadth. This is not the case for Neanderthals or even for most modern Europeans.

    There is little UP remains in western Asia mainly because it hasn't been looked for. There have been 3 skeletons from Iran and a few bones from Palestine. The Iranian ones look like western Europeans. The ones from Palestine are ancestral Mediterraneans.

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    An excellent job, cosmocreator. Thanks a lot for all your effort. We can all benefit from this, since not many of us have access to that literature.

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    Post Africans (Part one)

    Africa is not home to one subspecies but two: Bushmen (Capoids) and Negroes and Pygmies (Congoids).

    Just as Mongoloids displaced Australoids in SE Asia and Indonesia, the Caucasoids, Berbers and Arabs displaced the Africans.

    In the recent past Negroes have lived in most of Africa between the Sahara and Limpopo River whereas the Bushmen and Hottentots have occupied South Africa and parts of southern Rhodesia. The boundary between the two is clinal and not an impenetrable barrier. The two subspecies could not have evolved each on its own side because isolation is needed for subspecies to evolve. We must assume then that at least one of the two subspecies must have moved into its present territory after each had evolved during the Pleistocene.

    North Africa is not the kind of environment in which Pygmies could have evolved. It is not and has never been a tropical rain forest. The Pygmies current home is in the rain forest of the Congo and other sections of West Africa.

    Pygmies are related to Negroes. The Negro's natural environment must have been the savannah at the edge of the forest. They could not have evolved their ability to withstand damp heat during the last 12,000 years in which the Caucasoids pushed their predecessors out of North Africa. The South American Indians of the Amazon have not evolved heat-adaption in an equal amount of time. The African forest and its peripheral are therefore the Congoid home, West Africa.

    The Bushmen are not heat-adapted. So they don't fit this environment. The evidence indicates that the ancestors of the Bushmen were full-sized people. That they evolved in North Africa, north of the Saharra barrier. When the Caucasoids invaded from the north near the end of the Pleistocene, they pushed the Capoids south along East Africa. Here the Capoids encountered humans of a lower evolutionary grade, who were related to the ancestors of the Negroes and Pygmies and were absorbed by the invading Capoids. Much later, some Negroes of West Africa moved east absorbing many of the Bushmen tribes.

    TERNEFINE
    Human remains have been found in Ternefine, Algeria. They are about 400,000 years old. There is only part of the cranium and its size is between Sinathropus and Neanderthal -- or approximately the size of Swanscombe. We don't know whether it belonged to a large Homo erectus or a small Homo sapiens. The morphology and endocranial surface suggest the former; it is like Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus.

    There are 3 mandibles. No. 3 is almost Australopithocenes. In some ways it is like Sinathropus but it is also like Neanderthals who lived 300,000 years later. Heidelberg jaw is so different it must have come from an entirely separate evolutionary line. Nos. 1 & 2 are similar to 3 in shape but are much smaller suggesting great sexual dimorphism as in Sinanthropi. Two of the mandibles have multiple mental foramina. In this respect, Ternefine resembles both Sinathropus and Neanderthal.

    Despite being the largest Ternefine jaw, No 3 does not have the largest teeth. No 2, a female, has molars and premolars larger than Sinanthropus and also larger than Pithecanthropus who lived more than 100,000 earlier. These teeth resemble those of Australopithocenes, Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus but are closest to Sinanthropus. Except for taurodontism, they have little in common with Heidelberg teeth.

    MOROCCAN MANDIBLES
    A mandible was found in a cave, Litorina, near Casablanca Morocco. It is similar to Sinanthropus and Ternefine, despite that it is 200,000 years younger.

    Another mandible was found in another cave, Smuggler's Cave, less than 50 miles from Litorina. It's age is about the same as the one found in Litorina. It is the similar to Ternefine and Litorina in most respects but it is smaller.

