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Thread: Klisoura Gorge

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    Post Klisoura Gorge

    A sequence from the Paleolithic to the Mesolithic exists at Klisoura Gorge. The sequence has similarities to that of Italy, not least an early, pre-Aurignacian Upper Paleolithic industry that is like the Uluzzian of Italy, which may be evidence of a continuiy between neanderthals and moderns.

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    Post Re: Klisoura Gorge

    Quote Originally Posted by Dr. Solar Wolff
    I can't access PDF files (something in acrobat is lacking) but, if this sequence is true, it is certainly one of the longest running cultural sequences in the world.
    I'd like to find out if late neanderthals or moderns made the Uluzzian-like industry there. If the Chatelperronian could be made by late neanderthals then the Uluzzian mignt be as well.

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    Post Re: Klisoura Gorge

    Very interesting.
    BTW, my home town is less than 20 km away from Klisoura Gorge!!!!!
    I 've been there countless times.
    You can talk about water, but your mouth will not be wet.
    You can discuss the nature of fire, but your mouth will not be burnt.
    You cannot know the nature of fire or water, unless you feel them.
    Takuan Soho

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    Post Re: Klisoura Gorge

    I copied the text over for your benifit, SW, hope it will proof helpful.

    Quote Originally Posted by Dr. Solar Wolff
    I can't access PDF files (something in acrobat is lacking) but, if this sequence is true, it is certainly one of the longest running cultural sequences in the world.
    Journal of Archaeological Science (2001) 28, 515–539
    doi:10.1006/jasc.2000.0599, available online at on

    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece: The Excavations in
    Klisoura Cave
    Margarita Koumouzelis

