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Thread: Schopenhauer's thoughts on suicide

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    Post Arthur Schopenhauer: On Suicide

    Arthur Schopenhauer

    On Suicide



    As far as I know, none but the votaries of monotheistic, that is to say, Jewish religions, look upon suicide as a crime. This is all the more striking, inasmuch as neither in the Old or in the New Testament is there to be found any prohibition or positive disapproval of it; so that religious teachers are forced to base their condemnation of suicide on philosophical grounds of their own invention. These are so very bad that writers of this kind endeavor to make up for the weakness of their arguments by the strong terms in which they express their abhorrence of the practice; in other words, they declaim against it. They tell us that suicide is the greatest piece of cowardice; that only a madman could be guilty of it, and other insipidities of the same kind; or else they make the nonsensical remark that suicide is wrong, when it is quite obvious that there is nothing in the world to which every man has a more unassailable title than to his own life and person.

    Suicide, as I have said, is actually accounted a crime; and a crime which, especially under the vulgar bigotry that prevails in England, is followed by an ignominious burial and the seizure of the man's property; and for that reason, in a case of suicide, the jury almost always bring in a verdict of insanity. Now let the reader's own moral feelings decide as to whether suicide is a criminal act. Think of the impression that would be made upon you by the news that someone you know had committed the crime, say, of murder or theft, or been guilty of some act of cruelty or deception; and compare it with your feelings when you hear that he has met a voluntary death. While in the one case a lively sense of indignation and extreme resentment will be aroused, and you will call loudly for punishment or revenge, in the other you will be moved to grief and sympathy; and mingled with your thoughts will be admiration for his courage, rather than the moral disapproval which follows upon a wicked action.

    Who has not had acquaintances, friends, relations, who of their own free will have left this world; and are these to be thought of with horror as criminals? Most emphatically No! I am rather of the opinion that the clergy should be challenged to explain what right they have to go into the pulpit, or take up their pens, and stamp as a crime an action which many men whom we hold in affection and honor have committed; and to refuse an honorable burial to those who relinquish this world voluntarily. They have no Biblical authority to boast of, as justifying the condemnation of suicide; nay, not even any philosophical arguments that will hold water; and it must be understood that it is arguments we want, and that we will not be put off with mere phrases or words of abuse. If the criminal law forbids suicide, that is not an argument valid in the church; and besides, the prohibition is ridiculous; for what penalty can frighten a man who is not afraid of death itself? If the law punishes people for trying to commit suicide, it is punishing the want of skill that makes the attempt a failure.

    The ancients, moreover, were very far from regarding the matter in that light. Pliny says: Life is not so desirable a thing as to be protracted at any cost. Whoever you are, you are sure to die, even though your life has been full of abomination and crime. The chief of all remedies for a troubled mind is the feeling that among the blessings which Nature gives to man there is none greater than an opportune death; and the best of it is that every one of us can avail himself of it 1. And elsewhere the same writer declares: Not even to God are all things possible; for he could not compass his own death, if he willed to die, and yet in all the miseries of our earthly life this is the best of his gifts to man 2. Nay, in Massilia and on the isle of Ceos, the man who could give valid reasons for relinquishing his life was handed the cup of hemlock by the magistrate, and that, too, in public 3. And in ancient times how many heroes and wise men died a voluntary death. Aristotle 4 , it is true, declared suicide to be an offense against the State; but in Stobaeus's exposition of the Peripatetic philosophy there is the following remark: The good man should flee life when his misfortunes become too great; the bad man, also, when he is too prosperous. And similarly: So he will marry and beget children and take part in the affairs of the State, and, generally, practice virtue and continue to live; and then, again, if need be, and at any time necessity compels him, he will depart to his place of refuge in the tomb5. And we find that the Stoics actually praised suicide as a noble and heroic action as hundreds of passages show; above all in the works of Seneca, who expresses the strongest approval of it. As is well known, the Hindus look upon suicide as a religious act, especially when it takes the form of self-immolation by widows; but also when it consists in casting oneself under the wheels of the chariot of the god of Juggernaut, or being eaten by crocodiles in the Ganges, or being drowned in the holy tanks in the temples, and so on. The same thing occurs on the stage - that mirror of life. For example, in L'Orphelin de la Chine 6, a celebrated Chinese play, almost all the characters end by suicide; without the slightest hint anywhere, or any impression being produced on the spectator, that they are committing a crime. And in our own theater it is much the same - Palmira, for example, in Mahomet, or Mortimer in Maria Stuart, Othello, Countess Terzky. Is Hamlet's monologue the meditation of a criminal? He merely declares that if we had any certainty of being annihilated by it, death would be infinitely preferable to the world as it is. But there lies the rub!

