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Thread: The British Bronze Age, or Beaker Type

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    The British Bronze Age, or Beaker Type

    British Bronze Age (Beaker Type)

    Sorting criteria: same as ordinary Dinaric.

    Distinguishing Characters:


    a. Head form: more massive and globular, less pointed than Dinarid
    b. Face form: broader in malar region, gonial angles more marked
    c. Nose form: fleshier than the ordinary Dinarid nose, shorter
    d. Skin color: usually florid or ruddy
    e. Hair color: oftener reddish
    f. Body build: heavier and broader than average Dinarid

    Distribution: British Bronze Age: mostly in the British Isles

    "In the Bronze Age, or just before the introduction of bronze, Britain was invaded by tall, massive round-heads who seem to have come from about the same area or near the mouth of the Rhine and northwestern Germany from which later Anglo-Saxons sailed. Probably other brachycephals came to England later during this period, but the consensus of cremation obscures their racial affinities. British anthropologists have long recognized a contemporary English and Scottish type as probably surviving from these Bronze Age invaders or as an effect of recombination of the same subracial elements. The type in question is known as the Bronze Age, Beaker, or John Bull type. It is tall, heavy-boned, weighty and, in middle and advanced years, obese. The skin is usually florid or "beefy", the eyes blue or light mixed, the hair brown with reddish mixture. Sometimes, however, and especially in Shetland, and in parts of North England, and Scotland, and Ireland, the hair and skin are dark. The head is massive, brachycephalic and sometimes rather flattened behind, but more often globular. If the high, prointed Armenoid-Dinarid brachycephaly exist in this type, it is uncommon. Brow-ridges are heavy, malars prominent, and the face rather broad, but not short. The nose is usually long, wide and convex-decidedly beaky. Beard and body hair are strongly developed. This well marked type is found among the yeomanry, the coutnry squires, and, according to Keith, among the business and professional classes of Britain. It has ordinarily been considered an Alpine-Nordic cross, and it is clear enough that both of these elements frequently enter into its composition. However, the nasal convexity and occassionaly flattened occiput perhaps qualify the type more correctly as Dinaric. This is the opinion of Coon, who points out that the blend could not have been formed in situ in Britain because of the absence of any antecedent Alpine type that is an essential ingredient. As a matter of fact, Coon thinks the the brachycephalic element in the John Bull type is closer to the ancient massive Borreby type than to the supposedly reduced Alpine derivative.

    If the Dinaric theory of British Bronze Age origins is correct, the type harks back in respect of its nasal convexity to some ultimately Middle or Near Eastern element, much adulterated and modified by admixture with western European types. As a matter of fact, probably some of the so-called Bronze Age types are merely crosses of later Nordic long-headed blonds with the pure Alpines who certainly came into the British Isles with the later Bronze Age invasions and subsequently, in trickles, from Brittany and other points across the channel"


    Source: E.A. Hooton, Up From The Ape (1958)


    I believe that Steve Halliwell is possibly of the Beaker Type, as it's described by Hooton.





    http://www.emmerdale.org/emmerdale/3500/12oct03/16_10_03EMMERDALE4.JPG
    http://www.emmerdale.org/emmerdale/30dec02/finalscene.jpg
    http://www.emmerdale.org/emmerdale/3500/10nov03/1068483941812_0.5007010464764645.jpg
    http://home.swipnet.se/emmerdale/bilder/dingles/zakpaddy.jpg

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    Post AW: Beaker Type

    Quote Originally Posted by Volksdeutscher
    As a matter of fact, probably some of the so-called Bronze Age types are merely crosses of later Nordic long-headed blonds with the pure Alpines who certainly came into the British Isles with the later Bronze Age invasions and subsequently, in trickles, from Brittany and other points across the channel"
    In older literature Alpine was equated with Armenoid. Is this the case here?
    "slavic" languages are absolutely arteficial (Read "slawenlegende"). The "glagolica", invented by a bunch of monks, is nothing but an ancient esperanto, creating new words, definitions and alphabet out of regional slangs.