    In Rabut, quarrymen blasted a complete skull from the sandy soil. Only fragmented pieces were recovered. The cranial fragments were not much thicker than modern skulls. The teeth are like Sinanthropus and Neanderthal. These remains are probably about 100,000 years old.

    A part of the maxilla (upper jaw) of a child was found in the northern end of the Morrocan coast, Tangier. It is dated between 50,000 and 100,000 years old. It is like other early North African finds.

    THE TERNEFINE-TANGIER LINE
    From Tangier to Rabut to Smuggler's Cave to Litorina to Ternefine, these specimens form a single line. They were not Caucasoid nor typically Negroid. They share similarities to Australopithocenes on the one hand and Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus on the other, especially Sinanthropus.

    They probably belonged to the erectus grade. Whether they achieved the sapiens grade before the Caucasoids invaded about 10,000 years ago is not known.

    Either the Ternefine-Tangier people are descended from immigrants from East Asia or the ancestors of Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus come from North Africa or they all originate from some geographical point in between.

    It is most likely all three originated in North Africa and at an earlier evolutionary level than the genus Homo.

    It seems fairly likely that the Ternefine-Tangier people had something to do with the origins of Neanderthals.

    Several of the features found in Saccopastore and later Neanderthals are also present in North Africans as well as Sinanthropus. North Africa is nearer to the Neanderthal home than China.

    LIBYAN MANDIBLE
    A human madible was found among a Lower Levalloisior-Mousterian level. The industry resembles Tabun in Palestine but the date of this find was only 32,000 BC. The mandible is dated at about 38,000BC. Tabun is dated between 100,000 to 150,000 years ago.

    This mandible is much smaller than any of the NW African ones in all dimensions and falls within the size range of the Mount Carmel series. It is closest to Tabun 1 but has some similarities to Tabun 2. The teeth also fit into the Mount Carmel range. This suggests then, a presumably sapiens Caucasoid people, like those of Mount Carmel, may have entered NE Africa. These people must have had contact with NW Africans of that period. If NW Africans had not yet become sapiens by local evolution, here was their opportunity to rise to sapiens grade through gene flow some 25,000 years before the arrival of the Mouillians.

    THE EARLIEST CAUCASOID INVADERS OF NORTH AFRICA: THE MOUILLIANS
    Not long before 10,000BC, a Caucasoid people who either came from Spain or the Near East entered North Africa. Coon thinks they came from the Near East.

    The Mouillian culture lasted well into the post-Pleistocene period. Their physical type -- stocky, broad-faced, snub-nosed can still be seen among individual Berbers.

    THE CAPSIANS
    The Capsian affinities are Palestinian. The oldest Capsian date is 6450BC in Tunesia. Although both Mouillian and Capsian are Caucasoid, the broad-faced, heavily muscled Mouillian is less common among Capsians who are more like the Near Eastern prototype.

    RACIAL DESCRIPTION OF MESOLITHIC NORTH AFRICANS
    The Mouillians are better known that the Capsians and these descriptions apply mostly to the former. The mean cranial capacity is 1,614cc for males, 1,519cc for females. The skulls are large and show considerable sexual dimorphism. They generally resemble Upper Paleolithic Europeans. They are high vaulted and are brachycephalic. Most have short, broad faces with low orbits and deep broad mandible. In many males, the brow ridge is heavy. The chin projecting.

    Half of the Capsian skulls are generally Mediterranean. The modern Mediterranean element common in North Africa was largely, if not wholly, a Capsian introduction.

    The males stood about 5' 8", females about 5' 5." Sexual dimorphism appears to be less than Upper Paleolithic Europeans. However, like UP Europeans, they had relatively long forearms and lower legs. Their hands and feet were large.

