Results 1 to 3 of 3

Thread: Kurgans, Indoeuropeans and Other 'Contrary' Anthropology and Prehistory

  1. #1
    Senior Member Todesritter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
    Last Online
    Friday, August 3rd, 2012 @ 11:14 AM
    Ethnicity
    celto-germanic
    Gender
    Posts
    803
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    2
    Thanked in
    2 Posts

    Kurgans, Indoeuropeans and Other 'Contrary' Anthropology and Prehistory

    http://www.geocities.com/rachmatfisher/

    This author is not specifically a white supremacist or even a racialist per se, but does however point out many of the flaws in standardized Anthropology, World History, and Prehistory the way it is packaged in politically correct western academia and educational systems. Some of this information will likely be supportive of the opinions and ideas of certain members here, while other parts of it may seem disagreeable. The author’s primary goal seems to refute the ‘pretty picture’ and simplistic ‘official truth’ in these disciplines, brining up all of the areas which may be interesting to some members here which do not fit, for example the ‘out of Africa’ theory for modern human evolution which has become popular. The motivation seems to be seeking real truth, or at least debunking false certainty, by being even more objective than knowledge seekers and experts in these disciplines who are part of the establishment, which I applaud.

    Anyway, here is a link to the Index, and below is a specific section 'Kurgans and Indoeuropeans' which might be of most immediate interest here – I’d encourage those with interest in these areas to read it, possibly disagree with most of it, or agree with it, as your own mind dictates.

    /* Also, for those of you who like it, I’d encourage you to make a back up copy locally, as seeing the broken links to images, and the lack of obvious huge monetary, or official support of the articles here, this information may lose its internet hosting at any time. */

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Kurgans and Indoeuropeans

    INDO-EUROPEANS

    The Proto-Indo-European refugees from the Black Sea inundation went east around the top of the Caspian Sea and as far as the Urals in the 6th millennium. When their descendants re-entered Europe in about 3900BCE and spread back from the Russian steppes to the Danube, initiating an avalanche of migrations across Europe and the Middle East, they were seminomadic pastoralists. By the time their further descendants reached the Aegean and Adriatic regions in the third millennium BCE they were also seasonal agriculturalists.

    The main waves of the IndoEuropean invasion of Europe seem to have taken place around the years 3900, 3500 and 2300 BCE. A massive wave of destruction hit Anatolia (Aegean area) in 2800BC and Luwian speakers invaded Hatti at about the same time. In the period 2500 to 2100 many cities of Syria and Palestine were captured and destroyed by IndoEuropean invaders. The town of Bab edh-Dhra on the eastern side of the Dead Sea succumbed to the invaders in about 2300 and the change in burial styles in the area indicates that the invaders were IndoEuropeans related to the Kurgans. Minoan Crete was probably the last major matrifocal culture in Europe to succumb and that was finally dominated by the IndoEuropean Mycenaean Greeks in about 1350 BCE.

    The IndoEuropeans soon controlled Persia and Mesopotamia but the continued existence of the older languages and cultures produced big alterations in the IndoEuropean languages in the area. The IndoEuropean language group entered India too but we know very little about how it happened, or who took it there.

    The immigrants finally covered almost all of Europe. Only the Basque and Etruscan languages seem to have survived the conquest. The other non-IndoEuropean languages of Europe - Finnish, Sami (Lapp), Estonian and Hungarian - all entered the continent long after the IndoEuropeans were already in possession.

    In one sense the IndoEuropean "invasion" is a misnomer since after the first two incursions around 3900 and 3500 the invaders had spread out over such a large territory that the language was split into several distinct groups. After that the IndoEuropean expansion was continued by the people of the Italic, Indic and other daughter language groups. So the language of the Kurgans too was not the original Proto-Indo-European but a second or third generation dialectical descendant.

    The IndoEuropean invasion of Europe spread death, destruction and chaos everywhere, as invasions normally do, disrupting the trade links of Europe and the Middle Eastern and leading ultimately to the complete overthrow of the matrifocal culture of the area that had existed since at least 30,000BCE. In the last quarter of the 20th century the Kurgans received a lot of attention because they appear to have been the first clearly identifiable patrifocal culture, with a male chief deity. The most devastating part of the whole invasion was that of the Kurgans into the Caucasus, severing for a time the links between Europe, Asia and Africa.

