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Thread: Higher Education in Hilter's Germany

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    Post Faith & Action

    An interesting insightful look into a publication intended to inspire & develop the desired virtues into the Hitler youth.

    This is translation of a thin Nazi book titled "Faith and Action." It is rather a "Book of Virtues," discussing the the traits Nazi youth were to have. A Nazi era review noted that this was a good book for those who wished to give their children something better than "the Jewish myths of the Old Testament." The author was in charge of military education for the Hitler Youth. It was published by the party's own publishing house. First published in 1938, I am using a 1943 printing that brought the print total to 150,000.

    The source: Helmut Stellrecht, Glauben und Handeln. Ein Bekenntnis der jungen Nation (Berlin: Zentralverlag der NSDAP., Franz Eher Nachf., 1943).

    Faith and Action
    You carry in your blood the holy inheritance of your fathers and forefathers. You do not know those who have vanished in endless ranks into the darkness of the past. But they all live in you and walk in your blood upon the earth that consumed them in battle and toil and in which their bodies have long decayed. §Your blood is therefore something holy. In it your parents gave you not only a body, but your nature. §To deny your blood is to deny yourself. No one can change it. But each decides to grow the good that one has inherited and suppress the bad. Each is also given will and courage. §You do not have only the right, but also the duty to pass your blood on to your children, for you are a member of the chain of generations that reaches from the past into eternity, and this link of the chain that you represent must do its part so that the chain is never broken. §But if your blood has traits that will make your children unhappy and burdens to the state, then you have the heroic duty to be the last. §The blood is the carrier of life. You carry in it the secret of creation itself. Your blood is holy, for in it God's will lives.


    Race means to be able to think in a certain way. He who has courage, loyalty and honor, the mark of the German, has the race that should rule in Germany, even if he does not have the physical characteristics of the "Nordic" race. The unity of the noble and a noble body is the goal to which we strive. But we despise those whose noble body carries an ignoble soul. §A variety of related European races have merged in Germany. One trunk grew from these roots. Each race gave its best strength. Each contributed to the German soul We Germans have a fighting spirit, a look to the horizon, the "desire to do a thing for its own sake" of the Nordic race. Another racial soul gave us our cozy old cities and our depth. Yet another racial soul gave us mastery of the magical realm of music. Yet another gave us our ability to organize, and our silent obedience. §We can not hold it against anyone if he carries a variety of racial lines, for the German soul does as well, and created out of it the immeasurable riches which it possesses above all other nations. The greatness of our Reich grew out of this soul. §But the Nordic race must dominate in Germany and shape the soul of each German. It must win out in the breast of each individual. Today our ideal is not the artist or the citizen, but the hero. §Our highest treasure is the soul that we have been given. He who mixes his blood with that of foreign inferior races ruins the blood and soul that have been given to him to pass on in purity to his children. He makes his children impure and miserable, and commits the greatest crime that he as a National Socialist can commit. §But he who follows the laws of race fulfills the great commandment that only like should be brought together with like, keeping apart those things like fire and water which do not mix.

    A People (Volk )

    A people grows from god's will. Woe to him who wishes to destroy the peoples and make people alike. God created the trees, the bushes, the weeds and the grass not so that they could merge into one species, but that each should exist in its own way. §Just as a tree, a people grows as a living whole from similar roots, but becoming one, the strongest of its kind. §All of the same blood belong to it. A people knows no state boundaries. It is bound by the ties of blood that bind all the sons of a single mother. The German people is a nation of a hundred million. Each German belongs to it, no matter where he may live. §A people cannot be destroyed as long as its roots draw on the strength of the earth. Summer and winter may come and go. But it always blooms anew in indestructible life and perfects itself in the strength that rises from its roots towards god's will. §What does it mean when an individual dies? It is as if the wind blows leaves from a tree. New ones grow eternally every spring. §The peoples are the greatest and most noble creation of god on this earth. There is no institution in the world, no party and no church, that has the right to make them the same or to rob them of even the tiniest bit of their individuality.


    A people gives itself its form through the state. There is only one natural form for each people, only one state. §In the natural process of growth, each people finds its form and its state, and finds them again when it has lost them, if only it wants to. §National Socialism has broken foreign compulsion and eliminated the unnatural. Germany once again grows into its own state and is once more itself. §The best rules, the Führer, and he carries the responsibility because he is best able to bear it. The parliament has ceased to exist. This form of Western democracy has been abolished. The German states established by the grace of counts or by Napoleon disappear. The Reich becomes one. The new state rises:

    "The day is coming when a single tent will cover all the German land."


    Socialism means: "The common good before the individual good."

    Socialism means: "Think not of yourself, but of the whole, of the people and the state."
    Socialism means: "Not the same for everyone, but to each his own."

    These sentences make clear what we call "German socialism." No one is a socialist who does not live according to them. §A new order grows from these sentences. The sentence "To each his own" has killed the "mass," the slogan of Marxism, and replaced it with the "community." Every community grows around a leader. He is the center of its order, which forms around him. A number of these leaders form a larger community, and stand around their leader as a living order. It all grows from below—the number growing ever smaller—like a pyramid, and finds its epitome in the Führer of the Reich. All are bound by the community. Each community is a living order. The whole, the great living order, is the people's community. It binds inextricably person to person, leader to leader. It does not give the same to everyone, but to each his own. It creates the socialist people in a socialist state. §Each has his his task in the community, given to him according to his gifts. Never do all have the same task, rather each his own. His task gives him a place in the community, If he fulfills it completely, he wins the esteem of the others. He is happy, even if his task is not large in the overall scheme of things. §Such communities grow in the field, in assault troops, in artillery battalions, in submarines, in S.A. units. Strong, bound forever together, wordlessly understanding each other, together until the end, sworn to a common goal. Strength grows from such communities, and from them grows the state. §We want community in Germany so that we can stand unshaken in the face of whatever may come. The mass is conquered by the community. It gives to each his own, to each his goal and his task, and everyone together one goal: the people's community in the new state.


    "Oh holy heart of the peoples, O Fatherland!" You were created from the endless forests and wide moors that the glaciers of the ice age left us. It was poor land only made fruitful through sweat and toil, in joy and sorrow, in endless work. §One passed you on to the next and laid down in your earth from which new life grew. In you rest the endless ranks of past generations, the seed for new sowing in the wide land. The blood of the noble and brave who defended you fell on you. You were fertilized by the best that you bore. §From you, castles and cathedrals rose to the heavens, as if the earth itself wished to rise up to the god it was seeking. From our earth, from the seed of our dead. §The land is broad. Under the care of industrious hands it became a garden. They protected it lovingly, like the mountains and valleys protect their villages. Proud cities by the rivers, displaying the splendor of the old Reich. The market fountain has flowed for hundreds of years here. The gates still stand through which once the Kaiser, the knights and the nobility passed. §The silver stream of fate winds through. On the other bank is land that was lost. The heart almost stops. How one wishes to stroke the distant forests as one would an old and beloved face. But the heart beats once more on the plains and the coasts that German colonists won. The castle of the knights stands in the east, an eternal testimony of strength and virtue. There are the fields from which Frederick's eagle rose toward the sun, and there, far from the borders, is the wall of German dead, an eternal memorial of the nation that withstood the world as long as it believed in itself. §Everything is founded in and rests in you, Fatherland. Our strength and our greatness, but also our need and our misery. You are the ground that bore us and will bear those distant generations that will work and bleed for you. §No one can live without you, but each will gladly give his life back to you who gave it to him.


    Courage is the most beautiful and noble trait a man can have. He who has no courage is not a man. §The "storming courage" of an attack is wonderful. The feeling of having risked all in service of a high ideal frees one and lets him charge forward with joy. Courage bears a man as if he had wings, and fills his heart. §The attack becomes the high point of life. When everything depends on one card, when one can lose everything, when one can win everything, life is at its best. He who has never charged and attacked, filled with courage, has never fully lived. §Alongside "stormy courage" is the "indomitable courage" of those facing hard fate. "Fate is great and powerful, but greater still is the person who bears it unshaken." §Life is often harder than death. A coward holds on to it. No one faces a challenge greater than the strength he has been given to face it. Courage overcomes all. When one has done all in his power, good luck comes to show him a new way and help him along. But it is not really good luck. "Resist all powers, never give in, be strong, calls the army of the gods." §Courage is needed not only by the man, by the soldier, a woman too needs courage. For the man battle, the attack is the greatest challenge. For the woman it comes when she gives a new person life. Men who no longer want to wage war cannot face the mothers who give new life at the risk of their own. §Courage is the noblest trait of a man or woman. It determines the battle and gives victory.


