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Thread: Is the Nordish Concept Valid?

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    Question Is the Nordish Concept Valid?

    Nordish? - Karl Earlson

    The "Nordish" concept of the American racialist author Richard McCulloch, has provoked a great deal of debate on the Internet, both for and against, particularly with reference to McCulloch's Racial Compact webpage. Throughout my Racial History Research website, I have frequently employed the term "Nordish". Therefore, is the use of this term meaningful, and is the Nordish concept a valid one?
    Perhaps the argument most frequently employed against the Nordish concept, is the idea that it finds no justification in the works of "serious" anthropologists, and specifically that Carleton Coon did not support the idea in his monograph The Races of Europe (1939), which is generally held to be the keystone of McCulloch's conception. However, Coon was not the only physical anthropologist of the twentieth-century, and we must therefore consider the work of other scholars as well. Before doing so, it may first prove useful to precisely define exactly what we mean by the term "Nordish".


    Borreby Male #8
    [Torgersen, 1976]

    McCulloch divides the Nordish bloc into two major groupings: Central and Peripheral. The Central Nordish group is in turn further subdivided into an inner core of root types, and a series of stabilised blends. The inner core consists of Nordics (Hallstatt and Keltic), Brünns and Borrebys. The Anglo-Saxon, Trønder and Fälish types are simply hybrids, formed from various mixtures within the Central Nordish root types. The Peripheral Nordish subraces: North-Atlantid, Paleo-Atlantid, Neo-Danubian, East Baltic, Noric and Sub-Nordic, are merely hybrids between the Central Nordish types and non-Nordish European races (Mediterraneans, Dinarics, Alpines, etc). Subsequently, because a considerable portion of the Nordish types are hybrids, the really valid aspect of the Nordish concept lies in the core of the Central Nordish root types (Nordic, Brünn and Borreby). The other types have become racially assimilable due to admixture, and geographical proximity, which has allowed for a certain amount of phenotypical and genotypical convergence. The question must therefore be asked: can the idea of a Central Nordish bloc be justified?


    Egon, Freiherr von Eickstedt
    (1892-1965)
    [Schwidetzky et al., 1992]

    The answer to this question may be found in the works of the German physical anthropologist Egon von Eickstedt. Eickstedt is generally considered one of the greatest anthropologists of the last century, and certainly the most important and influential taxonomist of the various human races; cf. Schwidetzky et al. (1992). Naturally, since our enquiry here concerns taxonomy, and the classification of the European races, Eickstedt's work will prove to be of great value. In his magnum opus, titled Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menschheit [Raciology and Racial History of Mankind] (1934), Eickstedt classified the indigenous subraces of Northern Europe under a single label: die nordische Rasse (the Nordic race). [NB: Eickstedt sometimes labelled this race "Nordic" (nordische), but at other times he preferred the more scientific term "Nordid" (nordide).] He then divided this group into three major subraces; cf. Eickstedt (1941).


    Pomeranian Male
    (Teuto-Nordic)
    [Eickstedt, 1934]

    The first type was the teuto-nordische Unterrasse (Teuto-Nordic subrace). This subrace is the classic Nordic race: tall and slender build, lean features, narrow-faced, long-headed, narrow-nosed, with golden-blond hair and blue eyes. This of course, is the archetypal "Scandinavian" type.


    Paul von Hindenburg
    (Dalo-Nordic)
    [Eickstedt, 1934]

    The second type was the dalo-nordische Unterrasse (Dalo-Nordic subrace). This subrace is the modern survival of the old Crô-Magnon race: tall and broad build, robust features, broad-faced, long-headed, broader-nosed, with reddish hair and grey-blue eyes. This is Günther's Phalian racial type.


    Mordvin Male
    (Fenno-Nordic)
    [Eickstedt, 1934]

    The third and final type was the fenno-nordische Unterrasse (Fenno-Nordic subrace). This subrace is characterised as having red-blond hair, very light "water-blue eyes" (wasserblau Augen), an angular and sinewy body-build, lower average stature, sharp facial relief, and relatively broad heads. According to Eickstedt, this type is more common in Eastern Europe, particularly amongst the Finnic tribes, hence its name. [NB: All three types tend to have ruddy-fair complexions.]