    The craddle of European Civilization comes from the North. All blond people originate from the north. So if you see a blond-blue eyed Slovene, Russian, Czech, Polak ect., you can be 100% sure that his ancient ancestors originated from "Germanics" (Germanic = Nordic).
    "slovenja" was the settelment of the Langobards = Germanics/Teutons. "Poland" of the Goths and East-Vandals ect. ect. What do "slavs" tell us about their origin?
    Some silly story that they originate from some swamps in the east and popped out of no where into history.

    So you see my dear "Gorostan" [=Triglav], you are in reality a "Germanic" indoctrinated with panslav propaganda and historic fantasy stories. ~Dr. Brandt, former TNP and Skadi member

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    Post Re: AW: Beaker Type

    No, it's not the case here. He did not equate Alpinid and Armenoid. Hooton had Armenoid as "probably Classic Mediterranean + Alpine + Iranian Plateau".


    Quote Originally Posted by Triglav
    In older literature Alpine was equated with Armenoid. Is this the case here?

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    Post Re: Beaker Type

    Sometimes, however, and especially in Shetland, and in parts of North England, and Scotland, and Ireland, the hair and skin are dark......

    Beard and body hair are strongly developed.
    This seems to confirm my suspicion that people often confuse them and Litoroids.

    I think Coon has a good case for assuming that the 'Beaker type' is a mixture of Borreby and Dinaric.

    "The Bronze Age people of England, as represented by this Beaker series, were clearly heterogeneous. The three ancestral elements which met in the Rhinelands may be distinguished easily. All three were tall, and the mean stature of the whole group was about 174 cm.65 The Corded element, however, was the tallest, and the Borreby element, about 170 cm., the shortest. On the whole, the heavy-boned, rugged quality of the Borreby type seems to have influenced the bodily build of the total group. The Beaker skulls as a whole are large, long, and high vaulted, whatever their shape. They form one of the rare groups in the world with a cranial length of 184 mm. and an index of over 80. This peculiarity they share with the few known brachycephalic crania of the Upper Palaeolithic. Again reminiscent of Upper Palaeolithic skulls is the ruggedness of muscular markings, the prominence of browridges and occipital lines, and the depth and breadth of the mandible.

    In the Crania Britannica are engravings of seventy-three male crania of this group; by observing them morphologically it is possible to segregate them into their component elements. Twenty-four, or one-third of the whole, are planoccipital. This ratio is probably about the correct proportion of the original Bell Beaker element in the blend, with the Corded group one-fourth, and the rest Borreby. The planoccipital skulls are, as one would expect, the most brachycephalic; for over sixty per cent of all crania over the index point 83 possess some posterior flattening.

    When seriated by index groups and occipital form, the planoccipital brachycephalic male crania (see Appendix 1, col. 22) approach metrically the series already discussed from Wörms, as well as that from Bronze Age Cyprus. The British planoccipitals are larger vaulted, in all three dimensions, than their continental and Near Eastern prototypes; they are also wider faced; but in total and upper face heights and in nasal dimensions, they are much the same. The curvoccipital brachycephalic crania (see Appendix I, col. 23) are much larger; and it is this element which contributes the combination of a truly long vault with a high index. They likewise have large faces, of great width, and of great mandibular size. One of the most striking differences between the two brachycephalic British sub-groups lies in the disproportion of face heights. Both have the same upper face height; but the total face height, from nasion to menton, is five mm. greater in the curvoccipital group. The lower jaw of the planoccipital skulls is more nearly of a normal Dinaric form, while that of the Borreby element is nearly equal to Upper Palaeolithic standards."

    The Beaker folk, as such, appear never to have reached Ireland. The Bronze Age in Ireland was apparently dominated by the Food Vessel people from Spain, who were of the unmixed original Dinaric type.