    Life demands hardness. One must strive with burning heart toward the ideal of hardness. To be hard for the sake of life, to become a fighter, to win the victory. §Our environment is a given. Burning heat in summer, biting cold in winter, long marches in the wet and cold. Working long at the factory, or behind a machine gun. Bearing hunger and thirst, sleeping on the bare earth, not surrendering in battle, never, never, no matter how hopeless everything sees, hurling an empty pistol in the face of the enemy, reaching for his neck without regard for oneself, even if it leads to death. To be a fighter, a fighter with faith in his cause, even if everyone says it is a false cause. That brings victory, the victory that belongs to him who is the harder. §You should never give up in battle or work. Even if you fail a thousand times, you must make the thousand and first attempt. In the end it will succeed and you will be the victor, even if almost bled dry, almost faint, but filled with the triumphant knowledge of having overcome. You are victor in your struggle and victor over yourself. §Each must prepare for his battle. Each must train as if he will one day fight the decisive battle for Germany. Each must be able to march, suffer hunger and thirst, sleep on bare ground, bear all privations, be a fighter, a soldier from the moment he can understand what is at stake. §We need men hard and tough as steel, harder than anything else in the world. Only they will master the great future of Germany. Do you want to be one of them, or stand aside as a weakling? §Germany will be the land of the brave and the strong. Either you belong to them, or you will no longer be a German.


    Will is the force inside you that commands. You may hesitate from weariness, anxiety, weakness. Will lifts you over every barrier and orders you to do what your feelings and understanding tell you to do. §A man without will is like a machine without power. It is useless. But "where there is a will, there is a way," and where a will orders, it is obeyed, whether a person follows his own will or men follow the will of a leader. §Where there is faith that comes from strength, it is will that gives it the push. §Exercise your will so that it is as taut and ready as a drawn bowstring, ready to let loose in the moment it should, neither a second too late nor a second too early. Exercise your will in little things until it is strong enough to bring from you that which Germany expects.

    Self Control

    One expects that a person who drives a car is in control, and that he causes no accidents. One expects that a person who lives with other people will control himself, so that he does not endanger himself or others. §The forces within us can raise or lower us. It depends on the use we make of them, on whether we control them and therefore ourselves. §Hunger and thirst exist to be satisfied. But woe to him who eats for the sake of eating or drinks for the sake of drinking. He is lower than an animal that knows when it has had enough. But he to whom understanding has been given does not know it. We hate the gluttons and drunkards with bulging bodies and swollen eyes, people with no character or self control. We eat and drink to live, but we never live in order to eat and drink. §The body must be kept under iron discipline so that we are always in charge of it and it is always dependable. We also may never allow the sexual drive to control us. For adults it is not there to be satisfied, rather a force that should be used to produce future generations healthy in both body and soul. A young person is given strength not to use in bed, rather in the sun and the wind, on the sports field and countryside, until we have a body in front of us full of strength and speed, a body in which courage and faith are joined in a free soul, a body that is master of its passions, master of itself, the German person of the future. Out of it will grow the strength of a renewed people, the bearer of a future generation of nobility and freedom. §If you control yourself, you control life. §If you control yourself, you must be able to bear pain without uttering a sound. Men do not complain or cry, and boys who want to become men behave in the same way. §You should not give in to every little problem. Be open, be determined, never play the cripple, but control yourself. Be the master of your pain and problems. Force yourself to be cheerfully faithful. Then you will find strength you did not know you had. §You must practice self control. How often does duty call, but something distracts you? Command yourself so that you can master yourself. §Do something every day that you do not like to do, and avoid doing something every day that you would gladly have done. §Do everything you are ordered to do immediately, without thinking about it. You must in order to become a real man. §That is the secret of every great personality. It has gained all the strength it directs outwardly from overcoming itself. §But you should not be a meek person who gives up everything in order to live in a cave to receive a promised blessing. God does not want that for a person. He should have pleasure in his work. He should use it, but never misuse it, and should be the master of himself.


    Savages and half-savages have courage, but only advanced people have discipline. Discipline is the ability to fall in line. Discipline is carrying out an order without knowing the reason, without understanding. Discipline also means enduring injustice for the sake of a good cause. §Discipline is iron virtue and silent obedience. §Discipline comes from within yourself. You accept it because you follow a higher will. He who does not do this will be forced by steely necessity, which alone can overcome the lack of will and weakness of many, making of them useful members of the people and the state. §Discipline is a spiritual attitude. Law and command work through it for the good of all. Any weakening of discipline is the beginning of collapse. Each is called to ensure that he himself and the man next to him behaves in a disciplined way.


    Duty is a hard word as long as one has not done it. Duty is a pleasant word as soon as one has done it. §Duty is the "you should" that you feel inside. Duty is that which family, people and the state demand of you. Doing one's duty does not mean being controlled by the reins that rule a horse, rather doing one's duty means that one does it with joy, no matter how hard. §The fatherland grew from the duty done by our fathers and forefathers. From the duty we all do grows the present state and the future both of the individual and the whole. §Duty can also mean sacrifice, the sacrifice of one's own life. Your people can demand of you what it has given you. But what does demand mean? The state, the fatherland dwell in your own breast. You demand it of yourself, and the path of highest duty is the way of greatest happiness, even if it leads to your death. § Justice comes from fulfilled duty. There is no other justice in the National Socialist state, just as there is no pay without labor. The greater the duty, the greater the justice. He who does the most for Germany has the greatest right to guide Germany and determine its fate. He is the Führer of the Reich, and others follow him according to the duty they have fulfilled. §A worker on the street can stand higher in the ranks than a government minister if he has better done his duty. §Fulfilling one's duty to the utmost is required of each of us. Who will wait until the demand comes, until it is required? He who does his duty of his own free will, he is a free man and not a slave.


    You live by honor, not by bread. Slaves believe that they only need food and drink to live. The free man knows that he needs honor first of all. §Your honor is your standing with your comrades and fellow citizens. It is just as much your standing with yourself. §To be honorable is to be courageous. To be honorable is to be selfless and loyal. To be honorable is to be in control of oneself. He who does great things for his fatherland is honorable. §Honor comes not from money and possessions. But he who creates new values or gives other work through his spirit or the work of his hands can thereby win honor. §It is also honorable to be the son of someone noble, someone who has done much for his people and his state. But the son is unworthy of his honor if he does not win it anew. §Inherited honor does not last forever, but always demands work and struggle. Honor is like a crown. He who ceases to live and act like a king loses it — and has lost it, even if he still wears it on his head. §Not everyone can take honor from another. The insult of a boy cannot harm one's honor. But he who accepts an insult in a cowardly way loses honor before others. §We do not reply to an insult ourselves at first. That is why superior leaders and judges are there. But if someone hits you, hit back, and if someone strikes your face, strike him back. For we National Socialists in Germany today, there is only one honor, one concept of honor. Thee is no particular concept of honor for particular classes any longer. National Socialism has given us all a new common sense of honor. We know it. He who does not have it is not free, but a slave. The least important worker today can be free and honorable, the prosperous businessman a slave and a serf. §That is the new law, which gives honor only to the brave, the selfless, the loyal, the self controlled, those who do everything for Germany that they can. §The way to honor is open for every German.


    Loyalty is a holy word. Speak it rarely. It must be as taken-for-granted as the air we breathe. §What exists exists because of loyalty. If that which exists ceases to be loyal, it returns to nothingness. That tears the bonds that hold everything together. It shatters camaraderie; it shatters leadership; it shatters honor; it shatters confidence in the law; it shatters the army; it shatters the state; it shatters everything that exists. §Germany collapsed in 1918 because disloyalty replaced loyalty. An "excess of loyalty" raised it again from the abyss. Now it stands on the foundation of loyalty, which must be stronger than the destructive forces of the world. §What is loyalty, comrade? §Your loyalty is that you never, never turn from the ideals to which you have sworn allegiance. National Socialism has raised them them high, so that they live in you and will go into the grave with you. That is your first and deepest loyalty. §And you are true to your fatherland, called Germany. As its earth brought forth your blood, you belong to it forever. §The third claim on your loyalty is to follow the Führer both in the brightest and the darkest days. It is better for you to follow him ever into darkness and misery than that your loyalty weakens even once. §Fourth, you owe loyalty to your comrade. You will always help him in need and danger. He should always know that he can come to you, that he can rely on you entirely, as if you were his physical brother. §Sigfried and Hagen were loyal. Siegfried, the bright hero, fought battles for his king. His life was joy and jubilation and victory. Love and loyalty accompanied him, as if bearing him on their hands. §Hagen slew Siegfried not as a cowardly murderer, rather because Siegfried invited guilt upon himself. The honor of the king was at stake. Siegried had to die. But Hagen took the guilt upon himself. His loyalty to his king was more to him than his own outward honor. He took the curse of a murderer on himself and was greater than all and he was loyal [This story is part of the Niebelung saga]. §The German warrior loyally followed his nobleman and did not return home without him. The knights loyally followed their lords and emperors. Prussia's greatest sons were served their king loyally, even when they were better than he. They served not his person, but the crown that he bore. The millions who died in the World War loyally followed their leaders. In loyalty, they lie with them as a ring of dead around Germany. In loyalty, we all follow the Führer and his flag. The hand of each will hold the flag until death, the flag that leads Germany to new life. §We show loyalty in daily life as well. Once again, a man's word is dependable. Promises must be kept and will be kept. We do not need a handshake and an oath. Each can depend on our word, because we again have become loyal. §Germany is the land of loyalty. It dwells in its vast forests. It dwells in its knights and soldiers. It dwells again in us. Loyalty is our honor. Who wants to be dishonorable amidst the brave and the heroes?


