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Thread: North African Amphoras in England

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    Post North African Amphoras in England

    "Nevertheless the honor of building the world's earliest sewage system was not claimed by one of the great urban centers of the ancient world: instead it belongs to the Neolithic villages of the Orkney Islands off the north coast of Scotland. At the beginning of the third millennium B.C. the inhabitants of sites such as Skara Brae had built drains fourteen to twenty-four inches high, lined with stone slabs, running from toilets in separate small rooms within their houses. It seems as though the drains ran away under the settlement to the nearby cliff, where they discharged their contents into the sea.[...]

    Some of the oldest furniture in the world comes from Stone Age Scotland, around 3000 B.C. The beds made by the inhabitants of the Orkney Islands, off the north coast of Scotland, may not look all that impressive, but they were probably very comfortable. They were built on the ground against the houses' thick stone walls, with the ends and side away from the wall formed by thin stone slabs. The interiors were filled with soft mosses. The inhabitants of these prehistoric villages also made dressers or sideboards from thin stone slabs, placed so that they were the first thing a visitor saw on stepping through the door into the house. One of these Orcadian sites, Skara Brae, has also produced the world's earliest known lavatories and sewage-disposal system, a tribute to how seriously the inhabitants took their domestic comforts.[...]

    What are probably the world's earliest lavatories, dating to around 2800 B.C., have been found at the picturesque Late Stone Age village of Skara Brae, on the Orkney Islands, off the north coast of Scotland. Recesses in the stone walls of the houses appear to be toilets, since they are connected to drains running away from the houses.
    "

    P. James & N. Thorburnpe, Ancient Inventions, (London: Michael O'Mara Books, 1995), pp. 359, 428, 442.

    There is an interesting book on this Neolithic site, which contains further information about Skara Brae:

    V. G. Childe, Skara Brae, (London: Kegan Paul, 1931).

    The following websites may also be of interest:

    http://www.stonepages.com/scotland/skarabrae.html

    http://www.orkneyjar.com/history/skarabrae/

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    Post North African Amphoras in England


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    Post Stone warrior delights experts

    http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/scien...re/3257146.stm

    Stone warrior delights experts

    By Paul Rincon

    BBC News Online science staff

    Archaeologists are delighted by a 2,500-year-old stone statue that
    offers a rare insight into life in western Europe before the Roman
    conquest.

    The stone torso, unearthed at Lattes in southern France, is one of
    just a few detailed figurines considered to have been made by the
    ancient Celts.

    The statue of a male warrior wears a style of armour worn in Spain and
    Italy and was life-size when it was complete.

    The "Warrior of Lattes" is described in the scholarly journal
    Antiquity.

    It is around 79 centimetres in height and was discovered in the wall
    of an Iron Age house where it had been used as a building stone.

    Some time after it was created, the statue was mutilated to be re-used
    in a door opening. The head was removed, the left leg and arm hacked
    off and the crest of the warrior's helmet smoothed away.

    The statue's pose is also unusual for Iron Age sculptures from
    southern France. Most are shown cross-legged, but the Lattes sculpture
    was in a crouched position - a pose reminiscent of some Greek
    sculptures.

    Experts say the statue provides a unique insight into early
    interactions between the inhabitants of western Europe and the
    classical world prior to the Roman conquest.

    The style of armour worn by the warrior is similar to that found in
    graves and on statues associated with the Iberian culture of ancient
    Spain. However, the Iberians may have adopted this style of armour
    through links with Italy.

    This is unusual because the people of the eastern Languedoc region of
    France, where the statue was found, are generally thought to have had
    a Celtic culture, different from people from the Iberian zone to the
    west.

    Michael Dietler, of the University of Chicago, US, and Michel Py of
    the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Lattes, France,
    propose that a cultural elite in the eastern Languedoc may have
    adopted exotic customs, while the majority of the people held on to
    their old ways.

    Professor Greg Woolf, a historian at the University of St Andrews in
    the UK, told BBC News Online: "I can't think of anything to compare it
    to. But this could be the result of a broad range of interaction [in
    the Mediterranean]."

    He added that the statue was not necessarily a depiction of someone
    indigenous to that region.

    "Are they sure it's not a god? Not all pictures are self-portraits."

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    Post Pre-Chinese Taiwan (Indigenous Groups)

    Taiwan has several indigenous groups, and their relationships are considered.

    Five Taiwanese populations were used, and compared first with each other. Then they were compared with outside populations which included Neomongoloids, Australoids, and other groups that mignt be most expected to be related to the the inhabitants of Taiwan.