    Ephory for Palaeolanthropology and Speleology, Athens, Greece
    Boleslaw Ginter and Janusz K. Kozlowski
    Institute of Archaeology, Jagellonian University, Krako´w, Poland
    Maciej Pawlikowski
    University of Mining and Metallurgy, Krako´w, Poland
    Ofer Bar-Yosef*
    Harvard University, Dept. of Anthropology, Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
    Rosa Maria Albert
    University of Barcelona, Faculty of Geography and History, Barcelona, Spain
    Maria Litynska-Zajac
    Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Science, Krakow, Poland
    Ewa Stworzewicz, Piotr Wojtal, Grzegorz Lipecki, Teresa Tomek and
    Zbigniew M. Bochenski
    Institute of Evolution, Systematics and Ecology, Polish Academy of Science, Krako´w, Poland
    Anna Pazdur
    Silesian Technical University, Radiocarbon Laboratory, Gliwice, Poland
    (Received 15 March 2000, revised manuscript accepted 13 June 2000)
    A new Greek sequence of early Upper Palaeolithic, Aurignacian, Epigravettian, and Mesolithic assemblages, which
    differs from the sequences of Franchthi and Kephalari caves, was uncovered during the excavations in Cave 1 in
    Klisoura Gorge (Western Peloponnese). This is the first case of Middle Palaeolithic deposits immediately covered by an
    early Upper Palaeolithic assemblage. The long Middle Palaeolithic in this site underlies a long sequence of Upper
    Palaeolithic layers. Most interesting is the Early Upper Palaeolithic industry which contains numerous arched backed
    blades and other lithics demonstrating morphological affinities to the Italian Uluzzian, a resemblance that raises
    questions concerning the potential makers of this industry. Above it, several Aurignacian levels dated from 24 to 34 ka
     were exposed. This is the first well-dated sequence of Aurignacian occupations in Greece in which a number of
    basin-like hearth structures were exposed, lined with a clay that had been brought in and specially prepared. The
    Aurignacian sequence is covered by Epigravettian layers. The unconformity between the Epigravettian and the
    underlying Aurignacian corresponds to the Last Glacial Maximum. A Mesolithic layer caps the prehistoric sequence.
     2001 Academic Press
    *Author for correspondence.
    0305–4403/01/050515+25 $35.00/0  2001 Academic Press
    The territory of Greece played an important role
    in the first spread of Neolithic farmers into
    Europe. On the eastern coast of Greece, in
    Thessaly and Argolid, the first Neolithic villages
    appeared as a result of maritime navigation from
    southwest Anatolia through the Aegean Islands
    (Runnels & Van Andel, 1982; Van Andel & Runnels,
    1995). This scenario is less probable for the spread of
    the first modern humans, for whom a more convenient,
    terrestrial route existed; from northwest Anatolia to
    Thrace through the Bosphorus, which, during the
    Interpleniglacial, was easier to cross as the sea level was
    50 m below the present (Van Andel & Shackleton,
    1982; Van Andel & Tzedakis, 1996). Therefore, during
    the colonization of the first modern humans who came
    from the Near East to Europe through the northeastern
    Balkans, most of Greece was located south of
    the main route from Anatolia to the Danube Basin.
    Until recently, only sparse information was available
    concerning the transition from the Middle to the
    Upper Palaeolithic in Greece. The main prehistoric
    sequences, based on the excavations carried out in the
    1960s and 1980s in western Greece (mainly in Epirus),
    lack Interpleniglacial strata, and the Mousterian is
    directly superimposed by the Gravettian and/or the
    Epigravettian (Bailey & Gamble, 1990). The same
    situation exists in Thessaly (Kyparissi-Apostolika,
    1999). Human remains from the Interpleniglacial are
    also absent from the Greek sites, with the exception
    of the skeletal remains from Apidima Cave in the
    southern Peloponnese, which, unfortunately were not
    published fully with their recorded geochronological
    and archaeological context.
    Currently, the new excavations of a long Middle–
    Upper Palaeolithic sequence at Klisoura, Cave 1 (eastern
    Peloponnese), provide an important sequence, not
    only for understanding the origin of the Upper Palaeolithic
    in this region, but particularly, in the European
    context, as supportive evidence for a second possible
    route in the spread of modern populations into
    Europe. This route seems to follow a similar trajectory
    to the later diffusion of the Early Neolithic groups with
    impresso pottery over the Northern Mediterranean.
    During Neolithic times, this diffusion began in Greece
    with the Presesklo-Magoulitsa cultures—and continued
    along the eastern Adriatic coast to Italy and the
    western Mediterranean countries. This route could also
    have been important during the Middle to Upper
    Palaeolithic transition, particularly due to the regression
    of the Mediterranean Sea, which greatly
    diminished the Adriatic Sea, leaving only a shallow