    There is no freedom in Germany to do whatever one wants, and there will be no such freedom, because otherwise Germany would not exist. §Freedom does not mean taking advantage of others, stealing from them, without being punished. Freedom does not mean living as one pleases. Nor does it mean preserving one's life through cowardice. §Freedom is choosing to follow the path that duty requires. The others are slaves of themselves. He is the only free man: upright and proud, master of everything that might demean him, the best of the nation, the bearer of the state. He has elevated himself. He does his duty while others take a holiday. But his duty raises him above over his little ego and makes him free. §Somewhere in the middle of a hot summer, a village's well dries up. Day and night, someone works hard to dig a new well. No one gave the order. But for him it is a happy duty to find water for women and children and comrades. The other does what he likes. The one is a free man amidst the hard work he has chosen to do. The other is the slave of his desires and passions. He is is a rogue who may say in the pub that man is born free and can do whatever he wishes. §He who thinks of himself is a slave and bound; he who thinks of others is master and free.


    Knowledge is that which can be measured by reason. Knowledge alone means nothing and is dead. §A wish that you can fulfill is called hope. Hope can easily come to nothing. §But faith can never fail, for faith is strength. Faith springs from your deepest feelings. It is that knowledge for which there is no explanation through reason. In faith the soul sees a part of the world order. It has a sense of that which should be, and sees through its eyes a part of the way that it should and can go. It knows that by going this way it fulfills god's command and is working toward the great work that is immeasurable, incomprehensible. §Because faith sees this and can do it, is is more than human strength. It is a part of the enormous power that fills all life and all worlds. With faith, a person walks with the assurance of a sleepwalker. Who can resist him, for he follows the path of the highest will. He will succeed when he believes. No hand raised against him will divert him from his way. The bullet aimed at him will not hit as long has he has not finished his path, as long as he has not turned from it. §Thousands do not understand the believing person because their souls cannot see. But what do the faithful care about the opinion of others, what do those who can see care about the opinion of the blind, what do those who have become strong care about what the weak think. §The way of faith is the way of everything great. Before our eyes Adolf Hitler went the way fate led him. He was filled with it and believed what no reason of the reasonable could see. §The path of faith is before each of us. Even if it is not the path of fame and honor, it is still the path of duty and of greatest happiness. To find it means to gain a part of the eternal strength that moves the worlds. §Because faith is strength, it can do what seems impossible. It is the foundation for every deed. No one can do anything without faith. No one can even jump over a ditch if he does not believe he can do it. The highest and most important in a person is not knowledge and understanding, rather his faith. Each is worth only as much as the faith he has. §This new Reich began with faith. The first party rally after the seizure of power was called "The Victory of Faith." It grew and became great through faith. It no longer grew from the faith of one man, but from the faith of us all, and was borne by the strength of all. More than human strength was present. §Woe to those who do not believe. They are not on the side of the strength of creation, rather annihilation. They are the destroyers of the Reich. §Faith is however stronger than all other powers that can be found in this world.


    We do not believe in a blind fate that leads people through their lives. We do not believe that god's angels protect us in every step that we take and keep us from falling. But we do believe in a godly will that gives meaning to each each life that is born. Not an arbitrary generally meaning, rather each life has its own particular purpose and meaning. §In the depths of our souls we sense whether we act according to this meaning. One can call this conscience or something else. It is there. We probably know the right path. We need only ask. A voice within us gives the answer, and speaks of the godly will that shows us the path we should go. §This path is our fate. Each has but one proper path. To follow it makes one happy to the highest degree, even if it is a path that brings only poverty and toil. §Any path that leads away from the meaning and purpose of life is death and sin. And even if the path seems ever so pleasant, you will sin every day of your life. §But you have the freedom to decide which path you want to follow. No blind fate rules you. You go your own way. §If you follow the law in your own heart, it is the way to your god. It is the way that comes from eternity and goes to eternity; in all the world there is never an end, only transformation. There is no death that is not also a beginning. Everything is part of the enormous plan of the worlds, of which you are a part if you seek your path. Everything is in development. The joy of creation lives in each. for it belongs to the builders at work. There is no heaven of pleasure and blessedness. But work and life alternate in eternal form, whether in the realm of the body or the sphere of the spirit. §Those who fell for an idea of god — and people and fatherland are such — continue to work for it. They become a part of the soul and the strength of their people., They continue to work and grow. They are in reality in us as our better thoughts. §Thus each creature plays its part, both in body and soul, in the great plan of the worlds. It is god, the eternal wisdom and the exalted sense of that which is beyond comprehension. When you submit and follow the path, it is also in you. You understand your part and do what you can, and whatever happens to you, you will be happy. You carry god in your own heart. You have overcome death, and if you do die, you live on as a part of the eternal strength that works continually and creates. §Your fate is the path that is shown to you. Your free will decides if you follow it and if you fulfill your task.

    Birth and Death

    Birth and death are the dame; they are the two sides of one door. To enter one room always means leaving another. It depends on which room or which life we are in as to whether we say "entrance" or "exit," life or death. §For he who understands it, death holds no terrors. But he who did not go his proper way in life and sinned will see his guilt in death. But there is after death no place of torture, no hell. To see one's guilt is the severest judgment and at the same time the greatest penalty. Judgment and punishment are within yourself. §Neglected work can only be made up by double effort. It will once more be your choice, either to work toward the world plan, or to be its enemy. That is the only death that there is, to become a force for destruction rather than for creation, and this death is not physical. It is your free choice to decide on which side you belong, on god's or, to use an old term, "the devil's." §What we call birth and death is only the door between two worlds. There is no birth and no death, only change, and we can go confidently through the door, for all the worlds were created by one hand.


    The divine is powerful in its creatures. It dwells not in walls that people build. They may be witnesses of its will, but god is in the living. §Our ancestors went into the forests to find or to honor god. They greeted his light rising in the morning. That was more to them than a lamp in a man's hand. They stood on mountain tops because his greatest work, the starry sky, was nearest there, not covered by a roof of stone. The great spring flowing from the mountain was more genuine and nearer to god than anything that could flow from a bottle held by a human hand. §Who dares to say that they were not close to the living god? §Other peoples may seek refuge in the stone walls of their cities or seek their god in caves. The true German senses god with holy fear in the life of creation. He prays to god by honoring his great works. §Who dares to say that God is nearer to us in that which human beings have built? §The faith of our fathers remains strong in us. Still today the German wanders through his countryside and is moved by the beauty of the land god has given him. The summits of his mountains give freedom. He feels eternity amidst the sea. Flowing water is to him the image of eternal change. §He protects the forest and the tree and the bush as if they were his comrades. He loves the animals that are tortured and tormented in other countries. What to him is part of his household is elsewhere only a possession. §He sees and honors in everything god's creation, in the holy earth, in the wandering wind, in the flickering flames, in which there is always change. Ever again we stand on the summits of the peaks and wave the torch and feel the magnificent and the ineffable. §Who dares chide us because our eyes are open?

    To Do a Thing for its Own Sake

    You should never do anything for pay, rather always because it is worth it for its own sake. Did ever a German soldier go to war for the sake of money? He did it for the Fatherland. He who asks us to be good and pious for money seduces us and draws us away from god. He is the devil's advocate, even if he promises us heaven. §God is in the good that we do, but he is not in a heaven that we will enjoy for eternity. §It is German to do something for its own sake. Such was always the first and highest service to god in Germany, and thus it will remain as long as our nation lives and the world is there to warn us.