    Paul von Hindenburg and Crown Prince Wilhelm
    (Dalo-Nordic and Teuto-Nordic)
    [Eickstedt, 1934]

    A careful scrutiny of this typological scheme reveals clear parallels between Eickstedt's nordische Rasse and McCulloch's Central Nordish group. The Teuto-Nordic subrace of Eickstedt is clearly McCulloch's two Nordic racial types. The Dalo-Nordic subrace of Eickstedt is clearly McCulloch's Brünn racial type. Finally, the Fenno-Nordic subrace of Eickstedt has certain similarities with McCulloch's Borreby racial type: a tendency towards rufosity, light eyes, broad-headedness, strongly-marked facial features, and a coarse body-build. This match is hardly precise, but the physical features of these two types converge more than they diverge. At any rate, the Eickstedt racial scheme clearly allows for three main categories within the Northern European racial type, as with McCulloch's scheme.


    Aurignacid and Cromagnid
    [Gerhardt, 1976]

    An even more explicit confirmation of the Central Nordish typology, can be found in the works of the Swiss physical anthropologist Kurt Gerhardt. Gerhardt (1976) begins his analysis of Nordid ethnogenesis by returning to studies of Upper Palaeolithic skeletal remains. The ancient peoples of Palaeolithic Europe were remarkably homogenous he argues, and the physical forms which were manifest among them, merely represent extreme varients of a common type. However, Gerhardt points out that this variation within the Upper Palaeolithic groups may be broadly classified into two distinct evolutionary tendencies: a Leptomorphic Aurignacid and a Eurymorphic Cromagnid. From these two physical types, Gerhardt derives the bulk of all living Northern Europeans. The Aurignacid evolved into the Robust Leptodolichomorph type, which Gerhardt terms Teuto-Nordid. The Cromagnid, in a slightly gracilised, Eurydolichomorph form, has survived to the present day.


    Brachymorph Cromagnid
    [Gerhardt, 1976]

    Gerhardt (1969) discusses the evolution of the third type a little more extensively. He notes that the originally Dolichomorph Cromagnid eventually evolved a physically Brachymorph varient. Gerhardt displays in schematic form, exactly how it would be possible to derive the Brachymorph type from its Dolichomorph parent stock. Gerhardt observes that, for the most part, the so-called Borreby type belongs to this racial form: he particularly identifies Borreby Male #8 as belonging to this type. Gerhardt considers the Borreby varient of this biodynamic trend to be distinctly Northern European. Gerhardt argues that many Bronze Age Danish brachycranic skulls have been erroneously classified as "Borreby". For Gerhardt, only the Brachymorph Cromagnid type may be considered truely "Borreby" in form, though it is by no means unique to the Borreby site, or even Denmark. Indeed, in the Finnish and Baltic realm, the Brachymorph Cromagnid became what Gerhardt labels the Fenno-Scandid type. Thus, Eickstedt's final "Finnic" type is accounted for.
    What are we to make of the data above? I believe that it may be summarised as follows:
    • The Central Nordish subraces have a common origin in the differing evolutionary tendencies among Europeans of the Upper Palaeolithic period.
    • McCulloch's Central Nordish group is, for all practical purposes, identical with Eickstedt and Gerhardt's Nordid racial type.
    • It is possible to make a tripartite classification of the Central Nordish bloc, with the following subdivisions:
      • Nordic – Identical with Eickstedt's Teuto-Nordid subrace and Gerhardt's Robust Leptodolichomorph, it also broadly includes the "Nordic varieties" of Coon (1939).
      • Brünn – According to Coon (1939), it is "Crô-Magnon, to some extent", and may therefore be identified with Eickstedt's Dalo-Nordid subrace, and obviously, Gerhardt's Eurydolichomorph Cromagnid.
      • Borreby – Gerhardt (1969) labels it a Brachymorph Cromagnid, which agrees with Coon (1939), who identifies it as an "unreduced brachycephalic strain in Crô-Magnon". Gerhardt calls the living form of this type Fenno-Scandid, which clearly links it to the Fenno-Nordid subrace of Eickstedt (1934).

    In conclusion, the Central Nordish concept of Richard McCulloch is thoroughly sound, and its intellectual and scientific justification may be found in the anthropological works of Egon von Eickstedt and Kurt Gerhardt.