    Traditions of an earlier Golden Age of peace and prosperity under the guidance of the supreme Mother Goddess were true only by comparison with what followed. The widespread legends of warrior queens and the worship of goddesses of war should be sufficient indication that peace was far from universal in spite of the presumed good influence of the great goddess. The age following the Black Sea flood certainly was relatively prosperous but it wasn't free of war, and the ages before the flood had not been noticeably peaceful either. The problem was that the earlier people were not very good at war and killing, having had experience only at the inter-village or inter-tribal level, while the IndoEuropeans were international experts who did it better and on a much bigger scale. It was mainly technology that made the difference - horses, wheeled carts and sometimes metal weapons.

    It is possible that the IndoEuropeans were the first to tame the horse, but it is extremely unlikely. The horses probably originated from the Ferghana area, so they may have learned the techniques from the people there, but they do seem to have been among the first to use horses in war. The traditions of the Amazons say that they also were great mounted warriors. It is claimed that until the IndoEuropeans entered Europe none of the pottery of the Caucasus or the Mediterranean showed war, walled cities or slavery, but that after their arrival these became common motifs. This may be so, but it doesn't mean that the Kurgans brought all these things with them. We know that the city of Jericho had walls in about 10,000BCE and they were not just for flood control; evidence of slavery goes back just as far; and war of course has always been with us. But it may be that the military power and savagery of the IndoEuropeans and the increased incidence of war made these topics more common and visible. Perhaps there was also a change in people's attitude to such things - before the IndoEuropeans arrived war and violence were considered shameful, it was the behavior of animals and not a fit subject for art, but later they were glorified as the behavior of warriors.

    IndoEuropean agricultural innovations led to increased food production and hence a population explosion in Europe. In fact it was probably the use of the plough and the consequent population growth that provided the initial impetus for the first IndoEuropean expansions - the evidence is that prior to that they were a fairly small and insignificant group. Their transport and military innovations led to a culture of warfare and invasion on a greater scale than had previously been known. The area a conqueror can control against an unwilling population is limited by how far and fast he can move his troops and their supplies. As long as all travel was on foot and all burdens moved on sleds or carried on people's backs that was not very far, but with horses and wheeled carts the range was extended by a factor of perhaps about ten, so the controllable area increased by a factor of around one hundred. This gave the conquerors control over vastly more food, metals, fighters and slaves. Suddenly they were rich and powerful and had the resources to extend their control over an even greater area.

    The myths of the centaurs perhaps derive from the first sightings of these people on horseback and the warlike nature of the centaurs reflects the military impact of the IndoEuropeans. They were the first of the great migratory invasion forces from Asia into Europe that we know of, and the Kurgans are the best known of the IndoEuropean groups.



    KURGANS

    The terms "IndoEuropean" and "Kurgan" are often used as if they are interchangeable, but the name "Kurgan" in fact applies to one specific group of people who lived in northern Europe from Russia to Germany and began to spread out from there in the third millennium BCE. The name "Kurgan" refers to the fact that these people buried their dead in deep shafts covered by artificial burial mounds, or barrows. The word "kurgan" itself is related to Slavic and Turkic words meaning "barrow" or "artificial mound".

    The Kurgans were only one of a number of closely related cultures that covered the whole Caucasian region (Black Sea to Caspian Sea). The Kura-Aras culture from South Caucasia was also IndoEuropean and probably had more direct contact with the Mesopotamians of the time. The culture was characterised by the beehive shape of their tombs and by the first appearance in the area of cyclopean masonry (large shaped irregular blocks fitted together without mortar). They also were advanced in fine metalwork beyond the level of the Kurgans. Their pottery was black with incised spiral designs and has been found in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia and even Israel. By the end of the third millennium the Kurgan and Kura-Aras cultures were indistinguishable.



    KURGAN CULTURE

    The Kurgans have been chosen, mainly as a result of the chances inherent in archaeological discovery, as the type culture of the IndoEuropeans. They were at or close to the center of the invasion of the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern areas and brought with them the distinctive cultural complex which is now identified as IndoEuropean, but we have no way of knowing if they were really typical of the IndoEuropeans as a whole.

    The history of the Kurgan people can be traced, with some rather long and significant gaps, across more than 4000 years from the sixth to the second millennium BCE. As the Kurgans, rather than just representative IndoEuropeans, they spread out from their earliest known sites in the Ukraine and southern Russia. Some authorities claim that all Indo-European cultures descend from them but in fact we know that the proto-Indo-European (PIE) cultural group can be traced back several thousand years earlier. Other people like to see them as the ancestors of the "Sea People" who caused so much trouble in Palestine around 1200 BC. Neither of these claims is justified by the evidence.