    The reasons advanced against suicide by the clergy of monotheistic, that is to say, Jewish religions, and by those philosophers who adapt themselves thereto, are weak sophisms which can be easily refuted 7 . The most thorough-going refutation of them is given by Hume in his Essay on Suicide. This did not appear until after his death, when it was immediately suppressed, owing to the scandalous bigotry and outrageous ecclesiastical tyranny that prevailed in England; and hence only a few copies of it were sold under cover of secrecy and at high price. This and another treatise by that great man have come to us from Basle, and we may be thankful for the reprint 8. It is a great disgrace to the English nation that a purely philosophical treatise, which, proceeding from one of the first thinkers and writers in England, aimed at refuting the current arguments against suicide by the light of cold reason, should be forced to sneak about in that country as though it were some rascally production, until at last it found refuge on the Continent. At the same time it shows what a good conscience the Church has in such matters.

    In my chief work I have explained the only valid reason existing against suicide on the score of morality. It is this: that suicide thwarts the attainment of the highest moral aim by the fact that, for a real release from this world of misery, it substitutes one that is merely apparent. But from a mistake to a crime is a far cry; and it is as a crime that the clergy of Christendom wish us to regard suicide.

    The inmost kernel of Christianity is the truth that suffering - the Cross - is the real end and object of life. Hence Christianity condemns suicide as thwarting this end; whilst the ancient world, taking a lower point of view, held it in approval, nay, in honor. But if that is to be accounted a valid reason against suicide it invokes the recognition of asceticism; that is to say, it is valid only from a much higher ethical standpoint than has ever been adopted by moral philosophers in Europe. If we abandon that high standpoint, there is no tenable reason left, on the score of morality, for condemning suicide. The extraordinary energy and zeal with which the clergy of monotheistic religions attack suicide is not supported either by any passages in the Bible or by any considerations of weight; so that it looks as though they must have some secret reason for their contention. May it not be this - that the voluntary surrender of life is a bad compliment for him who said that all things were very good? If this is so, it offers another instance of the crass optimism of these religions - denouncing suicide to escape being denounced by it.

    It will generally be found that, as soon as the terrors of life reach the point at which they outweigh the terrors of death, a man will put an end to his own life. But the terrors of death offer considerable resistance; they stand like a sentinel at the gate leading out of this world. Perhaps there is no man alive who would not have already put an end to his own life, if this end had been of a purely negative character, a sudden stoppage of existence. There is something positive about it; it is the destruction of the body; and a man shrinks from that, because his body is the manifestation of the will to live.

    However, the struggle with that sentinel is, as a rule, not so hard as it seems from a long way off, mainly in consequence of the antagonism between the ills of the body and the ills of the mind. If we are in great bodily pain, or the pain lasts a long time, we become indifferent to other troubles; all we think about is to get well. In the same way great mental suffering makes us insensible to bodily pain; we despise it; nay, if it should outweigh the other, it distracts our thoughts, and we welcome it as a pause in mental suffering. It is this feeling that makes suicide easy; for the bodily pain that accompanies it loses all significance in the eyes of one who is tortured by an excess of mental suffering. This is especially evident in the case of those who are driven to suicide by some purely morbid and exaggerated ill-humor. No special effort to overcome their feelings is necessary, nor do such people require to be worked up in order to take the step; but as soon as the keeper in whose charge they are given leaves them for a couple of minutes they quickly bring their lives to an end.

    When, in some dreadful and ghastly dream, we reach the moment of greatest horror, it awakes us; thereby banishing all the hideous shapes that were born of the night. And life is a dream; when the moment of greatest horror compels us to break it off, the same thing happens.