    SOURCES
    Texts
    • Coon, C. S. (1939) The Races of Europe (New York: Macmillan).
    • Eickstedt, E. von (1934) Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menschheit (Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke).
    • Eickstedt, E. von (1941) Die rassischen Grundlagen des deutschen Volkstums (Cologne: Hermann Schaffstein).
    • Gerhardt, K. (1969) "Der sogenannte Borreby-Typus." Homo, 20, 141-159.
    • Gerhardt, K. (1976) "Anthropotypologie der Glockenbecherleute in ihren Ausschwärmelandschaften." J. N. Lanting & J. D. van der Waals [eds.] Glockenbecher Symposion (Oberried, 1974) (Haarlem: Fibula-van Dishoeck), 147-166.
    • Schwidetzky, I., A. Kandler-Pálsson, R. Knußmann & F. W. Rösing (1992) "Biographie: Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt (10.4.1892 – 20.12.1965)." Homo, 43, 3-28.
    • Torgersen, J. (1976) "Rassengeschichte von Skandinavien." I. Schwidetzky [ed.] Rassengeschichte der Menschheit, 4. Lieferung. Europa II: Ost- und Nordeuropa (Munich: R. Oldenbourg), 103-145.


    Glossary
    Dolichomorph = long in form
    Leptomorph = slender in form
    Brachymorph = short in form
    Eurymorph = broad in form


    ---

    Thoughts?
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  2. #2
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    Post Re: Nordish?

    Sounds reasonable to me. I've never understood the hostility to the Nordish concept anyway. It stands to reason that the various peoples of northern Europe would be related to each other.
    Don't let Europe Rule Britannia!

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    Post Re: Nordish?

    The difference between robust and gracile types is actually related to degree of settled life especially after the end of the Upper Paleolithic in most regions of the world, Siegfried. And the degree of brachycephalism is probably related to climate as well, so you cant define a subrace using either like has been done here, with a sepreration of the Borreby from other robust northern European types because of the ratio of skull measurements, and of course a typological seperation of Nordics related to gracility is unlikely to be tracable to the divergence of seperate types during the UP.

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    Post Re: Nordish?

    morfrain_encilgar, so do you think Coon's theory about Nordid origins was wrong?

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    Post Re: Nordish?

    Quote Originally Posted by Glenlivet
    morfrain_encilgar, so do you think Coon's theory about Nordid origins was wrong?
    I believe that Nordids are gracilised UP Europeans, blended with Mediterranids to different degrees in different locations.

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    Post Re: Nordish?

    To the begin i didn't want to partecipate to this thread for personal reasons, but i can't resist to express my opinion. Like many know, i'm neither against the nordish concept, neither friendly toward it. I'm neutral substantially; only i note that Mc Culloch isn't an antropologue of course, and i suspect (only suspect) a subtle politic influence in the thing. Why a "peripheral" group ? cause a right anthropologic consideration or to a much less noble attempt to include much more supporters to the theory ? Mc Culloch is american, and the major part of Euro-americans today are mixed and are classifiable just like "peripheral" nordish (many people desire such classification, at least partially); we have to be honest and serious for a moment : REAL nordish people (i mean only Central nordish) number is VERY LOW. This is the reality. So, it could be necessary to "enlarge" the number in some way, like the creation of a pheripheral category,(it's easier to be included in the peripheral circle, by the moment that its standards are less rigids)

    That's all. I have rised such consideration before. These are only impressions, nothing more, and are absolutely honest. I have nothing in particular against the nordish concept. Many of you are north-europeans (at least in origin) and friendly with the "concept" ,so, i apologize in advance if my dubts offend someone.

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    Post Re: Nordish?

    What he said is generally right - nothing new though and not only this three variants are indigenous to Northern Europe (compare with Palaeatlantid) - but these three could be called "Nordic in the widest sense", especially if using pigmentation and geography first, yes.
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    Post Re: Nordish?

    Here's an interesting example from Coon's "The Races of Europe"

    FIG. 3 (3 views). A Nordic Dane of Jutish parentage who also shows Corded pre-
    dominance. His face is of extreme length, a trait common among ancient Corded
    crania. This individual is the son of the classic Borreby man shown on Plate 5, Fig. 1;
    this is graphic evidence of the fact that ancient racial types may be repeated in toto in
    individuals of mixed racial ancestry. Only through the agency of such segregation is it
    possible to present this collection of basic European racial photographs
    Son, Corded;

    Father, Borreby;

    The Nordish concept in a nutshell.
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    Don't let Europe Rule Britannia!

    "If we reunited, then we would be an economic and military powerhouse without peer for centuries to come."-Leofric

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    Post Re: Nordish?

    The only thing I miss is the mother
    Magna Europa est patria nostra
    STOP GATS! STOP LIBERALISM!

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    Post Re : Re: Nordish?

    Quote Originally Posted by Agrippa
    The only thing I miss is the mother
    What could be the mother's subrace?
    Cum catapultae proscriptae erunt tum soli proscripti catapultas habebunt.

    « -Oh my God, but you're a neo-nazi?!...
    -But why neo? »

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