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Thread: DNA region has a European influence

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    Senior Member Mac Seafraidh's Avatar
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    Post DNA region has a European influence

    Last update: January 16, 2005 at 9:14 PM

    DNA region has a European influence

    Nicholas Wade, New York Times

    January 17, 2005


    Researchers in Iceland have discovered a region in the human genome that, among Europeans, appears to promote fertility and maybe longevity as well.

    Though the region, a stretch of DNA on the 17th chromosome, occurs in people of all countries, it is much more common in Europeans, as if its effect is set off by something in the European environment. A further unusual property is that the genetic region has a much more ancient lineage than most human genes, and the researchers suggest, as one possible explanation, that it could have entered the human genome through interbreeding with one of the archaic human lineages that developed in parallel with that of modern humans.

    The genetic region was discovered by scientists at DeCode Genetics, a biotechnology company in Reykjavik, Iceland, which has made the Icelandic population, with its comprehensive genealogy and medical records, a prime hunting ground for the genetic roots of common diseases. Their finding is published in today's issue of Nature Genetics.

    The report seems likely to receive considerable attention, even though it raises as many questions as it answers. "I thought it was one of the most interesting papers in population genetics I have ever read," said Nick Patterson, a mathematician at the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Mass., who advised DeCode on the article but has no other connection with the company.

    The DNA region came to light during the search for a schizophrenia-causing gene, which turned out not to be there. But the DeCode researchers noticed that the DNA sequences they had examined did not seem to agree with those in the standard human genome sequence, said Kari Stefansson, DeCode's chief executive.

    The lack of agreement turned out to be caused by the fact that the region exists in two forms in the Icelandic population. The region is not a single gene but a vast section of DNA, some 900,000 units in length, situated in the 17th of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes. In some Icelanders, the DeCode team found, the section runs in the standard direction, but in others it is flipped. Looking for any physical consequence, the DeCode researchers found that women carrying the inverted section tended to have slightly more children.

    The section carries several known genes, not one of which has any obvious connection with fertility. But the inversion does increase the rate of recombination, the shuffling of genes between generations that is a major source of genetic novelty. That could account for some of the increase in fertility.

    The DeCode scientists found that the chromosome-17 inversion is present in 20 percent of Europeans, the same frequency as in Iceland. The inversion seems to have been favored by natural selection among Europeans in fairly recent times, perhaps the past 10,000 years. "Maybe something switched it on in the European environment, such as an interaction with diet," said David Reich, a population geneticist at the Broad Institute.

    http://www.startribune.com/stories/484/5189895.html

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    Senior Member Boerncian's Avatar
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    Post Re: DNA region has a European influence

    Very interesting

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    Post Re: DNA region has a European influence

    I would like to know what the genetics people at Skadi think of the idea of a stretch of many genes being inherited as a block--(super linkage?)-- as well as the origin of this block being possibly pre-sapien.

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    Post AW: Re: DNA region has a European influence

    I'd like to see the sample size.
    "slavic" languages are absolutely arteficial (Read "slawenlegende"). The "glagolica", invented by a bunch of monks, is nothing but an ancient esperanto, creating new words, definitions and alphabet out of regional slangs.

    The craddle of European Civilization comes from the North. All blond people originate from the north. So if you see a blond-blue eyed Slovene, Russian, Czech, Polak ect., you can be 100% sure that his ancient ancestors originated from "Germanics" (Germanic = Nordic).
    "slovenja" was the settelment of the Langobards = Germanics/Teutons. "Poland" of the Goths and East-Vandals ect. ect. What do "slavs" tell us about their origin?
    Some silly story that they originate from some swamps in the east and popped out of no where into history.

    So you see my dear "Gorostan" [=Triglav], you are in reality a "Germanic" indoctrinated with panslav propaganda and historic fantasy stories. ~Dr. Brandt, former TNP and Skadi member

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    Post AW: DNA region has a European influence

    A refined physical map of chromosome 17q21.31 uncovered a 900-kb inversion polymorphism. Chromosomes with the inverted segment in different orientations represent two distinct lineages, H1 and H2, that have diverged for as much as 3 million years and show no evidence of having recombined. The H2 lineage is rare in Africans, almost absent in East Asians but found at a frequency of 20% in Europeans, in whom the haplotype structure is indicative of a history of positive selection. Here we show that the H2 lineage is undergoing positive selection in the Icelandic population, such that carrier females have more children and have higher recombination rates than noncarriers.

    More info HERE (pdf)
    "slavic" languages are absolutely arteficial (Read "slawenlegende"). The "glagolica", invented by a bunch of monks, is nothing but an ancient esperanto, creating new words, definitions and alphabet out of regional slangs.

    The craddle of European Civilization comes from the North. All blond people originate from the north. So if you see a blond-blue eyed Slovene, Russian, Czech, Polak ect., you can be 100% sure that his ancient ancestors originated from "Germanics" (Germanic = Nordic).
    "slovenja" was the settelment of the Langobards = Germanics/Teutons. "Poland" of the Goths and East-Vandals ect. ect. What do "slavs" tell us about their origin?
    Some silly story that they originate from some swamps in the east and popped out of no where into history.

    So you see my dear "Gorostan" [=Triglav], you are in reality a "Germanic" indoctrinated with panslav propaganda and historic fantasy stories. ~Dr. Brandt, former TNP and Skadi member

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    Member Triglav's Avatar
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    Post AW: Re: DNA region has a European influence

    Quote Originally Posted by Triglav
    I'd like to see the sample size.
    Appears to be big enough.

    Scientists Find Effect of Natural Selection on Human Genome

    Jan. 16 (Bloomberg) -- Scientists in Iceland have uncovered a genetic variation whose female carriers tend to have more children, a discovery that shows Charles Darwin's concept of natural selection at work in modern humans.

    Women with the variation have a statistically significantly higher number of children, according to the study, which is based on genetic data from more than 29,000 Icelanders. The study will appear in the Jan. 23 edition of the journal Nature Genetics.

    The variant carriers' genes also tend to more easily combine with their mates' genes, which produces more genetically diverse offspring, according to the study. That correlation suggests that there is a survival advantage to being able to produce diverse offspring, said Kari Stefansson, chief executive of DeCode Genetics Inc. and a lead author on the study.

    ``Even though we as a society have been struggling with it, evolution values diversity,'' Stefansson said in an interview.

    The discovery also raises questions about the history of human evolution, Stefansson said. The variation, which the scientists think was introduced into the gene pool about 50,000 years ago, is found in 20 percent of Europeans but is rare in Africans and almost entirely absent in East Asians, according to the study.

    The fact that the variation is almost exclusive to Europeans raises the possibility that modern humans migrating out of Africa crossbred with an earlier species of hominids they encountered along the way, according to the study.

    Reykjavik, Iceland-based DeCode developed models during the study that will help it evaluate other genetic variants that may be linked to human diseases or defects and develop treatments for them, Stefansson said.

    http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?p...cHoYo&refer=us
    "slavic" languages are absolutely arteficial (Read "slawenlegende"). The "glagolica", invented by a bunch of monks, is nothing but an ancient esperanto, creating new words, definitions and alphabet out of regional slangs.

    The craddle of European Civilization comes from the North. All blond people originate from the north. So if you see a blond-blue eyed Slovene, Russian, Czech, Polak ect., you can be 100% sure that his ancient ancestors originated from "Germanics" (Germanic = Nordic).
    "slovenja" was the settelment of the Langobards = Germanics/Teutons. "Poland" of the Goths and East-Vandals ect. ect. What do "slavs" tell us about their origin?
    Some silly story that they originate from some swamps in the east and popped out of no where into history.

    So you see my dear "Gorostan" [=Triglav], you are in reality a "Germanic" indoctrinated with panslav propaganda and historic fantasy stories. ~Dr. Brandt, former TNP and Skadi member

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    Post Re: DNA region has a European influence

    Thanks Triglav, this sounds very cool. What do you mean 3 million years of divergence in your first post? It says 50,000 in your second posting. If it is found in Europeans but not Africans and is 50.000 years old, well, you know what I am thinking.

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    Post AW: Re: DNA region has a European influence

    Well, they are talking about divergence in the first post and introduction in the second. It either reemerged or was introduced into the gene pool by another species.

    The inversion seems to have been favored by natural selection among Europeans in fairly recent times, perhaps the past 10,000 years. "Maybe something switched it on in the European environment, such as an interaction with diet," said David Reich, a population geneticist at the Broad Institute.
    They are suggesting that the lineage emerged 3 million years ago, was introduced into the modern gene pool 50,000 years ago and favoured by natural selection in the last few thousand years.

    I'd wait for the study. These newspaper articles are for entertainment purposes only.
    Last edited by Triglav; Thursday, January 20th, 2005 at 10:55 AM.
    "slavic" languages are absolutely arteficial (Read "slawenlegende"). The "glagolica", invented by a bunch of monks, is nothing but an ancient esperanto, creating new words, definitions and alphabet out of regional slangs.

    The craddle of European Civilization comes from the North. All blond people originate from the north. So if you see a blond-blue eyed Slovene, Russian, Czech, Polak ect., you can be 100% sure that his ancient ancestors originated from "Germanics" (Germanic = Nordic).
    "slovenja" was the settelment of the Langobards = Germanics/Teutons. "Poland" of the Goths and East-Vandals ect. ect. What do "slavs" tell us about their origin?
    Some silly story that they originate from some swamps in the east and popped out of no where into history.

    So you see my dear "Gorostan" [=Triglav], you are in reality a "Germanic" indoctrinated with panslav propaganda and historic fantasy stories. ~Dr. Brandt, former TNP and Skadi member

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    Member Triglav's Avatar
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    Post AW: DNA region has a European influence

    Gene Arrangement Makes Some Europeans More Fertile
    Sun Jan 16, 2005 07:31 PM ET


    WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Researchers working in Iceland said on Sunday they identified a genetic pattern that makes some Europeans more fertile. The genetic pattern, known as an inversion, is a stretch of the DNA code that runs backwards in people who carry it.

    Usually, such rearrangements of a chromosome are harmful to carriers. But this one causes carriers to have more children each generation -- giving them what is known as a selective advantage, the researchers reported.

    The finding, published in Monday's issue of the journal Nature Genetics, opens some interesting questions about human evolution, the team at Iceland's DeCODE Genetics said.

    "We found that almost 20 percent of people in Iceland have at least one copy of this inversion," DeCODE spokesman Edward Farmer said in a statement.

    "We then turned to other databases to see whether it existed elsewhere and how common it was. It turns out to be fairly common in European populations but quite rare in Africa and virtually absent in Asia."

    More than 29.000 Icelanders donated DNA samples to a database open to scientists, which DeCODE specializes in studying.

    Genes are carried on structures known as the chromosomes. The DNA code varies from person to person, but the genes and other part of the code generally lie along the same chromosomes in the same order.

    This large stretch of DNA is on chromosome 17, Augustine Kong and Kari Stefansson of DeCODE found. They are checking to see whether the inversion affects the function of the genes contained in it.

    About 21 percent of all Europeans they looked at have the same inversion, which they named H2, but just 6 percent of Africans and 1 percent of Asians.


    The effects of the H2 inversion are not seen on an individual level, as each carrier produces an average 0.06 more children. But across populations and generations, it adds up, the researchers said.

    Calculations suggest the inversion has existed for about three million years, the researchers said.

    "This predates the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Africa (150,000 years ago) and may even predate the origin of the genus Homo (2.5 million years ago)," they wrote. It could be that the inversion has survived in the human genetic code for that long.

    Or it could be that modern Homo sapiens bred with earlier species, such as Homo erectus, and inherited the genetic variation that way. The two species may have lived side by side for a time before Homo erectus went extinct, sometime between 400,000 years ago and 50,000 years ago.


    And the researchers say the inversion makes carriers more fertile. In each generation, an H2 carrier has about 3.2 percent more children than people without the sequence.

    That is enough of an advantage to have "profound consequences" on evolution, Nature Genetics said.

    http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.j...toryID=7338451
    "slavic" languages are absolutely arteficial (Read "slawenlegende"). The "glagolica", invented by a bunch of monks, is nothing but an ancient esperanto, creating new words, definitions and alphabet out of regional slangs.

    The craddle of European Civilization comes from the North. All blond people originate from the north. So if you see a blond-blue eyed Slovene, Russian, Czech, Polak ect., you can be 100% sure that his ancient ancestors originated from "Germanics" (Germanic = Nordic).
    "slovenja" was the settelment of the Langobards = Germanics/Teutons. "Poland" of the Goths and East-Vandals ect. ect. What do "slavs" tell us about their origin?
    Some silly story that they originate from some swamps in the east and popped out of no where into history.

    So you see my dear "Gorostan" [=Triglav], you are in reality a "Germanic" indoctrinated with panslav propaganda and historic fantasy stories. ~Dr. Brandt, former TNP and Skadi member

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    Post Re: DNA region has a European influence

    Was I dreaming or did someone say this inversion increased the random assortment effect and increased genetic variability? If so this might accout for why non-Africans are so much less variable than Africans genotypically but look so much more variable phenotypically.

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