    THE CHELLIAN-3 SKULL FROM OLDUVAI, TANZANIA
    This skull has all the features of Homo erectus. Its length of 209mm is excessive and its breadth of 133mm is narrow. Its breadth would fit the Heidelberg jaw. It probable vault height of 109mm is low. It cranial capacity was between 1,100cc and 1,200cc -- close to both the largest Solo and Sinanthropus skulls. This skull is about 360,000 years old and could be a common ancestor to both Caucasoids and Congoids. Evidence suggests that Chellian-3's ancestors did not evolve locally from East African Australopithocenes but came from farther north in Africa.

    THE KANJERA SPECIMENS
    These are 4 specimens found in Kenya. No one knows how old they are. They could be 30,000-40,000 years old or as much as 150,000 years old. The cranial capacity is between 1,350cc and 1,400cc. The morphology and cranial capacity indicate they are sapiens of a primitive grade and are probably Negro but not Pygmy.

    THE SALDANHA BAY REMAINS
    A mandible and skullcap was found in South Africa among hand axes and flake tools. The age of these remains is not certain. They are somewhere between 40,000 and 100,000 years old. The cranial capacity is estimated at between 1,200cc and 1,250cc -- a little over Chellian-3 from Tanzania. They resemble each other closely. It is Homo erectus. Its index of upper facial flatness, 20, is high for modern Negroes but normal for Caucasoids. The mandible resembles Heidelberg more than Ternefine and Sinanthropus. These remains come from the same line as Chellian-3 in Tanzania but they are a few hundred thousand years younger. This line resembles Caucasoids more closely than it does Australoid, Mongoloid or Capoid.

    BROKEN HILL/RHODESIAN SPECIMENS
    These bones were found in a cave in northern Rhodesia. With them were found tools of an African flake culture from the Middle Stone Age -- about 23,000BC.

    Broken Hill skull is the only complete skull of its evolutionary grade. It is unusual looking. It closely resembles Chellian-3 and Saldanha. Its cranial capacity is 1,280cc -- a little more than other Homo erectus.

    Since this skull was protected in a cave, it was in good condition. Studying the inside of the brain case, "one finds the middle meningeal artey was simple as in Sinanthropus, Solo, and Ternefine but that its anterior branch was large. The prefrontal, upper parietal, and lower temporal areas of the cortex were poorly developed when compared to living man and Neanderthal."

    Rhodesia man has the broadest, most massive brow ridge of any human skull yet found, matching that of Zinjanthropus.

    The teeth are as large as Sinanthropus and some as large as Zinjanthropus or larger. These teeth resemble modern Negroes more than any other races.

    The upper face height is the greatest of any fossil skull except Neanderthal La Ferrassie which is 3mm larger. The orbits were high, wide and deep -- the largest orbits of any Homo yet found.

    Different facial indexes indicate that the upper portion of the face is Caucasoid, the middle Congoid, and the lower pongid (ape).

    Morphologically, the face is mostly Negro, Congoid.

    The post cranial bones are similar to modern Negroes. Rhodesia man stood about 5' 7."

    OTHER SPECIMENS
    "Eyasi man" was found in East Africa. It was likely a female member of the Rhodesia population.

    A human mandible was found in Ethiopia. It was large, with the size range of Heidelberg, Ternefine-Tangier, larger Sinanthropus and some Neanderthals. The teeth are smaller than Broken Hill and within modern range.

    A mandible was found in South Africa, Cave of Hearths. Its age is 40,000 +/- 10,000 years. It most closely resembles Heidelberg. It is probably of European origin.
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Thursday, September 4th, 2003 at 02:22 AM.

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    Post Africans (Part Two)

    CAPE FLATS AND BORDER CAVE
    We have traced the line from Kenya to Cape Town from about 500,000 to 10,000 years ago. Most likely the line evolved from H. erectus to H. sapiens from gene flow from the north.

    Almost all scientists assume that all fossil man skeletons found in South Africa to be ancestors to the Bushmen, Hottentots and Korana (kind of Hottentot). Coon asserts an alternative theory: that they came from the north in post-glacial times. And indeed, early non-Capoid skulls have been found there -- in Cape Flats and Border Cave.