    gulf during OIS4 and OIS3.
    Given the environmental conditions around 50–
    30 ka , one would expect to see cultural evolution
    in southern Greece resembling that of the central
    Mediterranean rather than the northeastern Balkans
    and Danube Basin. In fact, the sequence of the
    archaeological occupations in Klisoura, Cave 1—from
    the Late Mousterian through the Early Upper Palaeolithic
    with arched-backed blades, the Aurignacian, and
    the Epigravettian—is closer to that of Italy than to the
    well-known sequences from the northeastern Balkans.
    In the latter region, the Mousterian was succeeded
    by the so-called ‘‘transitional industries’’. These were
    based on blade technology and considered as stemming
    from the Levallois tradition, thus resembling the Near
    Eastern Emiran on one hand and the Bohunician in
    Central Europe on the other. They were followed by a
    ‘‘Pre-Aurignacian’’ industry or the ‘‘Bachokirian’’, and
    later by the typical Aurignacian (Kozlowski, 1992).
    In the following pages we describe the results of the
    excavations at Klisoura Cave 1 and provide detailed
    information concerning each of the uncovered
    Klisoura Gorge and its Caves
    Klisoura Gorge, through which flows the Baratiotis
    River, is the main communication route between the
    Argive Plain and the Berbati valley (Figure 1). The
    gorge is 2·5 to 3 km long and up to 500 m wide, and
    cuts deep into Triassic limestones. Karstic phenomena
    are responsible for the formation of a large number of
    caves and rock shelters in this region, 30 of which have
    been recorded (Koumouzelis et al., 1996). Six contain
    lithics and sherds spread on the surface, while others
    are filled with well-preserved sediments of unknown
    At the foot of the limestone cliffs, where the valley
    widens, the alluvial fans are covered with flowstones or
    topped with cemented layers. The youngest of these
    layers produced a radiocarbon date from carbonates of
    22,55060  (Gd-3792), indicating that the deposition
    of alluvial cones preceded the Last Glacial
    Maximum and was probably associated with Interpleniglacial
    temperate conditions. The last major phase
    of sediment accumulation is represented by the Late
    Glacial colluvium that also covers the terraces of the
    lower rock shelters and caves, including the terrace in
    front of Klisoura Cave 1.
    Excavation of Cave 1
    Cave 1 in Klisoura Gorge is located in the immediate
    vicinity of ‘‘Findspot 201’’, which was discovered during
    the Berbati-Limnes Archaeological Survey in 1988–
    1990 (Runnels, 1996: figs 5, 8, 9). Mesolithic artifacts
    were collected on the surface of this site. In 1993, test
    trenches were dug in Caves 4 and 7, while systematic
    excavations began in the terrace in front of Cave 1 in
    1994 (Figure 2). These field operations were conducted
    as a joint project of the Ephory for Palaeoanthropology
    and Speleology in Athens and the Institute of
    Archaeology of the Jagellonian University in Krako´w,
    Poland (Koumouzelis et al., 1996).
    516 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    The first report, published after two field seasons
    (1993, 1994), was based on a 1 m deep section of a
    trench dug at the dripline in Cave 1 (trench A). The
    layers were subdivided into two ensembles: the
    Holocene (layers 1–6) and the Late Pleistocene (layers
    6a, 7, 7a, 7b). The upper ensemble contained Mesolithic
    flake industries, whereas the lower one yielded
    Aurignacian-type flake industries. In 1995–1996, the
    trench was lengthened to 3 m and reached a depth of
    about 2·1 m, allowing the establishment of a detailed
    stratigraphic sequence. The larger section of the trench
    exposed the lenticular nature of numerous layers,
    which wedge in the direction of the cave entrance, and
    the erosional surfaces that modified the top of several
    layers. It became necessary to modify the numbering
    system and add Roman numerals to the Arabic numbers
    previously used to label layers. In addition, the
    results obtained during investigations in 1994 and 1995
    helped fill the gap observed between the Holocene
    layers containing Mesolithic finds and the Late
    Pleistocene layers with Aurignacian objects.
    Several series of layers are now visible in the exposed
    stratigraphy in Cave 1 (see Figure 3).
    (1) Layers 1 and 2 contain the Classical and Bronze
    Age finds.
    (2) Layers 3 to 6 contain a Mesolithic industry,
    discussed in detail in the first report (Koumouzelis
    et al., 1996).
    (3) Layers IIa and IIb contain Epigravettian finds,
    which do not occur in the northern part of the
    trench, where a Mesolithic assemblage directly
    covers the Late Aurignacian.
    (4) Layer 6a, III, and III are uppermost Aurignacian
    layers and contain some microlithic backed bladelets.
    (5) Layers IIIb, IIIc, 7, 7a, IIIe–IIIg, and IV contain
    a sequence of Upper, Middle and Early