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    Post Re: Beaker Type

    Quote Originally Posted by Rhydderch
    In the Crania Britannica are engravings of seventy-three male crania of this group; by observing them morphologically it is possible to segregate them into their component elements. Twenty-four, or one-third of the whole, are planoccipital. This ratio is probably about the correct proportion of the original Bell Beaker element in the blend, with the Corded group one-fourth, and the rest Borreby. The planoccipital skulls are, as one would expect, the most brachycephalic; for over sixty per cent of all crania over the index point 83 possess some posterior flattening.
    If my math is right, that makes it about 42% Borreby, 33% Bell-Beaker and 25% Corded. It's clear that while this group had blended together to a great extent prior to arriving in Britain, that this blending was not complete at that time, judging from the fact that individuals leaning more towards the individual types could be seen.
    From what I have read, this type was not a very important contributer to the overall racial composition of Britain, although it still occurs in some places.

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    Post Re: Beaker Type

    Quote Originally Posted by Rhydderch
    This seems to confirm my suspicion that people often confuse them and Litoroids.
    Yes, in most of the taxonomies, Litoroid (also called "Prospector Type") is an Armenoid/Atlanto-Med mix that may have come to the British Isles and other parts of western Europe with the Phoenicians. It is generally dark to very dark in pigmentation, unlike the Beaker Type (Coon called it Zoned-Beaker Type) which would have some dark elements, but overall would be blonder. I think in some classifications, however, the term Litoroid, or the Littoral Type, may be mean something else.

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    Post Re: Beaker Type

    Quote Originally Posted by cruhmann
    If my math is right, that makes it about 42% Borreby, 33% Bell-Beaker and 25% Corded. It's clear that while this group had blended together to a great extent prior to arriving in Britain, that this blending was not complete at that time, judging from the fact that individuals leaning more towards the individual types could be seen.
    From what I have read, this type was not a very important contributer to the overall racial composition of Britain, although it still occurs in some places.
    Coon thought the Beaker folk entry into Britain was a fairly large migration.

    "The consideration of the Bell Beaker problem leads naturally to that of the Bronze Age in the British Isles, where the Beaker people found their most important and most lasting home. Coming down the Rhine and out into the North Sea, they invaded the whole eastern coast of England and of Scotland, and also the shore of the Channel."

    "In comparison with the Continent, Great Britain contains a great plenty of Beaker skeletal material. The invasions which reached this island brought the wholesale migration of a large population. Over two hundred and sixty crania from England alone have been preserved and studied."

    I have noticed that many Englishmen are of Dinaric type, and the Borreby and Corded types seem to be fairly common in the east and south-east. But other than that, the two latter types are not particularly common in Britain as a whole.

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    British Beaker Type

    The following excerpt is taken up from E.A. HOOTON, Up from the Ape; New York, 1947(revised edition) and attends the Bell Beaker race in the descriptive ouline as a morphological subdivision of the Dinaric race, but at the conclusion of his discussion of the ?indomitable Dinarics? he revokes this idea and confer this race, at least for present-day Great Britain, as a composite race(aka metamorphic race in Continental European anthropological literature), i.e. ?one in which a characteristic and stabilized combination of morphological and metrical features has been effected by a long ?continued intermixture of two or primary races within an area of relative isolation?, but contrary to ordinary "stabilized blends" which at best are only a local variety of some race or a Gautypus, the physical traits don?t randomly start to segregate up and recombine in Mendelian sense, but are fixated and refashioned to establish a new racial taxon, through a Nordic-Alpine cross.


    British Bronze Age(Beaker type)


    Distinguishing Characters:

    A. Head form: more massive and globular, less pointed than Dinaric
    B. Face form: broader in malar region, squarer, gonial angles more marked
    C. Nose form: fleshier than the ordinary Dinaric nose, shorter
    D. Skin color: usually florid or ruddy
    E. Hair color: oftener reddish
    F. Body build: heavier and broader than average Dinaric


    In the Bronze Age, or just before the introduction of bronze, Britain was invaded by tall, massive roundheads who seem to have come from about the same area near the mouth of the Rhine and northwestern Germany from which the later Anglo-Saxons sailed. Probably other brachycephals came to England later during this period, but the custom of cremation obscures their racial affinities. British anthropologists have long recognized a contemporary English and Scottish type as probably surviving from these Bronze Age invaders or as an effect of recombination of the same subracial elements.

    It is tall, heavy-boned, weighty and, in middle and advanced years, obese. The skin is usually florid or ?beefy?, the eyes blue or light
    mixed. Sometimes, however, and especially in Shetland, and in parts of North England, and Scotland, and Ireland, the hair and skin are dark. The head is massive, brachycephalic and sometimes rather flattened behind. If the high, pointed Armenoid-Dinaric brachycephaly exist in this type, it is uncommon. Brow-ridges are heavy, malars prominent, and the face rather broad, but not short. The nose is usually long, wide, and convex-decidely beaky. Beard and body hair are strongly developed.

    It has ordinarily been considered an Alpine-Nordic cross, and it is clear enough that both of these elements frequently enter into its
    composition. However, the nasal convexity and occasionally flattened occiput perhaps qualify the type more correctly as Dinaric. This is the opinion of Coon, who points out that the blend could not have been formed in situ in Britain because of the absence of any antecedent Alpine type that is an essential ingredient. As a matter of fact, Coon thinks that the brachycephlic element in the John Bull type is closer to the ancient massive Borreby type that the supposedly reduced Alpine derivative.

    If the Dinaric theory of British Bronze Age origins is correct, the type harks back in respect of its nasal convexity to some ultimately
    Middle or Near Eastern element, much adultered and modified by admixture with western European types. As a matter of fact, probably
    some of the so-called Bronze Age types are merely crosses of later Nordic longheaded blonds with the pure Alpines.


    My comments: The protrusion of the malars buds from a remoulded Brunnid trait from this supposed Nordic-Alpine mixture, or to the Phalian filiation, while Hallstatt Nordic has also zygomatic arches bowing outward to some extent(the rhomboid face form here matches too some Boreal Alpines, but the largeness of the face is their accomplishment), which interestingly implies that the British Bell Beaker folk was assembled partly by Danubian-Linearband Nordics of the Genay type(H.V.Vallois), who probably during the previous period like the SOM Alpines before them stirred away from interracial bonding, though the neolithic record shows that friendly relationships, trade affairs and mutualism between neighbouring cultures did exist; one could address this condition as in terms of benevolent seperate emancipation and co-operation, in any case, all these summed makes a Continental emergence of this specific Bell Beaker type less
    plausible.The colour scheme, eagerly stressing the inclination to rufusity, is somewhat more telling. In mixed population the usual
    parlance concerning red hair is that red-haired individuals are the result from a blend between a black-haired parent with recessive
    red-gold pigment with a blond mate, whose little account of pigment falls in the red golden range, the pure red-haired progeny is
    explained as a result of a process of segregating out the recessive red-gold pigment; in a tidy racial formulae rendered as ?Black hair
    (alpine/dinaric) + blond hair (nordic) = Red hair?.


    However, the Alpines in the Low Countries and the Parisian Basin don't share the same origins with the Alpine groups of the Rhône territories and SE France, which moved from Switzerland and are connected to the Palafittic Cultures, which beside Mediterranean elements obtained a fairly due of Taurids, providing the French Alpine with its characteristically un-Alpinoid convex nose and perhaps too a gradual reduction of the head size to moderate measures, which bear more ressemblance to the Taurid head and why Coon so manifestly was able to compare favorably the French Alpine with the elsewhere as Pamirid ascribed Tajiks(Lundman keeps it to a local manifestation of brachycephalization), but to call up justice in this contrived matter, he makes this consideration:?But the hair of the pre-Keltic inhabitants of France can by no means have been wholly or even largely black; the intermediate brown hair shade of the Alpines, with its rufous and incipiently blond tendencies, must be ancient in France; it is comparable to the slightly blonder hair color range of the Borreby type, with its tendency to rufosity.?, which is another take wearing off the alledged and shady contribution of the Dinaric race in the British Bell Beaker race, like that other cock won?t fight either, the infamous axioma of 2/3Med.+1/3Alpine constitues a Dinaric, since pre-dating the incoming LBK, Belgium and North France were populated by cromagnoid Mediterranean of the Beaume Chaudes type and Boreal Alpines, the situation differed not wholly after the Bronze Age Migrations to England, but no regional, specific Taurid subtext to the Belgian population is sighted.

    North Italy has also its redheads. But these have often a very white (and not pink), complexion, a long roman nose and dark eyes. A
    Celtic-Dinaric blend? This type garnishes often the pictural arts of the Renaissance, but figured before in the Middle Ages, with
    preference for blond hair, as beauty ideal of womanhood. I think, for women, the nose is rather depicted as thin, long-bridged and
    high-rooted, perhaps attenuated aquiline, but usually brittle and refined; it's mainly Nordic, though.

    On the other hand, the nose happens to be shorther and fleshier than the average Dinaric nose, but wide, long and beaky too; yet, convexity is not uncommon to the Nordic subraces and in the Flemish Subnordic above description fits well, being sturdier and broader build than the slender, juvenile-athletic composed Nordics, which explains as an unadultered prolongation of the ruggedness of Early Neolithic types of the Nordic race or by Alpine-Borreby admixture and a good slash of Phalian blood.

    Excluding certain particularities involving the Bell Beaker race and downseizing the obnoxious, doubtful reliance on rather tardive on
    European soil appearing and usually centered outside the main concentrations and expansive tracts of the Bell Beaker Folk of the
    Taurid races represents in a good deal the Borreby race or more justified, a Borreby-Alpine-Nordic subrace ; the brunet counterparts
    of this race are derivative of Mediterranean admixture by the Beaumes Chaudes type, an evolved variety of Cro Magnon blended with
    Mediterraneans from the south, constituting an important native Atlanto-mediterranid dominion in both France and Belgium, though
    Alpines are too credited to impart darker tones of pigmentation, while dark brown hair, duller hues of white skin and nutbrown eyes are
    harboured in the majority of European races, not exactly in a typical unilateral brunet complexion and in itself the colour of hair is more
    often, even within the Litorids, chestnut brown for Atlantic Europe with its inherent reddish-metallic or even blondish tinges filtered
    out, especially the combination of sea-water and light helps to bleach the hair and accentuate the red colour, whereat has to be remarked that Willy Hellpach and later reinstated by G. Venzmer, refer to antt Eastern Meridian as demarkation line parting Europe in two irreducible pigmentation patterns, which is itemized in and similar to the animal world: like the birds and mammals in West and Central Europe fur and feathers are brown with a hint of red or golden tones, in East Europe and Asia they?re more grey or silvery and this phenomenon happens unrelated to environment or diet, a situation reproduced in man?s races, wherein Norics, East Baltics, some Nordics(e.g. Hallstatt),etc?who originated from more ?Caspid? regions and still occupy, consolidate this schism, which travels from Haparanda in Sweden, over Görlitz, Prague, Linz and down to Triëst.Mind that very dark brown to pitch swarthy complexion for Europeans are rare and suggestive for West Asian infiltration, if not a portent of some non-Caucasoid strain.

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    Is it me or does anybody else find the Dinaric explanation for Bell Beakers hard to accept. This would mean that Bell Beaker folk treked from their assumed point of origin in the Balkans or Anatolia in the Bronze Age all the way to Britain within that same Bronze Age time frame. If so, why did they come---what reason would there be for this migration? Bell Beaker pottery is found in continental Europe but was there an organized Bell Beaker culture as, for instance, the Celts or were they some sort of metal working trade people such as the African iron blacksmiths?

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