    The IndoEuropeans introduced the plough into Europe and also brought domesticated horses with them as transport and as beasts of burden, but the origin of these developments is lost further back in PIE history in Central Asia. Other IndoEuropean innovations were the yoke (for oxen as draft animals), carts with two and four wheels (solid wooden wheels, not spoked), the bridle for horses, a hafted copper battle-ax with a shaft hole (so they are sometimes referred to as The Battle-Ax People), and copper tools such as awls and daggers. They spread fairly quickly all over Europe and their characteristic copper battle axes or related types have been found as far as northern and central Europe. At the time of the Kurgans they were still basically a stone-age people since only the leaders seem to have had copper tools and weapons. The harnesses of Kurgan horses were from leather but the bits were of bone, not metal. A "royal" grave of the later period could include fine metalwork decorated with animal motifs but the burial of an ordinary person might be accompanied only by some simple pottery and a flint tool or knife, or nothing at all.

    In common with all IndoEuropean cultures, the Kurgans used red ochre in their burials. In fact the use of red ochre for sacred matters, including burials, is one of the few near-universals in early human history - it occurs in Africa, ancient Australia, the earliest known levels of occupation in the Americas, and in early Asia. Even the Neanderthals used red ochre for burials, and presumably for other sacred purposes as well. So the occurrence of red ochre in IndoEuropean burials is nothing special - it indicates only that they were part of the human race.

    Kurgan pottery was fairly primitive, especially compared with that of their cousins the Kura-Aras people. It was made of clay mixed with crushed shells and sand and decorated with marks made by a stick or by a cord - or to be very fancy they wrapped the cord around the stick and made the incisions with that. At this level there is some similarity with the pottery of the Jomon people of Japan - the ancestors of the Ainu - who used similar decorating methods. But when the ancestors of the IndoEuropeans first left Europe at the time of the Black Sea flood the Jomon people had already been in Japan for more than 5,000 years, so it is difficult to imagine how any cultural influence could have occurred between the two groups.

    Most Kurgans lived in riverside villages of about fifteen or twenty small rectangular houses. A large village might have a hundred houses or more. A village would usually be on flat steppe grassland - for the horses and for agriculture - and near to forest areas for timber and occasional hunting. They never hunted very much but the bones of wild deer have been found in their settlements. Their main activity was horse-herding, both for transport and for food, but they also kept smaller numbers of cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. They used wool and flax in their clothing. They were not very diligent farmers - they were much more interested in their horses. Very few agricultural tools have been found apart from a few sickles, but they used grindstones and pestles for grinding millet and melon seeds.

    The houses were generally semi-subterranean - like the houses of the Garamantes and Berbers, like those found in Armenia and the Gobi desert, and like those of the Yangshao people of China.. The Cossacks also used this style of construction until the end of the 19th century. All of these places suffered from extreme weather conditions and such subterranean dwellings were able to withstand the cold of the northern winter, or the heat of desert summer, or the fierce winds of the steppes. Completely subterranean houses are still built and used in Marble Bar in Australia for the same reason - heat in that case – and in various parts of North Africa.

    Apart from the villages, which were semi-fortified, the Kurgans also built hill forts. Some of these had thick walls about 3 meters high built of ten courses or more of stone. The houses inside the forts were unlike the village houses being usually above ground and built on massive stone foundations. Later hill forts of the Greeks, Celts and Goths all followed the basic design principles of the Kurgan forts. The Kurgans used their knowledge of the cyclopean masonry style in the construction of these forts.

    After the Kurgans had passed into history their original territory in Russia was taken over by the Scythians, and in some ways the Scythians can be regarded also as their cultural descendants. The Scythians rode only geldings. They kept the mares close to the villages for their milk, but their main herds were let run wild. In the Kurgan sites that have been excavated a lot of bones of wild and domesticated horses have been found mixed together. So the Scythians may have learned their horse-management techniques also from the Kurgans.