    The world came into being when order first appeared. It will exist as long as there continues to be order. It will reach its culmination when it has reached the highest state of order. §The German has the gift of creating order, living order, whether in the form of factories, armies or states. An order in which each has his place and his task, in which everything flows together smoothly as if it were a single body. §The ability of Germans to create order is evident also in small things, in precision. It shows itself in the German home, which has no equal in its cleanliness and order. It shows itself in a machine, in an apparatus, that function so precisely that they are unparalleled in the world. It shows itself in the German soldier, whose weapon is spotless, whose boots are not missing a single nail. It shows itself in the SA man or Hitler Youth, whose backpack or locker is perfectly arranged and maintained. §It always the same German trait. It is not because of the presence of a spot of the absence of a nail, rather it because of order itself, because one must be brought up to do his task as best as is possible and maintain German accomplishment at the highest level. § Results always depend on small things. A valuable machine is unusable because one part is not quite right. A machine gun on which everything depends fails because a grain of sand got in the barrel. §There must be order for there to be accomplishment, because every accomplishment begins with order. That is true for each individual part of life, and for the whole of it as well.


    There should be nothing false in you! The Jew is dishonest. He is born that way and is ever full of deceit. You are born to be honest and to remain honest. Your face does not lie, your words are true, your actions are clear and can stand before all. §You will say no word about a comrade that you cannot say to his face. If you do so, you destroy the community and injure your honor and that of the other. You become dishonest. §You would not think of stealing ten pfennig from a comrade. How trivial that is when compared to stealing honor from someone who does not realize it, who is unable to defend himself. Compared to that, the thief one puts in prison has committed but a small offense. Possessions are of less value than honor. A thief has more honor than a slanderer. The first demand of honor is that one holds the honor of others as their highest possession. The next demand of honor is that one respects the property of others, which they have earned by hard word and industry. §It must again become such in Germany that one can leave one's doors unlocked at night. It must again be such that every lost piece of property is returned and that one can trust unknown citizens with one's money and possessions. §We want once again to have the honor of a farmer. It should be as it still is in the north, where one can leave one's house and land without locking the door, because there is no dishonesty. §An end must be made of all dishonest behavior. It should be wrung out of us. There should be a new generation in Germany, honest in word and deed, because honor is to it more necessary than life itself. And woe to him who sins against it.


    In the National Socialist state, there is no longer property with which the individual can do with whatever he wishes. There is no unlimited right of property, only a right that has been earned to administer it for the good of the whole. §Property is a loan. One may certainly use it, but only to advance the interests of the whole. §A farmer has a field. It belongs to him. And it should belong to him, for his ancestor tilled it, his fathers toiled on it. It belongs to him as long as he tills it so that food for other citizens grows on it. But the field must be taken from him if he leaves it fallow because he is too lazy or unambitious to till it. §A house! Why shouldn't a German have a house, a home for his children. The apartment in the city has taken a piece of the fatherland from the German. His own house and garden give him again a piece of Germany, and he has a right to that. § But it is not an unearned gift. Property must be earned by the work of the hand or the mind. The ambitious and hard-working settler in newly-won land will plow more land for himself and his children than others. Is that a failing on his part? He grows grain not only for himself, but also for others. What he grows is his property. §But he who through treachery and deceit gains possession of that which the mind and hands of others have created is a thief and a deceiver. He is like the swindler and the Jew who, without creating anything themselves, live greedily from that which they steal from others using corrupted justice. To eliminate them in Germany is our highest law. Once Germany's forests were freed of wolves. In the same way, Germany must be freed of those who are worse and craftier than wolves.

    Law and Justice

    It is better that the individual suffers under the law than that there be no law. §Law defeats arbitrariness, for all are the same to it. Humanity is not permitted to exercise supreme justice. But the law gives the individual judge the measure of justice and punishment. Justice no longer rests on what the individual thinks, rather the law must be anchored in the sentiments of the whole people. That is the case when a people has its own law, not that of another people. §The state is founded on justice. Injustice destroys it. A state without justice is the playground of freebooters and highwaymen. The farmer, the worker and the citizen need law to protect their labors. Law protects honor, life, marriage, possessions, all those things that we want and must have as the foundations of our state. The judge, fully independent, projects justice. The policeman is not the representative of some arbitrary order, rather of that which a people finds good and right. §No sacrifice is too great in the cause of justice. "It is better that my son die than justice perish in the world," a great Prussian king once said. §We want justice once more to rule in Germany, that great, unwritten justice that came to us with our blood. It should be the law in Germany that all obey this justice. §Justice is not that which serves the individual, rather that which serves the people. That is the supreme law of National Socialism, to which all must bow.

    Building a Life

    Life begins in youth. It reaches its high point in the man and the woman. It sinks like the sun into old age. §One must see life as a whole, as a natural process, which is perfected in each moment. There is nothing wrong in youth or age. Youth is youth and old age is old age, neither good nor bad, rather only natural. §Youth is hope, maturity becoming. Youth means the possibility of a proper life and great deeds. If one sees in youth the signs of a coming bad and useless life that is the worse reproach, for the greatest gift is being wasted. §Youth does not have the goal of remaining young, but of becoming man or woman. In a man is found courage and strength, seriousness and experience. Life follows its course to great deeds. For the man as well as the woman. §After the great battle is fought and the heavy work done, people have formed themselves inwardly and outwardly. Body and soul have shown what they are, where they belong, whether to the strength that builds or to that which destroys. The softening of age comes. The impatience of youth, the strength of the man, fade. A wide vision comes, the clear knowledge of the what is valuable and useless in this world. §After a person has fought a good fight, his last expression is the best, because it reveals the greatness of his life. It reveals all, need and toil, struggle and joy, and a reflection of the world to come. We sense that when we see the death mask of Frederick the Great. Is there a face that speaks more eloquently to us? §He who has fought such a fight earns honor in old age. Failing to respect the aged is a failure to respect life itself. §"I spent myself in the service of the Fatherland," Bismarck said. Who should not honor those who have grown old and worn in such a cause. Or do we want to honor those who say: "I have avoided service to the Fatherland?" §Each stage of life is good: youth full of hope, maturity in the fullness of strength, the old filled with honor. Nothing deserves honor more than that which is greater than we are!
    Last edited by Prussian; Monday, August 16th, 2004 at 09:54 PM.
    "Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
    and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life."
    ~Friedrich Nietzsche~

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    Post NS Education Principles of the Third Reich period

    This is an article titled "The Educational Principles of the New Germany" and was published from a National Socialist magazine for women of the time, to gave insight to how the poarty wished women of the time to view education, interesting piece indeed.
    The Educational Principles of the New Germany:

    What Schools and Parents Need to Know About the Goals of National Socialist Education

    German people, German parents! The new Germany created by our people's chancellor Adolf Hitler places special demands on the German youth. The German youth are a foundation of the rebuilding of the German people and the German fatherland. The people and the fatherland place their hands on the shoulders of the youth and determine what educational and cultural values and goals are necessary for this youth to meet the needs of people and fatherland. This requires a truly national and social education for the German youth, and all involved in education has to serve these educational and cultural goals with their full energy. Parents and teachers above all!

    All those involved in education must have a clear and unified idea of the educational tasks before them. The four iron pillars of the national school and educational system are: race, military training, leadership, and religion!


    National Socialist education is an education in the thinking of the German people, in understanding German traditions, in awakening the pure, uncorrupted and honest people's consciousness, their sense of belonging to the people. Only a pure member of the German race can have such an understanding of his people, crowning it with the willingness to sacrifice all for the people. He must know that without his people he is a miserable nothing, and that it is better if he himself die than that his people and fatherland perish! He who thinks that National Socialist education has as its goal a kind of hyperpatriotism has not understood it. Something entirely different is intended. Something should be awakened in the soul of young Germans that will fill their hearts and whole being until their souls can no longer restrain the overflowing, until a powerful and jubilant "Hail Germany" springs from their lips! That call itself is not the first or most significant goal: rather it is its foundation in the soul, a foundation that jubilantly, freely, confidently, cheerfully and passionately expresses itself. It is the holy sense of people and fatherland! Awakening this in the German youth requires that they have a clear understanding of the value of people and fatherland. They must realize that the German people has a right to independence and freedom, honor and power. They must learn that it has a right to its own fate among the peoples of the earth, and it must gain with the other peoples the place in the sun that belongs to it. It must do this not through force, rather because the German people is a noble nation that has created values for the entire world that no other people was capable of. We want to awaken in the German youth this free, righteous and noble national pride so that at the thought of Germany's past, present and future their hearts will pound and their eyes will gleam. That is the first foundation of National Socialist education.