    Suicide may also be regarded as an experiment - a question which man puts to Nature, trying to force her to an answer. The question is this: What change will death produce in a man's existence and in his insight into the nature of things? It is a clumsy experiment to make; for it involves the destruction of the very consciousness which puts the question and awaits the answer.

    Notes:

    1 Hist. Nat. Lib. XXVIII, ch. 1.

    2 Loc. cit. Lib., ch. 7.

    3 Valerius Maximus; hist. Lib., II, ch. 6, secs. 7 et 8. Heraclides Ponticus; fragmenta de rebus publicis, ix. Aellani variae historiae, III, 37. Strabo; Lib., X, ch. 5, 6.

    4 Eth. Nichom., V, 15.

    5 Stobaeus, Ecl. Eth. II, ch. 7, pp. 286, 312.

    6 Tradhuit par St. Julien, 1834.

    7 See my treatise on the Foundation of Morals, sec. 5.

    8 Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul, by the late David Hume, Basle, 1799, sold by James Decker.

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    Post Re: Arthur Schopenhauer: On Suicide

    Frans, this is an extremely interesting and thought provoking thread.

    However despite the argument that suicide in itself is not "wrong"[I use the term very loosely] surely this amounts to a negation of the Will, which is contrary to Nietzsche`s philosophy and the general world view of National Socialism and White Nationalism?

    It should be regarded as a final and desperate act which in certain circumstances may be the only way out of an impossible situation or for the general good, eg Hitler in Der Bunker but apart from minor exceptions we should guard against appearing to condone the act, especially if people of unstable mind may be unduly influenced?
    Last edited by Wuotans Krieger; Tuesday, November 30th, 2004 at 09:12 PM.

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    Post Re: Arthur Schopenhauer: On Suicide

    Quote Originally Posted by AryanKrieger
    Frans, this is an extremely interesting and thought provoking thread.

    However despite the argument that suicide in itself is not "wrong"[I use the term very loosely] surely this amounts to a negation of the Will, which is contrary to Nietzsche`s philosophy and the general world view of National Socialism and White Nationalism?

    It should be regarded as a final and desperate act which in certain circumstances may be the only way out of an impossible situation or for the general good, eg Hitler in Der Bunker but apart from minor exceptions we should guard against appearing to condone the act, especially if people of unstable mind may be uduly influenced?

    The philosophy of the Will by that misfit of Nietzsche is nothing else in its essence as the naturalistic obsession of the lower instincts("salivation") with consecutive t polarisation of our existence in categories of life and death, while in sé the world always will escape our intellect nor will the heart open the hoardings that cut off us of the deepest individuating principle that graces the universe and its understanding.

    I think it was Louis Pauwels or maybe Jean Anouilh that all predicates and titles falling apart, what remains is "Being", that which is but that can't be captured for real in icons, words, thoughts, etc...
    Stirner too was rightfully allergic to the fallacy to reduce the whole and the particular to one single constituting element.

    In such a vision, all boils down to fullfill one's destiny by setting one's potentialities as a liberating act in motion, but as a master or artisan of his faculties, what flows out of him will guide him but not enslave and subjugate in order to be but a mindless, depassionate instrument of processes and forces lingering in oneself...and if this superior individual finds that his stay is overdue, he will choose eternity and leave by his virtous life and works an exemplary commitment that never will be tamed by the ages...

    He will be an individual who acts responsible, not by desperation.

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    Post Re: Arthur Schopenhauer: On Suicide

    Quote Originally Posted by Frans_Jozef
    The philosophy of the Will by that misfit of Nietzsche is nothing else in its essence as the naturalistic obsession of the lower instincts("salivation") with consecutive t polarisation of our existence in categories of life and death, while in sé the world always will escape our intellect nor will the heart open the hoardings that cut off us of the deepest individuating principle that graces the universe and its understanding.

    I think it was Louis Pauwels or maybe Jean Anouilh that all predicates and titles falling apart, what remains is "Being", that which is but that can't be captured for real in icons, words, thoughts, etc...
    Stirner too was rightfully allergic to the fallacy to reduce the whole and the particular to one single constituting element.

