mtDNA and Y chromosomes of Yakuts

The structure of female (mtDNA) and male (Y-chromosome haplotypes) lineages in the Yakut population was examined. To determine mtDNA haplotypes, sequencing of hypervariable segment I and typing of haplotype-specific point substitutions in the other parts of the mtDNA molecule were performed. Y haplogroups were identified through typing of biallelic polymorphisms in the nonrecombining part of the chromosome. Haplotypes within haplogroups were analyzed with seven microsatellite loci. Mitochondrial gene pool of Yakuts is mainly represented by the lineages of eastern Eurasian origin (haplogroups A, B, C, D, G, and F). In Yakuts haplogroups C and D showing the total frequency of almost 80% and consisting of 12 and 10 different haplopypes, respectively, were the most frequent and diverse. The total part of the lineages of western Eurasian origin (“Caucasoid”) was about 6% (4 haplotypes, haplogroups H, J, and U). Most of Y chromosomes in the Yakut population (87%) belonged to haplogroup N3 (HG16), delineated by the T–C substitution at the Tat locus...(cont'd)

Essentially, the mtDNA of the Yakuts has an extremely high incidence of haplogroups C and D (80%), both of which are of East Asian Origin.

Male Lineages are predominately hg 16 derived (87%).

Similarly, the y-chromosomes of the Finns, Balts, and Lapps also show high incidences of hg 16 (~50%), whereas maternal lineages are for the most part shared with other Europeans (~99%).

From this, it can inferred that the Eurasian peoples occupy a postion intermediate of both Caucasoids and Mongoloids, sharing their y-chromosomes with Europeans to the West, while receiving their mtDNA from Mongoloids to the East.