    Military Training

    It is clear that the German youth must be resolved to defend their fatherland with their lives. Despite all the nonsense about promises and disarmament, Germany is surrounded by weapons. The German youth must learn military virtues. Their bodies must be steeled, made hard and strong, so that the youth may become capable soldiers who are healthy, strong, trained, energetic and able to bear hardships. Gymnastics, games, sports, hiking, swimming, and military exercises must all be learned by the youth. Our youth should not sit in stuffy rooms and develop crooked backs and weak eyes. Alongside the basic and truly important education of the mind, they should develop healthy bodies by being outdoors. The idea of the healthy and strong German should not be mere empty talk. Parents can help here. They will train our youth in simplicity and cleanliness. They will train them, even when they are older, not to waste their spare time by dubious or even harmful activities such as card playing, drinking alcohol and bad music, rather to prepare their bodies for their future tasks.


    A youth being trained for such important national duties must accept the idea of following the Führer absolutely and without question, without unhealthy carping criticism, without selfishness or opposition. They must learn to obey so that they, having themselves, having learned to obey, can believe in and trust their own leadership and can grow to be leaders themselves. Only he who has learned to obey can lead. Germany no longer believes that the masses can lead themselves by majority rule! The masses themselves are nothing! We need not a people ruled by majority votes, but a people with the will to leadership. The German youth must learn that and act accordingly! Thus the German youth belongs in organizations where they will learn the nature of leadership in its most noble form, where they can learn to obey and — if they are called to it — also learn to lead. They will not bend to an empty mass will expressed through useless votes, rather look with enthusiasm to the nation's strong and noble Führer. They must learn that once again. We parents want to exhibit such authority to our youth by strengthening family authority and establishing in our homes a healthy and natural obedience on the part of our children. This will not suppress the youth, rather provide them the controlled freedom and authority they need to develop their abilities.


    Life comes from God and returns to God. All life and all races follow God's ordinances. No people and no race can ignore them. We want the German youth to again recognize the religious nature of life. They must realize that God wants the individual as well as the whole people, and that they lose contact with life when they lose contact with God! God and nation are the two foundations of the life of the individual and the community. We want no shallow and superficial piety, rather a deep faith that God guides the world, that he controls it, and a consciousness of the relationship between God and each individual, and between God and the live of the people and the fatherland. The National Socialist state will promote such a deeply religious educational system. We want parents to support and strengthen this by honesty and by good example.

    Race, military training, leadership, religion! These are the four unshakable foundations of the new German National Socialist education!
    Last edited by Prussian; Tuesday, August 17th, 2004 at 04:31 PM.
    "Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
    and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life."
    ~Friedrich Nietzsche~

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    Post Higher Education in Hilter's Germany

    Here is a very interesting article from the New Republic

    Higher Education In Nazi Germany

    DeNazification Re-Examined

    By Howard Hobbs, PhD, Daily Republican Newspaper Contributing Editor

    WASHINGTON D.C. - As part of a larger project of indicting Germany for not coming to terms with its Nazi past, the German film The Nasty Girl offers a filmic image of a German professor from the 1980s which is reminiscent of printed images of the German professor around the turn of the century.

    Herr professor Juckenack is stereotypic tenured professor in the 1930's University of Berlin. Where heads of academic departments exercised dictatorial power over other members of the faculty as well as over students. This Berlin professor struts with Third Reich mannerisms across the passage of time from the 1930's to the present. He is a racial anti-Semite and a conservative bureaucrat. he is a pillar of State authority for whom a shameful Nazi past is something one invokes governmental authority to conceal.

    The film brings to the screen an articulate depiction of German higher education in post-war Berlin that is remarkably revealing of Nazi higher education in The Friedrich Wilhelms Universitat [University of Berlin]. That infamous academy of book-burners ironically lost more than 50 percent of its imaculate buildings. Having served as a nazified showplace from 1931-1945, the Berlin University's students, faculty, and professoriate was particularly heavily implicated in Nazi war crimes.

    For example, one Nazi higher education graduate student, Karl Leonard Falk, the American with dual U.S.German citizenship, and a 1932 Stanford University graduate, studied for a racial science Nazi economics doctorate in that Friedrich Wilhelms Universitat between 1933-1936 under a convenient stipend provided by the Third Reich for services he rendered to Hitler's Reichsministry for Propaganda.(A)

    These images pushes us to re-examine the historical record to determine how the process of denazifying and reforming German higher education after the end of the Second World War reshaped understandings of Germany's Nazi past that are with us today.

    For example, it is astonishing to see the ways in which the Germans under occupation, along with their American occupiers, employed images of the German past at the Stunde Null to rehabilitate German higher education.

    The film addresses Sonya, a young Bavarian heroine's attempt to uncover her home town's history under National Socialism. She becomes frustrated when the town's elders refuse. Of these the Prussian University of Berlin professor Juckenack turns out to be the most vociferous.

    The verbal and intellectual conflict between professor and student is a central tension in the film and serves as a commentary on the state of the Nazi and Post-Nazi academy in West Germany at the historical moment just prior to reunification between Est and West.

    Herr professor Juckenack denies Sonya access to archives, threatens to destroy her if she reveals his own Nazi past, and actually brings her to court for defamation of character when she does so. The professor is fears not for punishment for his Nazi proclivities in the past, but his fear is only for loss of his own status in post-Nazi society, if the truth were to be told.

    When threatened with legal action by the adroit professor, Sonya seeks the assistance of another elderly man, one with detailed knowledge of the professor's Nazi past.

    The film argues that the elderly witness had been victimized by the American occupation forces at the end of the Second World War. While the Americans absolved the real Nazis, like Herr professor Juckenack, they interned this hapless elderly soul for his Communist sympathies.

    The film leads one to believe that Juckenack, an ardent young Nazi nicknamed "Brown Heinrich", is the kind of person the Americans admired and promoted to rebuild German higher education after the war.

    Yet, the University of Berlin Nazi professor was not a genuine heroic figure for the Americans occupying Germany at the end of the Second World War. The General Orders of education officers in occupied Germany were to to reform German education.

    The first task which the American occupation forces faced in reconstructing German education was denazification. The American Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive (JCS) 1067 provided guidance for reconstructing German education.

    They were to close all Nazi educational institutions, "...a coordinated system of control will be established designed completely to eliminate Nazi and militaristic doctrines and to encourage the development of democratic ideas provided the American military governors...not only to eliminate Nazi texts, curriculum, and personnel, but also to inculcate democratic values in the defeated German population".

    There was a more immediate priority, however, to conduct a purge of Nazi personnel still in positions of power in schools, colleges, and city government.

    In describing the American occupation of Germany, historians have described some measure of success in the American program of "re-education"and "reorientation," particularly in the sense that this program pertained to the process of democratizing Germany. These historians point out that the Americans wanted defeated Germany to rebuild its own educational structure, with a minimum of American guidance. By giving the Germans substantial control over their own educational system early on in the occupation, the American Military Government gave Germany practical experience in the process of democratic self-determination. "(7)

    The fundamental role in educational reconstruction in German higher education was to examine particular opinions and attitudes about educational practices under the Nazi regime. Institutional histories of the American Government of Occupation have addressed the role of historical consciousness in educational reconstruction. James Tent has pointed out that several of the Army civil affairs officers charged with reconstructing German education were university professors or administrators who had themselves written on Nazi education.(8)

    Nazi higher education reform and the reform of elementary and secondary education are generally treated as two distinct areas by most historians. General Lucius Clay later wrote in his memoirs, '...the reconstruction of German education meant that the Germans had to overcome both physical and spiritual devastation. Many German school buildings had been destroyed, others badly damaged, and still others were occupied either by troops or by displaced persons. Teaching staffs contained many ardent Nazis; in one city more than 60 percent of the teaching staff had belonged to the party. Textbooks were so impregnated with Nazi ideology that even mathematics problems were expressed in military terms and logistics. German youth learned to add and subtract guns and bullets rather than apples and oranges. (10)

    The priority for Nazi higher education reconstruction was for restoring the orderly functioning of German society. All of the German universities had been closed in May of 1945 with the capitulation of the Third Reich. The reconstruction of German higher education began with the reopening of the universities in the French and British sectors.

    The Americans reopened the medical faculty at Heidelberg University. On August 15, 1945, the newly appointed rector, Dr. Karl Jaspers, gave the keynote address. He began his speech with an interpretation of the recent German past. "The German universities would reopen because secretly, the core of the university of Berlin remained in tact. There were teachers and students whose minds preserved their freedom. Something had been salvaged, in spite of dismissals on the largest scale, in spite of interference in teaching and research, in spite of the destruction of our ancient constitution and self-government . . . The fact that the spirit of science could not actually be destroyed makes it possible today for the university to start anew, though on a limited scale only.".(11)

    Post-war German education would thus draw on a professionalism, grounded in the "spirit of science," which Jaspers claimed had not been corrupted by the Nazi years.

    At the risk of historical anachronism, one must ask if Jaspers was correct in this estimate. It is extremely significant that the rehabilitation of German higher education in the American zone began with the reopening of medical facilities. Recent historical scholarship has shown us that the "Final Solution" was itself the product of a biomedical vision of society, a vision which flourished in the Nazi universities. The Nazi state was a biocracy in which racialized images of inferior and superior human beings enabled eugenics and ultimately genocide.(12)

    Beginning with the medical faculties, one could not end there. Narrow specialization, and not racialized science, was the reason for the nazification of education according to Jaspers. The best defense would be a liberal education for all who attended the university. This was a vision which the American university officers shared with German academicians. There was no indictment of German science by the Americans in the occupation government.

    A common understanding among occupiers and occupied of the history of German education allowed for their reconstruction according to a model perceived as "ancient," but having in actuality first received legal codification at the founding of the University of Berlin in 1810. Wilhelm von Humbolt's model of higher education, steeped in Enlightenment precepts, placed the university at the disposal of the Prussian state.

    As counterbalance to state control, Humbolt stressed the conception of the university as the site of "free scientific inquiry." In the view of those who would reconstruct the universities under American occupation, it was not until the Nazi years that the balance between state control and academic freedom became untenable. In 1945 they sought to return to the pre-1933 university, and thereby elided the entire issue of Nazi racism which we now understand lay at the very foundations of the Nazi academy.(13)

    History, as Wissenschaft, was one among the sciences to which Jaspers referred. The integrity of historical science, as perceived by the German historical profession, rested upon the perseverance of German historicism as an objective method of inquiry despite the "politicization" of history under the Third Reich. Amidst those historians who had maintained the historicist tradition during the Third Reich and thereby "preserved their freedom" during the Nazi years, the historian Gerhard Ritter was perhaps the most vocal in the immediate post-war period. As early as December 24, 1945, Ritter published an article in Die Gegenwart, a fortnightly German review operating under French occupation in Freiburg, in which he explained how he was able to "publish such independent views on historical-political questions" even under National Socialism.

    He noted that Nazi party functionaries who supervised university education from 1931-1938 in the Third Reich had been too poorly-educated to understand the subtleties of the lessons on contemporary politics which Ritter had drawn in discussing earlier periods in European history. More importantly, the guild of professors and administrators who continued to run the universities in the Nazi years had also protected him - as a senior member of the profession - from persecution by Nazi cadres. Ritter argued that for younger professors, resisting Nazification had not been possible.

    The younger men, those who constituted "the succession" in the learned world, found it much harder to ignore the demands of the [Nazi] Party for active participation in its ranks. . . without membership in the [Nazi] Party or, at least, in the SA, a young teacher had hardly any chance of appointment. I know of few exceptions to this rule.(14)

    For Ritter, there was a key generational aspect to the task of reconstructing German education in the post-war period. Because the younger generation had abandoned the scientific tradition of historicism by becoming Nazified, it was up to the older generation of scholars who had persevered to reorient German scholarship.

    Americans owed a great debt to the German historicist tradition. There was a sense in which the Americans were repaying an intellectual debt to the German universities by working for their rapid reconstruction, a debt which was at once intellectual and personal.

    Eminent Harvard historian Sidney B. Fay, having himself studied at a university in Wilhelmine Germany, wrote in early 1946 of "our responsibility for German universities." As occupiers, the Americans had the responsibility to restore the German university system as one of the institutions "which have survived the Nazi shipwreck."

    Pointing to the debt which the American academy owed to German universities, Fay lamented the destruction of the physical plant of the universities and pointed to the most difficult task of recreating the faculties.

    He too feared the Nazifaction of the younger generation and noted that "the number of men left who are genuine scholars and who managed to keep their hands clean of Nazi pollution is a small fraction of what will be needed to run the universities."

    He saw the task of reconstructing German scholarship, in much the same way as Ritter, as a task for the older generation of scholars. Among others, Fay mentioned Friedrich Meinecke, Max Plank, and Karl Jaspers as exemplars of the "unpolluted" few who, though advanced in age, would rebuild the German academy in the name of true science. Given the Nazi discourse on race "pollution," this use of terminology by Sydney Fay is at best insensitive and at worse betrays a total ignorance of the role of racism in the German academy.(15)

    The Americans were also using the Germans to make a good science/Nazi science dichotomy which helped smooth-over the highly politicized nature of American Cold War science, now financed by the American government for military research primarily on atomic weapons.

    Clearly, the Cold War conflict with Soviet Russia made the German Ordinarius a far more palatable image than he had been under the de-Prussianization regime. Now we had Russia to deal with, and America needed German technology. With American war heroes like General Patton hoping for a march on Moscow, the readily available image of the Prussian defenders of Western Civilization against the Slavs of the East was perhaps too much to resist.(16)

    Sidney Fay was in a unique position to understand the situation of the German universities in the post-war period, and he was also in a position to resuscitate the Prussian professor as moral exemplar for a new Germany. His son-in-law, profesor, Edward Hartshorne, had studied under Meinecke in the mid-1930s and was at this time an Army civil affairs captain working to reopen the German universities in the American zone as quickly as possible.

    Hartshorne's view of the recent history of German universities was very similar to that of his father-in-law (and not surprisingly to that of his mentor Meinecke). He too saw the task of reconstruction as an exercise in restoration.

    In 1937 he had written that under National Socialism "...the German university has lost in essentials the signs of a free institution. The privileges which had helped preserve it from the interference of the State Power have melted away.

    Its semiautonomous administration and the traditional independence have collapsed before the impact of a powerful new ethic which demands undivided loyalty to the demands of the social community. "

    Hartshorne went on to trace the freedom of inquiry which marked the German universities to Martin Luther's "freedom of a Christian man."

    This was the American equivalent of Jaspers's formulation of an ancient constitution of the German university which occupiers and occupied should work to restore. For Hartshorne and Fay, the National Socialist period had been a deviation from German tradition in higher education, a tradition which was basically sound. Here one finds that the pronouncements of the Germans and the Americans correspond quite closely.(17)

    Yet the impulse for Americans to restore the German universities to their pre-Nazi glory was not unalloyed. Other Americans were not so sanguine as Hartshorne and Fay about the benefits to be reaped in returning Germany to its traditional system of university education through the good offices of an aging professoriate. Indeed, some Military Government officers and influential American observers of Germany in the immediate post-war years reacted very negatively to what they referred to as the Prussian influence on German education. The Prussian model of education, which in their view continued to dominate both the schools and the universities in Germany, needed reform.

    At the opening of the theological faculty of Wuerzburg University on October 19, 1945, 1LT Russell H. McIntosh warned the assembled faculty of the dangers of those antidemocratic values which German education had

    It would be up to the educators of a new Germany to choose the democratic way of life and inculcate this into their students. Education in the new Germany would have to proceed from an entirely new basis, since it never had the marks of "a free institution" as Hartshorne had indicated.

    German educational tradition, antidemocratic and tied over the past century to the interests of the Prussian Junker class, was no basis on which to build the new Germany.(18)

    This hard line toward German educational reconstruction corresponded quite well with the approach of the first chief of the military government's Education and Religious Affairs Branch, the organization charged with the reconstruction of education in the American Zone.

    Dr. Thomas Alexander, a student of Weimar education, took a harsh view of traditional German education. According to the man who succeeded him as General Clay's cultural affairs advisor, he had a "troublesome" view of the Germans, for he thought that the educational structure that existed "had been responsible in no small part for the fact that the Germans had been the aggressor in two world wars."(19)

    Even during Alexander's tenure, restorative tendencies predominated in higher education reconstruction. Despite the critical view of Prussian hegemony in education, which was also voiced by Germans in the Rhineland and numerous German exile historians living in the United States, the former celebrants of Prussia-Germany provided the greatest sense of legitimacy to the cause of German educational reconstruction. Bent by age, living on the verge of starvation, and with their self-confidence shaken by the Nazi experience, the older generation of German academicians still retained moral authority.(20)

    The Americans of the military government were personally involved in this process of lending legitimacy to the scholarship and academic leadership of this older generation. It was Edward Y. Hartshore who found a publisher for The German Catastrophe in 1946.