    Apart from excavating the IndoEuropean villages and hill forts, archaeologists spend a lot of time robbing graves, and the Kurgans graves have been especially informative. The earliest signs of social castes are found among the Kurgans, with the warriors, priests and farmer-artisans forming quite distinct groups within the society. Some of the graves contain treasures of gold, silver and precious stones - probably the graves of warrior leaders - and these are always in a separate area from the cemeteries of the farmer-artisans. The men who had gold or other metal ornaments all over their clothes may have been shamans (priests) since similar practices have been found elsewhere - among the Mongolians for example.

    The basic structure of Kurgan graves was a pit holding the body, in flexed position, and a barrow built over the top of it. The richer burials had grave "houses" built over the pit - the design of these houses being the same as the houses the Kurgans actually lived in - and then the barrow was heaped up over the whole house. Sometimes a grave stone was placed on the top of the mound, and some of these were roughly carved into the shape of a man. The graves of poorer people naturally were much smaller than those of the leaders and priests and had none of the decorative refinements.

    Funeral feasts were a common feature of many IndoEuropean cultures and, although EuroAmerican culture has reduced them in scale, in many contemporary societies they are still held. The IndoEuropeans sacrificed and ate animals at the grave site and the bones of the animals were included in the burial. Some of the Celts and Goths for example seem to have done this and the Kurgans had the same tradition.

    Another similarity of the Kurgans and Scythians was that they liked to sew metal onto their clothing. One Kurgan man whose grave has been excavated had 125 gold ornaments on his cloths - dozens of them were rings but the majority were beads or disks decorated with images of lions and bulls. It seems that the more metal a man had on his clothes the higher his social status - it was a visible sign of wealth and power. The occurrence of lion images in Georgia and Germany is not really so strange since in later Greek times the lions in Macedonia were more of a trouble to sheep farmers than the wolves. So it is quite reasonable to expect that a few thousand years earlier the people of the Caucasus Mountains also were familiar with them. The lion image also occurs in early Mesopotamian art, indicating familiarity with the animals possibly in the Taurus Mountains.

    Ornaments, jewelry and figurines were generally made from elk antlers, cattle bones and boar tusks. Necklaces of animal teeth were also common. A number of carved stone horse-heads have been found that were mounted on short wooden staffs. These may have been devices of the shamans, with ceremonial and spiritual functions and the concept of magicians' wands probably derives from such staffs.

    The Kurgan developed and changed their tools as they acquired more metal and greater expertise in using it but they were always essentially a stone-age culture. The most common tools were hammer-hoes made from elk antler, bone awls and wooden bows with flint-tipped arrows. They also had bone harpoons and fishhooks. In the earliest times the richer of them had copper awls and sometimes copper knives. Later they also had the copper shaft-hole axes that are one of the defining features of the culture, and copper adzes.

    The people of the northern Caucasus were engaged in primitive copper smelting from about 4000BCE or even earlier, and gold and silver were also available in pure forms in the same area, so that is probably where the Kurgans learned about copper and other metals. They never had bronze weapons since the sources of tin were not yet known. In fact we still don’t know where the ancients first got tin from to begin the Bronze Age. In later times they got it from Britain (Cornwall), but where the first tin was found and who developed the process of making bronze is still a mystery. The most likely explanation is that the technology was brought into Europe by the Sumerians, who had acquired it from Thailand where the Thai and Malaysian tin resources are easy to work and are still being exploited. But no sources of tin that might have been used by the ancients are known in Eastern Europe or the Middle East.

    The Kurgans used braziers that burned cow's-dung and also charcoal. The charcoal is important since it has to be specially prepared by a process that is not obvious or easy, so there was more expertise involved there. Also it burns at a much higher temperature than dung and produces very little smoke so it would have been better for house heating and also for pottery firing and for smelting metals.


    INDO-EUROPEAN CULTURE

    Correlating the archaeological, linguistic and geographical evidence it appears that the speakers of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) were a fairly small Eurasian group that expanded significantly around 4000BC and began to fragment. They soon covered the area north of the Black Sea, across northern Europe and east as far as the Ural Mountains. They were still a stone age people and the distinctive elements of the IndoEuropean culture seem to have formed in the northern part of Central Asia since all the languages derived from PIE tend to have related words for northern trees - spruce, pine, fir etc, and for snow, deer and other features of northern life. The root words for ship and sea are also from PIE. The languages descended from PIE indicate that the PIE people tended to group objects in sets of five, while the ancient Persians used sets of six and our modern culture tends to use sets of ten or twelve.