    In such a vision, all boils down to fullfill one's destiny by setting one's potentialities as a liberating act in motion, but as a master or artisan of his faculties, what flows out of him will guide him but not enslave and subjugate in order to be but a mindless, depassionate instrument of processes and forces lingering in oneself...and if this superior individual finds that his stay is overdue, he will choose eternity and leave by his virtous life and works an exemplary commitment that never will be tamed by the ages...

    He will be an individual who acts responsible, not by desperation.
    I agree with your argument that this may the the useful tool of an Uebermensch with full cognition of the act and its varying consquences but I still maintain that we should guard against publicly condoning the act except in certain and clearly defined instances.

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    Post Schopenhauer's thoughts on suicide

    Schopenhauer believed that man did not have any better of a right, then the right to his own life. Do you think suicide is ok, it's the individuals decision, or do you think that the fate of an individual's life is not their choice.
    "People demand freedom of speech as compensation for the freedom of thought which they seldom use" - Soren Kierkegaard

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    Post Re: Schopenhauer's thoughts on suicide

    I know nothing about Schopenhauer, so maybe I shoudn't post, however...
    In genetic terms, the loss of an individual affects the survival of the group.
    The act of taking ones own life, doen't only affect the individual.
    Suicide is mentally devastating to the other members of the victims family especially the parents and they end up carrying a burden of guilt for the rest of their lives. It is said to be much harder to come to terms with than a natural death.
    Only in a situation where an individual is certain that their life means absolutly nothing to any other living being, is suicide their own choice by right, in my view.

    Even if a man has a dog that will wonder where he went he should not comit suicide. And if he doesn't have a dog he should get one, I recomend an Alsatian/Labrador cross or a Jackrusell.

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    Post Re: Schopenhauer's thoughts on suicide

    Agreed, unless the outcome of suicide outweighs the outcome of being alive.
    "People demand freedom of speech as compensation for the freedom of thought which they seldom use" - Soren Kierkegaard

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    Post AW: Re: Schopenhauer's thoughts on suicide

    I know for sure my fate is not my choice.
    And all my youth passed by sad-hearted,
    the joy of Spring was never mine;
    Autumn blows through me dread of parting,
    and my heart dreams and longs to die.

    - Nikolaus Lenau (1802-1850)

    Real misanthropes are not found in solitude, but in the world; since it is experience of life, and not philosophy, which produces real hatred of mankind.

    - Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837)

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    Post AW: Re: Schopenhauer's thoughts on suicide

    Acceptance

    When the spent sun throws up its rays on cloud
    And goes down burning into the gulf below,
    No voice in nature is heard to cry aloud
    At what has happened. Birds, at least must know
    It is the change to darkness in the sky.
    Murmuring something quiet in her breast,
    One bird begins to close a faded eye;
    Or overtaken too far from his nest,
    Hurrying low above the grove, some waif
    Swoops just in time to his remembered tree.
    At most he thinks or twitters softly, 'Safe!
    Now let the night be dark for all of me.
    Let the night be too dark for me to see
    Into the future. Let what will be, be.'

    - Robert Frost
    And all my youth passed by sad-hearted,
    the joy of Spring was never mine;
    Autumn blows through me dread of parting,
    and my heart dreams and longs to die.

    - Nikolaus Lenau (1802-1850)

    Real misanthropes are not found in solitude, but in the world; since it is experience of life, and not philosophy, which produces real hatred of mankind.

    - Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837)

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    Post Re: Schopenhauer's thoughts on suicide

    One usually has choices. But the effects a choice will have are often only partly aparant.

    As far as deciding to die out or not for the supposed greater good..
    If one is giving ones life away in the hope of a beneficial result, one should first make sure that the Universe is going to hold up Its end of the bargain and that one's action actually willl increase the net good. This can never be calculated very far into the future with any certainty, One can never therefor make a fully informed choice.This logic seems to make a mockery of any conscious attempt to do good or evil.
    I seem to vaguely recall that Schop's conclusions were somewhere along these lines.I could be miles out btw,I have never read Schopenhauer directly, But if this was his conlusion I really don't like it and don't trust it it seems to preach futility.It is still intresting to contemplate though...

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