    In this work Friedrich Meinecke set the tone for the approach to National Socialism in Germany under American occupation. In this work, Meinecke portrayed the appointment of Hitler as chancellor as one of the tragic accidents (Zufälle) of history.

    Though he was willing to attempt some insight into the roots of National Socialism, the Nazi state itself lay outside the stream of German history. As Robert Pois observed in his study of Meinecke's involvement in twentieth Century politics, The German Catastrophe demonstrated Meinecke's "tendency to view the Nazi period as a nihilistic aberration and thus relatively opaque to historical investigation." The Americans were not about to force on the Germans any other interpretation.(21)

    As an American state department official observed, the American occupation forces were, by the Fall of 1946, ceding the intellectual high ground to the German "gerontocracy."(22)

    It was with the assent of the Americans that the older generation of German scholars reassumed positions of leadership in the German universities after the war. In the 1960s, scholars would discover that an understanding of National Socialism as "a ship wreck" or a "catastrophe" did not allow for coming to terms with the broader implications of recent German history.

    Yet it was apparent to critics of reconstruction policy after the war that the elitism of German universities had contributed to the rise of National Socialism. These critics were quick to point out that in an academic-political sense this included the provision that the "freedom of science" guaranteed the same complete authority to senior tenured faculty as heads of institutes at German universities in the post-war period as they had exercised in the nineteenth century.

    Yet there were few alternatives, as few exiles wanted to return to a Germany which had once persecuted them. Furthermore, a visiting professorship in Germany of the late 1940s was very unappealing to most non-German academicians in the United States.

    Few American academicians responded to invitations to come to Germany and help reconstruct German education, despite the fact that Germany was quickly becoming the ideological front line in the Cold War.(23)

    This mixture of shortages of professors and destruction of the physical plant of the university was particularly acute in Berlin, capital of the defeated nation and for many the symbol of Prussian militarism.

    Again, Berlin had been the scene of highly destructive combat at the end of the war. The University of Berlin, known as the Friedrich Wilhelm Universit�t, was located easterly from Unter den Linden and in the Soviet Zone. The war had seen the destruction of 50 percent of its buildings. Having served as a nazified showplace during the war the Berlin University's professoriate was particularly heavily implicated in the crimes of National Socialism, and many had simply fled at the approach of the Red Army.(24)

    The Soviet vision of university reconstruction, as its vision of reconstruction in general, favored revolution over evolution. Where the Americans were "shocked by data that revealed the small number of working class youth in university enrollments," the Soviets expected to find this.(25)

    They sought to break down the barriers to higher education by immediately establishing the Einheitsschule, or Soviet version of the single elementary and secondary school for all German youth. In addition, the Soviets gave preference to the children of workers and farmers in admissions decisions. So convinced were they that the class nature of German education had led to militarism, imperialism, and ultimately fascism that they established an entirely new system of university education called the Arbeiter and Bauern Fakultaeten (Workers and Peasants Faculties), where people could study who had not come from the privileged background necessary for education in the Gymnasium, or university preparatory program.(26)

    Conflict over the role of Marxism-Leninism at the Berlin University was based in large part in differing approaches to the relationship between politics and academic inquiry. Where the leading intellectual lights in West Germany stressed the "value free" nature of academic inquiry, the Germans in the Soviet zone freely admitted that the university professor was a propagandist. To Karl Jaspers, while "thought and research depend on the political situation...the political events of the day are not a topic for lectures at the university". In stark contrast to this stood the view of Juergen Kuczynski, a prominent Marxist social scientist in the Soviet Zone. According to Kuczynski, the university professor should propagandize. As he explained in an article for the journal Forum, it was much more interesting (and useful) to students if a professor explained that nineteenth century economic history was driven by class interests than simply to cite trends in international trade. This, argued Kuczynski, was also part of anti-fascist propaganda.(27)

    In a much publicized case, a group of students at the Berlin University ran afoul of the Ministry for Popular Education (Ministerium fuer Volksbildung) and were expelled from the Berlin University. Curiously enough, the students Otto Hess, Otto Stolz, and Joachim Schwartz were accused of being politicians and not scholars. Quite clearly, they were conducting the wrong type of propaganda in their publication Colloquium. Since Berlin was located deep within the Soviet Zone, the American military government had an interest, both political and ideological, in the request of these students to found a new university in the American sector of Berlin. It was with General Clay's blessing that a the Free University of Berlin opened in Berlin-Dahlem in November 1948.(28)

    The situation in Berlin was in many ways exceptional, but the role of students in the founding of the Free University is significant. When the Germans students looked for a rector for their new university, they found a symbolic figure in the person of Friedrich Meinecke. His very presence would be a powerful symbol of continuities with the pre-1933 academy. With a little coaxing from the Americans, the aging Meinecke accept the position as the students' choice for rector.(29)

    When Friedrich Meinecke spoke at the opening of the Free University of Berlin, he referred to "the voice of youth" which had demanded a new university and a "true locus of science and its teachings". In this address, he described his relationship with the youth who had given the initiative for the founding of the Free University as that of a grandfather, as he was indeed the oldest faculty member of the new university community.

    He attempted to normalize the university's existence by likening the intellectual relationship of these young scholars to their immediate Nazi forbearers as that of father and son, a relationship which is often marked by rebellion.

    It was only natural, argued Meinecke, that the relationship of the academic youth would be much more harmonious with their intellectual grandfathers. As the older generation had resisted the propaganda of national socialism, now their intellectual grandchildren would carry forward the struggle against the politicization of scholarship taking place at the Berlin University.(30)

    Though the student participation in university government at the Free University, from its founding onward, was progressive by the standards of the times there were other signs of continuity in the Free University which were more traditional. As the American education officer for Berlin noted, "like the West German universities it was to a large extent a restoration of the pre-Hitler institution with its elitist character, its rather authoritarian professoriate, and its old-fashioned curricula."(31)

    If this was the case for the most "progressive" of German Universities, what can be said of the rest of West Germany?

    At the Free University, as elsewhere in West Germany, the discourse on "apolitical" scholarship, carried out at first to differentiate the reeducated and reoriented Germans from the Nazis, now served to institutionalize a hierarchy of power in the Cold War. In this new discourse on the nature of academic inquiry, traditionally-oriented academicians justified their further preeminence in society through a mastery of "apolitical" scholarship.

    Especially since the youth were co-opted at the Free University, the appeals to objectivity were all the more useful. German youth, threatened by concerns over their nazification, could redeem themselves by becoming objective scholars. In this way, the next generation of scholars aped the manners of their grandfathers. This provides at least a partial explanation of why, as the Nasty Girl implies, German education in 1980s resembled German education in the late nineteenth century.

    The price of rehabilitating German scholarship after the Nazi dictatorship was the institutionalization of academic conservatism and the return of the Prussian professor. When the Federal Republic was founded in 1949, the political party which assumed control of the new nation was the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). The CDU's campaign slogan was "Keine Experimente," or no experiments. This would be the slogan of the rehabilitated German academy as well.

    References & Notes

    A. It is interesting to note there was no German economics scholarship produced during the Third Reich of any scholastic value by German economists in the Nazi years. For one example that has been preserved, see: Falk, Karl Leonard . Virtschaftfliche grunds�tze und probleme der amerikanischen taggespresse. doctoral dissertation, Friedrich Wilhelm Universit�t, Berlin(1937).

    1. Michael Verhoeven, prod. The Nasty Girl (Miramax Films, 1990).

    2. Ordinarius is the title given to a senior tenured professor in the German university. As heads of an academic departments, they exercised virtual dictatorial control over other members of the faculty as well as over students.

    3. Recent scholarship has demonstrated the problematic nature of concepts of "free scientific inquiry." On the development of archival research and scientific history in the nineteenth century see Bonnie G. Smith "Gender and the Practice of Scientific History: The Seminar and Archival Research in the Nineteenth Century," unpublished paper presented to the Modern European History Seminar, Rutgers University (November 1994).

    4. Pollock, James K., James H. Meisel, and Harry L. Bretton, eds. Germany Under Occupation: Illustrative Materials and Documents (Ann Arbor, Michigan: George Wahr Publishing Co., 1949. p. 82). Nazi schools included the Adolf Hitler Schulen, Napolas and Ordensburgen, as well as Nazi organizations within other organizations.

    5. James F. Tent, "Denazification of Higher Education in U.S. Occupied Germany, 1945-1949," In Manfred Heinemann, ed. Hochschuloffiziere und Wiederaufbau des Hochschulwesens in Westdeutschland 1945-1952. (Universität Hannover: Forschungsstelle EDV, 19900. 9-15.

    6. Ingo Mueller, Hitler's Justice: The Courts of the Third Reich (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991). For works on the failure of denazification see John H. Herz, "The Fiasco of Denazification in Germany," Political Science Quarterly 63 (1948), pp. 569-594; William E. Griffith "Denazification in the United States Zone of Germany," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences (January 1950), pp. 68-76; John D. Montgomery, Forced to be Free: The Artificial Revolution in Germany and Japan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957); Constantine FitzGibbon, Denazification (London: Michael Joseph, 1969); Tom Bower, The Pledge Betrayed: America and Britain and the Denazification of Postwar Germany (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1982); and Lutz Niethammer, Die Mitläuferfabrik: Die Entnazifizierung am Beispiel Bayerns ( Berlin: Verlag J.H.W. Dietz GmbH, 1982).

    7. Edward N. Peterson, The American Occupation of Germany: Retreat to Victory (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1977). James F. Tent notes his substantial agreement with Peterson in his Mission on the Rhine: Reeducation and Denazification in American-Occupied Germany (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982).

    8. James F. Tent. Mission on the Rhine. The two most prominent examples of American military governors who were also prominent historians of German education are Edward Yarnall Hartshorne, Jr. and Thomas Alexander. For examples of their work see Edward Yarnall Hartshorne, Jr. The German Universities and National Socialism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1937), Thomas Alexander and Beryl Parker, The New Education in the German Republic (New York: John Day Company, 1929).

    9. See Dennis L. Bark and David R. Gress, A History of West Germany, Vol. I: From Shadow to Substance 1945-1963 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1993).

    10. Lucius D. Clay, Decision in Germany. reprint ed. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1970), p. 299.

    11. The German word for science, Wissenshaft, encompassing both the natural and social sciences includes the humanistic disciplines such as literature and history. Karl Jaspers, "The Rededication of German Scholarship," The American Scholar 15 (1946): 180-188. James F. Tent points to the importance of this speech in starting a wave of the German university reopenings. See Mission on the Rhine, pp. 58-60.

    12. For example, see Robert N. Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988).

    13. On the Humboltean model of the university see Daniel Fallon, The German University: A Heroic Ideal in Conflict With the Modern World (Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Press, 1980).

    14. Gerhard Ritter, "The German Professor in the Third Reich." Review of Politics (April 1946). It is interesting to contrast this favorable view of the accomplishments of German historical scholarship during the Third Reich with those of Felix Gilbert, who served as an intelligence officer in the occupation. According to Gilbert, very little of value was produced by German historians in the Nazi years. See Felix Gilbert, "German Historiography during the Second World War: A Bibliographical Survey." The American Historical Review 53 (October 1947): 50-58.

    15. Sidney B. Fay, "Our Responsibility for German Universities" Forum (January 1946): 396-402. It is of more than passing interest that Fay would soon translate Friedrich Meinecke's Die Deutsche Katastrophe into English. See also Fay's introduction as translator of the English version of Friedrich Meinecke, The German Catastrophe: Reflections and Recollections (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950). On the American debt to German historicism see Fritz Stern, "German History in America", Central European History 19 (2): 131-163.

    16. On the American programmatic exploitation of German technology in the Cold War see John Gimbel, Science, Technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Post-war Germany (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990). On the role of racial ideologies on the Eastern Front during W.W.II, see Omer Bartov Hitler's Army (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

    17. Hartshorne, The German Universities and National Socialism, p. 153.

    18. 1LT Russell H. McIntosh, "Address to the Theological Faculty of the University of Wuerzburg in the Ceremony of the Re-opening of that Institution," Fiche no. 3-A-193 in The U.S. Occupation of Germany, Educational Reform, 1945-1949, Gary H. Tsuchimochi, ed. (Congressional Information Service, 1991). For an example of an exile German historian who criticized German educational "peculiarity" see Frederick W. Craemer, "The Reeducation of Germany: An American Experiment," Forum (October 1945): 114-119

    19. Herman B. Wells, "Higher Education Reconstruction in Postwar Germany", In Manfred Heinemann, ed. Hochschuloffiziere und Wiederaufbau des Hochschulwesens in Westdeutschland 1945-1952, pp. 43-52.

    20. Felix Gilbert recalled a visit to Meinecke's quarters in the fall of 1945, where it became apparent that Meinecke and his wife relied on handouts from the Americans in order to eat. See the concluding chapter of Felix Gilbert's A European Past: Memoirs 1995-1945 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1988).

    21. Friedrich Meinecke, Die Deutsche Katastrophe (Wiesbaden: Eberhard Brockhaus Verlag, 1946), 82, 95. In a chapter devoted to the rise of Massenmachiavellismus (machiavellian thinking in mass society), Meinecke argued that this trend represented a spiritual crisis which was endemic to "the West" as a whole. In a chapter on the role of coincidence and general trends in history, Meinecke recalls that when he heard that Hitler had been appointed chancellor, his response was "That was not necessary." Hitler's appointment did not represent the inevitable response to a general socio-political trend, but was rather attributable to the coincidence of Hindenburg's personal weakness. Robert A. Pois. Friedrich Meinecke and German Politics in the Twentieth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), 151-2.

    22. Eugene N. Anderson, "Report on Trip to Germany - Fall 1946," Fiche no. 1-A-58 in The U.S. Occupation of Germany.

    23. In the very specific sense of history faculties, this lead to what George Iggers has called the "exoneration of the German national tradition." In a more general sense it meant the resurgence of what Fritz Ringer labeled a conservative academic class of "German mandarins". See Georg G. Iggers, The German Conception of History: The National Tradition of Historical Thought from Herder to the Present, 2nd rev. ed. (Weslyean University Press, 1983; Fritz K. Ringer, The Decline of the German Mandarins: The German Academic Community, 1890-1933 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969). On the fate of exile historians see Catherine T. Epstein, A Past Renewed: A Catalog of German-Speaking Refugee Historians in the United States After 1933, 1st ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press and The German Historical Institute, 1993).

    24. Hubert Laitko, ed. Wissenschaft in Berlin: Von Anfängen bis zum Neubeginn nach 1945 (Berlin: Dietz Verlag, 1987). On the reopening of the Humbolt University see Henny Maskolat "Die Widereroeffnung der Berliner Universitaet im Januar 1946" In Forschung und Wirken. Band I. Festschrift zur 150-Jahr-Feier der Humbolt Universitaet zu Berlin 1810-1960 (Berlin: VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1960), 605-627.

    25. Wells, 43.

    26. Ulrich Thiel. "Zur Geschichte der Arbeiter-und-Bauern-Fakultäten in der DDR (1949-1955)." Ph.D. Dissertation, Freiberg, Bergakad., Fak. für Gesellschaftswiss., Diss. A, 1987.

    27. Karl Jaspers The Question of German Guilt (New York: Dial Press, 1947), pp. 9-10. Jürgen Kuczynski, "Soll ein Universitätslehrer Propaganda treiben," Forum: Zeitschrift für das Geistige Leben an den Deutschen Hochschulen 1, no. 2 (1947): 22-23.

    28. Some of the most important works on the founding of the Free University include Siegward Lönnendonker, Freie Universität Berlin: Gründung einer politischen Universität (Berlin: Duncker und Humbolt GmbH, 1988); Bernd Rabehl, Am Ende der Utopie: Die Politische Geschichte der Freien Universitaet Berlin (Berlin: Argon Verlag, 1988); Ulrich Schneider, "Berlin, der Kalte Krieg, und die Gründing der Freien Universität 1945-1949," Jahrbuch für die Geschichte des Mittel- und Ostdeutschlands 34 (1985): 37-101. James F. Tent, The Free University of Berlin: A Political History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988). Information on the founding students of the Free University was provided by Dr. Armin Spiller, archivist of the Free University of Berlin, HSA FUB: Kurzdok. d. Gruendungsstudenten der FU Berlin (prov. intern), zsgest. v. Universitaetsarchiv FUB, 1987.

    29. On the relationship between Meinecke and the Americans see Gilbert, A European Past: Memoirs 1995-1945.

    30. Friedrich Meinecke, "Die Stimme des Gewissens," Colloquium 3:1 (1949):1, as cited in Siegward Lönnendonker, et al., 55-56. Tilman Fichter, and Claus Rietzschel, eds., Dokumentaton FU Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin 1948 - 1964, Hochschule im Umbruch Teil I-III 1945-1964. (Berlin: 4. Dezember 1978).

    31. Carl G. Anthon, "My Work as Higher Education Advisor in Berlin: A Brief Memoir", In Manfred Heinemann, ed. Hochschuloffiziere und Wiederaufbau des Hochschulwesens in Westdeutschland 1945-1952, p. 66.

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