    The remains of 3 individuals have been found at Cape Flats near Cape Town. With them were found Stillbay flake tools but there was also Wilton implements near by. Stillbay are of the kind associated with Broken Hill. Wilton is a Capsian derivative made by the Bushmen. The Middle Stone Age continued as late as 5000 years ago in South Africa.

    The Cape Flats skull is long and narrow with a capacity of 1,230cc -- the same as Saldanha and a little less than Broken Hill. The endocranial cast (the inner side of the cranium) has the same primitive features as Broken Hill. The external features are more modern. It generally resembles some Australoid skulls but also looks a bit like Steinheim. The face is long and seem to be a combination of Caucasoid and Negroid. The lower jaw has a chin. The upper teeth are smaller than Broken Hill and the lower match those of Cave of Hearths. All are within the Negro range.

    In a cave on the border between Swaziland and Zululand (Border Cave), human remains have been found. The border cave skull is 200cc larger than Cape Flats and its vault is higher. The Border Cave vault resembles the Mouillians -- but Negroes are similar. Neither Cape Flats or Border Cave skulls are ancestral to the Bushmen. They are those of Negroes. The Cape Flats was barely past the erectus/sapiens threshold.

    THE CAPSIAN SETTLERS OF THE WHITE HIGHLANDS
    In the highlands of Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda-Ugandi, the weather is cool year round. Thousands of years ago, this region attracted Caucasoid immigrants -- a tall, long-faced, narrow-nosed people who buried their dead in a contracted posture and made blade tools in Capsian style.

    Four sites have been found:Olduvai Gorge, along the face of a cliff in the Elmenteita district of Kenya, Gamble's Cave, at the edge of an ancient lake at Navivasha Railroad station Kenya.

    Except for Olduvai, these sites are close to each other. Only Gamble's Cave is completely stratisfied. "The implements are Capsian throughout but between the second and four occupation levels from the top, an intrusive stratus of African Middle Stone Age tools were found, with Capsian artifacts below and above it." Many of the people who live there today have Caucasoid features.

    Potsherds were found in two of these Capsian levels. Pottery was not made in the Near East or anywhere else, except Japan, before 5,400BC. Gamble's Cave implements date to about 6,000 to 4,500 BC -- well after the arrival of the Capsians in North Africa.

    Eleven skulls from the four sites are essentially Caucasoid. They belong to a rugged form of the Mediterranean race with long brain case, narrow face and long noses. They had modern chins. The average cranial capacity was 1,497cc for males, 1,223cc for females.

    The teeth have not been thoroughly studied but there doesn't appear to be any shoveled incisors. One of the molars of the Elmenteiti series has a Carabelli's cusp -- a Caucasoid feature, yet another has an extraordinary large crown -- beyond the Caucasoid range. The skulls from Elmenteiti are also more prognathous than the others. To Coon, it looked like they were a mixture between Capsians and an earlier element, either ancestral Bushmen or the people we seen in Cape Flats and Border Cave.

    These people were taller than the North African Capsians. Olduvai V and No 4 from Gamble's Cave were about 5' 11" whereas the one from Naivasha railroad station was 6' 8" -- a giant. These statures compare well with the living Watusi and other Hamitic people.

    The Caucasoid racial type of the earlier Capsian invaders persist in the highlands until the Iron Age or until the arrival of the Bantu.

    THE ORIGIN OF CAPOIDS
    There are two theories: 1) That their earliest ancestors came from North Africa, pushed south by the Capsians 2) They evolved locally from Saldanha Bay and Broken Hill man -- and also Florisbad. Proponents of both admit the ancestors of the Bushmen were full-sized and didn't begin to grow small until a few thousand years ago.

    SINGA SKULL FROM SUDAN
    A skull found on the bank of the Blue Nile re-enforces the northern origin of the Bushmen. The skull is completely mineralized, in spite that it is between 5,000 and 10,000 years old. This skull is as old, if not older, than any Capoid skull found in South Africa.