    There were various legal customs that were so widely spread in ancient times that they almost certainly came from the IndoEuropeans. One is the law of possession, summed up in the phrase "possession is nine points of the law". The tools a man used belonged to him, and the women a man used belonged to him. In ancient Rome the formal version of this practice was that a woman who lived in a man’s house continuously for a year became part of his family regardless of whether there was a sexual relationship involved.

    Marriage by abduction was a related concept and became part of the legal structure of many countries far from the homeland of the IndoEuropeans. For example in ancient India, Malaysia and Ireland marriage by abduction was a recognised practice and the folk tales of many other places contain echoes of it. The Rape of the Sabine Women in Roman history (see Chapter ?? - All Roads Lead to Chaos) was legally covered by this custom. In a sense t was a law to try to save something out of an irreparable situation – once the egg is broken one can at least try to make an omelette out of it.

    Many religious ceremonies and other customs related to horses can be traced back at least to the IndoEuropeans though it is quite possible that some of them came from the Ferghana area and are older than the PIE. The fact that such ceremonies in India, ancient Rome and medieval Ireland had major elements in common also corroborates the hypothesis that they came originally from the IndoEuropean culture. In the oldest cases there was usually a goddess of horses, such as Rhiannon, but later in the Greek and Indian cultures the patron of horses was a god.

    IndoEuropean religion also included elements of fire worship. Thousands of years later Zoroastrianism specified five daily prayers and offerings at the fire alter, corresponding to five forms of fire - the fire in temple and hearth, the fire life principle in animals and human beings, the fire life principle in plants, the fire (lightning) in the clouds, and the pure fire that burns in paradise. The pattern of five daily prayers was preserved and continued in Islam.



  2. #2
    Senior Member jcs's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2004
    Last Online
    Sunday, February 12th, 2006 @ 04:04 AM
    Location
    Michigan, USA
    Age
    31
    Occupation
    Student
    Posts
    321
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    1
    Thanked in
    1 Post
    That is an impressive website. I have a lot of reading to do. Thanks for posting this.
    Out of life's school of war...

  3. #3
    Senior Member Todesritter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
    Last Online
    Friday, August 3rd, 2012 @ 11:14 AM
    Ethnicity
    celto-germanic
    Gender
    Posts
    803
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    2
    Thanked in
    2 Posts
    Quote Originally Posted by jcs
    That is an impressive website. I have a lot of reading to do. Thanks for posting this.
    Thanks – one of the current heresies within Anthropology as it pertains to the evolution of separate races is the idea that rather than simply differentiating from a common race through time and distance over generations, just being local variations on the ‘one race’, instead separate modern races were the result during prehistory of the common Homo Sapiens ancestor all races have, allowing us to inter-breed with the other races (not that I recommend this :icon_wink ) interbreeding with separate branches of archaic Hominids. So for example with Europeans, and their unique traits including the noticeable ones of pigmentation of hair, skin, and eye, they were the result of interbreeding with surviving Neanderthal or something else not yet found by Anthropologists, and subsequently modern European sub-races were a stabilized hybrid.

    Advocating along these lines of thought, or even questioning if this is possible rather than the official story that modern humans came out of Africa and replaced any preexisting hominid will get a person ridiculed into submission and conformity in most Anthropology Departments.

    Some of the information, and examples from well supported legends* cited by the Author either support this, or at least poke holes in the neat little package that is accepted academic convention. I like that the author avoids drawing to many conclusions, and instead asks questions, and points out all the evidence which makes conventional histoy, prehistory, and anthropology seem like selective oversimplifications, if not an intentional ‘white wash’.

    * (Legends too widespread to simply dismiss as Myth/Fiction)

Similar Threads

  1. The Jews' Declining Population - Contrary to the Zionist Dream
    By Blood_Axis in forum Politics & Geopolitics
    Replies: 1
    Last Post: Monday, May 8th, 2006, 01:16 PM
  2. Kurgans, Ritual Sites and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age
    By torrent in forum Germanic & Indo-Germanic Origins
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: Monday, November 28th, 2005, 09:35 PM
  3. Was HG3 Really Spread By The Kurgans?
    By Aleeus in forum Population Genetics
    Replies: 81
    Last Post: Monday, July 18th, 2005, 02:52 PM
  4. Orkney Population: M17 and Kurgans
    By Euclides in forum Population Genetics
    Replies: 2
    Last Post: Sunday, May 30th, 2004, 02:40 AM

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •