This thread shall be dedicated to recent informations about demographics:
fertility, mortality and demographic-related aspects of social structures.

Thereby, I lay the focus on the total fertility rate (TFR) which is the
keystone number of demography and, I´d argue, the single most important
measurement of mankind.

Given the fundamental importance of this topic I would ask you to make this thread "Sticky".

For a first glance:

UN country profiles (1,3 MB):

(Don´t ask me why they´re publishing other numbers than their mother organization.)

CIA world fact book (Bucen-IDB):

U.S. Agency for International Development Demographic country profiles

further country statistics:

(This sources fail to differentiate between actual estimates and extrapolation of 10-year-old numbers, so in some cases they are are highly inaccurate.)

Reliable-looking demographic surveys:

Four Surprises in Global Demography
Abortion does not significantly impact Total Fertility Rate
Executive Summary: Fertility Decline in Muslim Countries

Journal of population research:
(Many interesting articles about historic and actual population matters with
emphase on Asia. Very recommendable.)

some single articles:
Fertility control in the classical world: was there an ancient fertility transition?
Was there a Neolithic mortality crisis?
Shortage of girls in China today
Fertility decline in Asia: trends, implications and futures
The end of population growth in Asia

Online resource about family planning:

You may have a closer look at the report:
The Reproductive Revolution Continues

Human developement reports (TFR and HDI are closely linked to each other)

NCHS data updates
TFR by race (see page 15-19)

Mexican government statistics is claiming that the TFR is reaching replacement level (page 4f):

As for Germany I´ve started a special thread:

Fertility Transition in Urban and Rural Areas of Sub-Saharan Africa