    The bone is thick (13mm), the brow ridges moderately heavy, with a distinct notch above the glabella, like Sinanthropus. The forehead is narrow but bulging, the pareitals also bulge giving the brain case a pentagonial appearance. The orbits are rectangular. Morphologically, the skull could have been that of a full-sized progenitor of the Bushmen. It is brachycephalic.

    THE HOMA SHELL-MOUND SKULLS
    Six skeletons have been found on the shore of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Two skulls have been measured. No 1 is of a middle aged male who had a large brain case, weak brow ridges and a strongly arched forehead. His mandible was large but his teeth were small.

    No 2 was a tall massive man.

    No 3 was a short, thick set adult male with a large head.

    No 4 had a great cranial capacity, the skull large and heavy. The forehead is bulbous, the top of the head flat. The face has much alveolar prognathism, the nasal skeleton is flat and the lower rims of the orbits project. His body was large and heavy. Morphologically, the skull is that of a Bushmen.

    These skeletons have significance not only because they place the Bushmen's ancestors well north of their modern range but also because, along with Singa, they are still large, unreduced and not infantile. Had they migrated north after their evolution in South Africa, small Bushmen skeletons would have been found instead of big ones.

    THE BOSKOP BRAIN CASE
    Several pieces of a skull were found on the east bank of the Mooi river, Potchefstroom District, SW Transvaal. Although the site can not be dated, it probably belonged to the early Capoid group which arrived in South Africa thousands of years ago.

    The boskop calvarium would fit within the Homa population without problem. It was a little broader than Homa, deviating in the direction of Singa. Morphologically, it is Bushmen in vault form and forehead shape, small mastoids. And like Homa, the mandible had a chin.

    FLORISBAD CRANIAL FRAGMENT
    This fragment was found in an ancient mineral spring north of Bloemfontein, Transvaal. From tooth marks, it was likely a carnivore's meal. It is dated between 7,000 and 9,000 years old.

    It is part of a large sapiens skull, sharply curved frontal bones, very broad forehead, short orthognathous face, square orbits, teeth modern size. It would fit the Homa series and resembles Boskop. It without doubt belonged to ancestral Bushmen.

    THE MODERN CAPOID PEOPLE
    Many pre-historic Capoid skeletons have been discovered in South Africa. The best known are Fish Hoek, Zitzikama collection, Matjes River group.

    This material indicates that shrinking, fetalization, general size reduction, of the Capoid took place, mostly, if not completely after their arrival in South Africa.

    Fish Hoek has a large brain case but a small face. A Zitzikama specimen, possibly hydrocephalic has a very bulging forehead and a tiny face. In the Matjes River group, there are full-sized and shrunken individuals within the same population.

    The size reduction began no more than 8,000 to 9,000 years ago and has not yet affected the entire Capoid population.

    Detailed study has shown many differences between Capoid and Negro anatomy, particularly in respect to the vertebrae and bones of the feet. The two subspecies differ as much in postcranial skeleton as they do in the skull and soft parts.

    All the evidence indicates that the Bushmen, Hottentots and their larger ancestors are descended from the Ternefine-Tangier line of North Africa.

    THE EARLIEST SKELETONS OF MODERN NEGROES
    The origin of the Negro is the most difficult to determine. The line from Chellian-3 to Cape Flats and Border Cave is Negro more than anything else but it is not fully Negro in the modern sense. The Negroes are a distinct people, anatomically and physiologically. Their origin is likely north and west of the Congo basin but evidence is scarce.

    The oldest skeletons to be Negro is Asselar man found in a dry bed that was once a wide flowing river near the Sahara.

    It is an adult male who stood at least 5' 7" whose long bones were slender. From the neck down, pelvis vertebrae, hand and feet bones, were all Negroid.

    The skull is not easily catagorized. Its capacity of 1,520cc is on the high side of the Negro range. Its vault proportions can be matched to Negroes living in the Sudan.

    The teeth are typically Negro in dimension and form.

    PYGMIES
    All Pygmy remains are modern and no archaeological industries can be attributed to them. They live in isolated portions of the tropical forests of Central Africa from Gabon, Cameroons to Uganda and Rwanda -- nearly all north of the Congo River. There is historical evidence that the Western Pygmies once extended along the entire west coast as far as Liberia.

    There is no evidence the Negroes lived in the forests with the Pygmies before the Negroes had acquired iron and agriculture.

    Since entering the forest, Negro men have taken Pygmy wives but Pygmy men have not taken Negro women. There are whole tribes of Negroes that are part Pygmy in origin and appearance. There are no hybrids in the Pygmy camps in the deep forests. To live like a Pygmy, you have to be one. Gene flow, then, has been one way which may have adapted the Negro to forest living more than their ancestors out in the savannah and grassland.

    The sickle-cell trait which renders men immune to malaria, is found among 26% of Pygmies in the malaria region. This trait may have originated with Pygmies. Owing to the unique direction of gene flow, Pygmies could not have given it to Negroes.

    The modern Negro, then, is possibly part Pygmy but he has only become such in the last 2,000 - 3,000 years. Before that, gene flow was likely restricted to peripheral contact at the edge of the forest.

    The difference between old Negro skeletons and modern Negroes may reflect the presence and absence of Pygmy genes.

    The Pygmy are small Negroid people. Their average stature is about 5.' There is considerable sexual dimorphism with women being smaller than men. They are not dwarfs like some Australoids, nor are they neotenous as the Bushmen. The manner of dwarfing verges on the achondroplastic but does not reach the extremes as seen in some individual mutations in European and Negro populations. Their arms are long and legs short. Their heads are not small with capacities of 1,428cc for males and 1,268cc for females. Their faces are short, noses short and wide. Their hair spirals as Negro's but rarely peppercorn as in the Bushmen. The men have abundant beards and many have hairy bodies.

    Their skin is variable but they are not black nor are they yellow like the Bushmen. Their usual skin color is dark reddish brown, mahogany. They have become slightly depigmented in the forests.

    Little is known of the Pygmy teeth but they are not small like the Bushmen.

    Very few Pygmies resemble Bushmen or Hottentots. This suggests that Pygmies began to shrink before the ancestors of the Hamites and Capoids moved south.

    Pygmies are descended from an old pre-Hamitic, pre-Capoid population of the parklands and grasslands of Africa which was driven into the forest by drought.

    The full-sized ancestors of the Pygmies probably had a big body, full-sized head, broad face and broad nose, eyes set far apart and a heavy brow ridge. His skin was either black or mahogany and his body was hairy. He may have had convex uneverted lips like the Pygmy instead of the rollout lips like the Negro's. He could have been descended from the Saldanha-Rhodesia-Cape Flats group.

    We can suppose that these archaic, proto-Negro, proto-Pygmy comparable to those of East and South Africa continued to live in West Africa well into the post-Pleistocene (<10,000 years ago) away from Capsians and Capoid migrations -- that this population mixed with Pygmies. By this mixture, they acquired the bulbous forehead, protruding eyes and other infantile features characteristic of living Negroes -- that distinguish them from Caucasoids whom their ancestors more closely resemble.

    To Coon, this theory makes sense -- that modern Negroes resulted from a backcross between an original proto-Negroid stock and Pygmies.

    "But in this theory such mixtures are not a primary cause of the rise of the Negroes. Because hybrids tend to return to one of their parental stocks, no valid subspecies can arise through mixture."

    Like the other four subspecies, the Congoid had an ancient, if still unknown history.
    Last edited by cosmocreator; Thursday, September 4th, 2003 at 02:39 AM.

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