Having spotted various archeological and anthropological data about the subjects, mentioned in the title above, in the archives, I thought they might be converged to one comprehensive thread. But instead, I will be cutting and pasting from wikipedia, as it seems to have satisfying introductory knowledge and will be pointing out to some specific cases for the sake of being precise, leaving the main goal of this thread, that is to accumulate related knowledge under one thread, to some future posts.

The Corded Ware culture, Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture is an enormous European archaeological horizon that begins in the late Neolithic (stone age), flourishes through the copper age and finally culminates in the early bronze age, developing in various areas from ca. 3200 BC/2900 BC to ca. 2300 BC/1800 BC. With the Yamna culture, it represents the introduction of metal into Northern Europe, and the earliest expansion of the Indo-European family of languages.
It encompassed most of continental northern Europe from the Rhine River on the west, to the Volga River in the east, including most of modern-day Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Baltic States, Belarus, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, northern Ukraine, western Russia, as well as coastal Norway and the southern portions of Sweden and Finland. The somewhat later Beaker culture was contemporaneous. It is succeeded by a number of bronze age cultures, among them the Unetice culture (Central Europe), ca 2300 BC, and by the Nordic Bronze Age, a culture of Scandinavia and northernmost Germany-Poland, ca 1800 BC. onsidering its immense, continental expanse, it clearly represents a fusion of earlier archaeological cultures of varying degrees of relatedness, probably lead by intrusive elements from the east and south. It does not represent a single monolithic entity, but rather a diffusion of technological and cultural innovations. The fact that the Globular Amphora culture similtaneously overlies much of the same area as of the Corded Ware culture proves this. Different peoples, living in close proximity to each other at the same time really did leave different archaeological remains.
In the circum-Baltic and more westwards coastal Scandinavian areas, there is clear evidence of a maritime economy, where the sea has to be seen as a uniting element, much as the Aegean Sea united the Greeks.
In the west, it involves all of the area and is an obvious but not necessarily the only successor of the earlier Funnelbeaker culture. In the area of the present Baltic states and Kaliningrad Oblast (former East Prussia), it is is seen as an intrusive successor to the southwestern portion of the Narva culture. Elsewhere, however, particularly in its eastern extent, it is a new presence, not really associated with any earlier culture.

The Yamna (from Russian яма "pit") or Pit Grave or Ochre Grave culture is a late copper age/early bronze age culture of the Bug/Dniester/Ural region, dating to the 36th23rd centuries BC. The culture was predominantly nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers and a few hillforts. Domestication of the horse, cattle, sheep and goat, use of plough and carts is attested.
Characteristic for the culture are the inhumations in kurgans, (tumuli) in pit graves with the dead body placed in a supine position with bent knees. The bodies were covered in ochre. Multiple graves have been found in these kurgans, often as later insertions. Significantly, animal grave offerings were made (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and horse), a feature associated with early Indo-Europeans, particularly Indo-Iranians
It is said to have originated in the middle Volga based Khvalynsk culture and the middle Dnieper based Sredny Stog culture. In its western range, it is succeeded by the Catacomb culture; in the east, by the Poltavka culture and the Srubna culture.

the Yamna culture in 4th millennium BC Europe


The Yamna culture is identified with the late Proto-Indo-Europeans in the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas. It is one candidate for the Urheimat (homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language, along with the preceding Sredny Stog culture.


The Andronovo culture is a cover term for a group of Bronze Age cultures of southern Siberia and Central Asia, ca. 2300 BC1000 BC. It is probably better termed an archaeological complex or archaeological horizon. The name derives from the village of Andronovo (55°53′ N 55°42′ E), where in 1914, several graves were discovered, with skeletons in crouched positions, buried with richly decorated pottery.
At least four sub-cultures are distinguished, during which the culture expands towards the south and the east:
  • Sintashta-Petrovka-Arkaim (Southern Urals, northern Kazakhstan, 2200-1600 BC), after the Sintashta fortification of ca. 1800 BC at the upper Ural (Chelyabinsk province), the Arkaim settlement dated to the 17th century
  • Alakul (2100-1400 BC)
  • Fedorovo (1400-1200 BC)
  • Alekseyevka (1200-1000 BC)
In southern Siberia and Kazakhstan, the Andronovo culture was succeeded by the Karasuk culture.
The geographical extent of the culture is vast, and difficult to delineate exactly. On its western fringes, it overlaps with the approximately contemporaneous (but not too related) Srubna culture in the Volga-Ural interfluvial; to the east it reaches into the Minusinsk depression, overlapping with the area of the earlier Afanasevo culture; additional sites are scattered as far south as the Koppet Dag (Turkmenistan), the Pamir (Tajikistan) and the Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The northern boundary vaguely corresponds to the beginning the Taiga.
They mined deposits of copper ore in the Altai Mountains and lived in villages of as many as ten sunken log cabin houses measuring up to 30m by 60m in size. Burials were made in stone cists or stone enclosures with buried timber chambers.
In other regards, the economy was pastoral, based on horses and cattle, but also sheep and goats.

The Andronovo culture has been strongly associated with early Indo-Iranian culture. In particular, it is credited with the invention of the spoke-wheeled chariot around 2000 BC; Di Cosmo (p. 903) referring to finds related to the Andronovo culture from "as early as 2026 B.C."
Sintashta is a site on the upper Ural River. It is famed for its grave-offerings, particularly chariot burials. These inhumations were in kurgans and included all or parts of animals (horse and dog) deposited into the barrow. Sintashta is often pointed to as the premier proto-Indo-Iranian site, and that the language spoken was still in the Proto-Indo-Iranian stage. There are similar sites "in the Volga-Ural steppe" (Mallory).
In the northeast, its successor was the Karasuk culture (1500-800 BC), which is sometimes asserted to be non-Indo-European, and at other times to be specifically proto-Iranian.


Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. The formative Sintashta-Petrovka culture is shown in darker red. The location of the earliest spoke-wheeled chariot finds is indicated in purple. Adjacent and overlapping cultures (Afanasevo culture, Srubna culture, BMAC) are shown in green.


The Andronovo culture is a cover term for a group of Bronze Age cultures of southern Siberia and Central Asia, ca.

The Funnelbeaker, or TRB or (German) Trichterbecher culture (ca 4000 BC2700 BC). is the principal north central European megalithic culture of late Neolithic Europe. It ranges from the Elbe catchment in Germany with a western extension into the Netherlands, to southern Scandinavia (Denmark up to Uppland in Sweden and the Oslofjord in Norway) to the Vistula catchment in Poland.
The Funnelbeaker culture is preceded by the Ertebølle culture which is named after a Danish village. This predecessor culture was partly neolithic but still primarily hunter-gatherer. The successor culture was the Corded Ware culture and the overlapping Globular Amphora culture. The German variants of the Funnelbeaker culture include the Tiefstichgrüppe in Northern Germany as well as the Walternienburg-Salzmünde and Baalburge group of the upper Elbe.

tunnackig yxa (thin-neck axe), from Skåne


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Migration patterns

It is supposedly the first developed farming culture of southern Scandinavia, but opinions are divided on whether it was introduced by migration or not. After WWII, the consensus among Scandinavian scholars became that it had spread peacefully by cultural diffusion into Scandinavia and that the indigenous population, of the Ertebølle and Lihult cultures, spontaneously had adopted agriculture due to environmental changes. However, today the opinion is again changing and more scholars agree that there was immigration. Oddly, it was later pushed south from the Mälaren basin, and from the east, by a hunter and gatherer culture called the Pitted Ware culture (the debate on whether it was by demic diffusion or cultural diffusion mirrors the arrival of the Funnelbeaker culture). Still, it is richly represented in Denmark and southwestern Sweden (i.e. Bohuslän, Västergötland and Skåne).




Europe in ca. 4000-3500 BC







Linear Pottery culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Linear Pottery culture or (German) Linearbandkeramik (abbr. LBK) or Linear Band Ware culture or Linear Ceramics culture or the Danubian I culture of V. Gordon Childe, or Early Danubian or Incised Ware Group is a major archaeological horizon of the northern European Neolithic (stone age), flourishing ca. 5500—4500 BC. The heaviest concentrations are on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, and the upper and middle Rhine. The LBK represents the advent of agriculture into this part of the world.
Three variants are recognized:
  • Early or Western Linear Ware Culture. The culture developed on the middle Danube is carried down the Rhine, Elbe, Oder and Vistula into largely unoccupied lands.
  • Bükk or Eastern Linear Ware Culture. The Early Linear Ware Culture influences or intrudes upon a population of Starcevized Mesolithic remnants in the upper Tisza drainage system of the Bükk Mountains.
  • Late Dniester-Bug Culture. The Early Linear Ware Culture intrudes upon the Neolithic Dniester-Bug Culture.
A number of cultures ultimately replaced the Linear Pottery culture over its range, but there is no one-to-one correspondance between its variants and the replacing cultures. The culture map instead is complex. Some of the successor cultures are the Hinkelstein, Großgartach, Rössen, Lengyel, Cucuteni, and Boian-Maritza.
No need to say that the majority of neolithic people people were gracile and small mediterraneans.

trypillja

aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie

(Weitergeleitet von Tripolje)
Trypillja (ukrainisch Трипiлля, russisch Триполье - Tripolje) ist eine Siedlung in der Ukraine im Oblast Kiew mit circa 2.800 Einwohnern (Stand 1. Januar 2005), etwa 40 Kilometer südlich von Kiew und in der Nähe der Stadt Ukrainka am Dnjepr gelegen.
Trypillja ist vor allem dadurch bekannt, dass in ihrer Umgebung die Reste einer großer Siedlung der Cucuteni-Tripolje-Kultur am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts ausgegraben wurden. Die Siedlung existierte um 4800-4500 v. Chr., zählte etwa 10-20 Tausend Einwohner und war damit für damalige Verhältnisse einfach riesig. In Trypillja befindet sich ein Museum mit zahlreichen Funden der Cucuteni-Tripolje-Kultur und späteren Epochen.
Trypillja ist ein populärer Urlaubsort mit vielen Ferienhäusern und Sanatorien.





One of the intriguing matters is that: the tripolje culture, which is said to be a successor of Linearbandkeramik or contemparenous to it, is semitic.

It seems that wheel-chariots or cavalrymen belonging to the Kurganids or in other words Yamna culture had not left any significant inheritence on the germanics, since in 3rd century AD, although the germanics had just learned using arrows and bows, the main bulk of the german armies was still infantrymen with spears and in the case of Franks, axes. It seems ,even, the corded ware people used horses in rare occurences. Since we know that Yamna culture has never gone afar off hungary , there is no clear relatedness between Yamna culture and Corded Ware people. The wheel-chariots were probably used more often for transporting harvests in northwestern eurasia.

I hope to be posting specific anthropological data on some of the subjects. In addition to this, I would insistently suggest forming of a subforum about archeology.
Kind regards