    Of the Taiwanese, Babuza, Shi San Hang and Pazeh are the most similar of the to one other, while the Atayal and Bunun are more distant.
    Last edited by morfrain_encilgar; Wednesday, April 14th, 2004 at 10:38 AM.

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    Post Re: Pre-Chinese Taiwan

    The results are that the first division in the dendrogram, is between Australoids and the rest. The Australians are a seperate group from other Australoids, and include Tasmanians as the most distant lineage). Their closest relations can be thought of as Melanesians, but Micronesians are within this group.

    Mongolia diverges next, and then three of the Taiwanese (Shih San Hang, and Babuza with Pazeh). The Polynesids are the next to seperate, and then the Bunun (one of the Taiwanese), and then there is a division between what can be considered as a Malay or Paleomongoloid branch, and North-East Asians. Atayal (also Taiwanese) are in this group closest to Anyang, Korea, Hainan and the more recent wave of immigrants to Taiwan.

    Evidence supports that Taiwan may be the origin of Polynesians.

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    Post German Protohistoric Archaeology

    Social Analysis of Mortuary Evidence in German Protohistoric Archaeology

    Heinrich Härke

    Department of Archaeology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AA, United Kingdom

    Received 29 January 1998; revised 29 September 1999; accepted 24 January 2000. ; Available online 25 March 2002.




    Abstract
    German early historical archaeology has witnessed since the 1960s an intensive debate on the social analysis of mortuary remains. It started out with the question of archaeological criteria for the inference of social status in early medieval cemeteries. In the 1970s, attention shifted from quantitative to qualitative analyses of grave goods and to the use of data on labor investment and skeletal data. In the last decade or so, younger colleagues have tried to overcome the weaknesses of traditional inferences from grave goods (status, religion, ethnic affiliation) by looking at the implications of ritual, and new methods of analyzing biological kinship have been applied to identify families in prehistoric and early medieval cemeteries. The German debate shows similarities to as well as differences from the Anglophone debate. It is suggested that we may learn from these parallel developments, but we should also learn from the fact that two scholarly debates on the same subject could ignore each other for 3 decades.

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    Smile German folk trio strike gold

    German folk trio strike gold

    By Ray Furlong
    BBC correspondent in Gornau, Germany


    Hundreds of fans were crammed into the large white tent, pitched in a damp field in the village of Gornau in south-eastern Germany.

    As the rain fell outside, steam rose from the mud. But inside, a sense of expectation was rising.


    De Randfichten gave up their everyday jobs for folk stardom
    The crowd were waiting for De Randfichten, a trio of folk musicians who have become Germany's unlikeliest new stars.

    This summer they won national fame with their hit single "Holzmichl", which reached number three in the charts - unheard of for folk music.

    "If you go to Majorca, go to a party, you will listen to the Holzmichl. On the other side if you go to an old people's home you will find they use it for physiotherapy," says the band's marketing manager Mark Zumkeller.

    De Randfichten are three ordinary blokes with accordions, a guitar, and questionable dress sense.

    They've already been a hit for several years in this remote corner of Germany, the picturesque Erzgebirge region near the border with the Czech Republic.

    "It's nice to go to the concerts, it's a great atmosphere," says 17-year-old fan Isabell Otto. "The lyrics have meaning. They speak about the life of the people, everyday life."

    One example of this is a song about going across the border to buy cheap goods, during which the fans gleefully wave cartons of cigarettes in the air.

    "It's a problem that many people in our region have no work and very often they are depressed - but this music changes everything," adds another fan, 46-year-old English teacher Steffi Kraus.

    "They sing, and when they sing at the concert they maybe forget their worries and their sorrows... But it's very hard to get tickets."

    The band's lyrics are unashamedly feel-good. As one of their songs puts it: "Forget all your troubles today, and sing with us!"

    But the band members themselves are surprised by the speed at which they have been propelled from a depressed East German backwater to national stardom.

    "So many people have left our region for other parts of Germany, in search of work, I think they've spread our name across the country," says accordionist Michael Rosting, a 42-year-old former insurance salesman.

    Different

    "People tell us they find us authentic," says Thomas Lauterbach, who gave up his job as a music teacher to play guitar with the band. "This is part of the reason for our success."

    In any case, the band provides the rest of Germany with at least one positive image from a region that is only associated with bad news like economic gloom or the success of the far-right in the recent state elections.

    But not everyone is so impressed.

    "It's very, very popular, and it has no notion of coolness. That makes a big difference to normal pop music," says music critic Tobias Rapp.

    "But sometimes this lack of coolness can be cool just because it's different. Maybe that's why a strange group like De Randfichten can play on a glamourous TV show like Top of the Pops."

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3714622.stm

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    Post North African Amphoras in England


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