    Aurignacian assemblages.
    (6) Layer V contains an Early Upper Palaeolithic
    industry with arched backed blades.
    Investigations in Cave 1 will be continued, as a long
    Middle Palaeolithic sequence has been found below
    Layer V. This sequence was identified in 1997, in a
    small trial trench.
    In the following pages, the preliminary results of our
    investigations are presented, with particular emphasis
    on the Aurignacian layers. As noted above, Cave 1
    yielded a first-time discovery in Greece—a sequence of
    several assemblages of this culture, sandwiched between
    Epigravettian and EUP with arched backed
    blades. Unfortunately, probably due to erosion, there
    are two important gaps in this stratigraphy; between
    the Mesolithic and the Epigravettian (corresponding to
    the Final Palaeolithic occupations in Caves 4 and 7 in
    Klisoura Gorge), and between the Epigravettian and
    the Aurignacian (corresponding to the LGM period).
    Cave Sediments
    In addition to classical methods based on grain size
    and morphology analysis, which have revealed no
    significant change in the profile, the cave sediments
    were investigated using the method of absorption
    Klisoura Cave 1
    Aegean Sea
    Figure 1. Index map.
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 517
    spectroscopy in infra-red radiation. The objective of
    the examination was to determine the proportion of
    autogenic (calcite [factor 1] and aragonite [factor 2]),
    allogenic (quartz and pieces of flints that do not occur
    in local limestones [factor 3], and clay minerals [factor
    4]) and anthropogenic minerals (apatite [factor 5] and
    nitrates [factor 6]). Analysis of 45 samples obtained
    from the cave sediments was carried out by Todd A.
    Surovell from the Department of Anthropology of the
    University of Arizona in Tucson. The Fourier transform
    infra-red spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis was performed
    with aMiddle Prospect–IR. The proportions of
    the absorption bands’ intensity have been described as
    coefficients: the coefficient of factors 1 to 3 describes
    the proportion of calcite crystallization to the intensity
    of detritic material (size of quartz absorption band)
    washed into the cave; the coefficient of factors 1 to 5
    refers to the proportion of calcite crystallization in the
    cave (size of the calcite absorption band) to the intensity
    of human occupation of the cave; the coefficient of
    factors 3+4 to 5 describes the intensity of the detritic
    material washed into the cave (the sum of the size of
    absorption bands of clay materials and quartz) in
    relation to the intensity of human occupation (the size
    of apatite absorption band). The calculated coefficient
    values are presented as a diagram in Figure 4.
    The coefficient of factors 1 to 3 indicates that with
    the exception of layer VII, possibly layer V and the
    floor of layer IV (Early Upper Palaeolithic), and of
    layer 5 (Mesolithic), calcite crystallization predominates
    over the washing in of allochthonous detritic
    material throughout the cave’s occupation. Calcite
    crystallization reaches its maximum value in layer IIIg.
    This can be interpreted as an indication of relatively
    humid and warm conditions during the formation of
    the whole profile. The higher ratio of quartz and clay
    minerals in the lower portion of sediments indicates
    an increase in washing in, due to greater rainfall. The
    lowest proportion of carbonate crystallization to
    anthropogenic indices was recorded in the Early Upper
    6 m
    A 114.16
    ? ?
    Figure 2. Map of Klisoura Cave l with location of trench A.
    518 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    Palaeolithic layers (VII, floor of layer IV), in the
    Aurignacian levels in the floor of layer IIIe, at the
    boundary of IIIe and IIIe, in the top of III and in
    the Mesolithic (layer 5).
    The smallest values for washed in clay minerals and
    quartz in relation to the anthropogenic indices were
    recorded at the boundary of layers IIIe and IIIe, in
    layer IIIc, in the top of III and in layer 5. On the basis
    B4 B3 B2 B1
    IIIf IIIf
    IIb IIb
    Figure 3. Stratigraphic section of trench A (Western Wall).
    Ratio carbonates
    Factor: 1/3
    IV lower
    IV upper
    IIIg lower
    IIIg upper
    Ratio carbonates
    (anthropic) 1/5
    Ratio quartz + clay minerals:apatite
    3 + 4/5
    4 6 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8
    Hiatus Epigravettian/Mesolithic
    Hiatus Aurignacian/Epigravettian
    Late Aurignacian
    EUP (with arched blades)
    Figure 4. Coefficients based on mineralogical characteristics of sediments (FTIR-method).
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 519
    of the above data, it can be said that the most intensive
    human occupation occurs at the beginning of the
    Upper Palaeolithic under conditions of more intensive
    slope wash (layers VII–bottom IV). Other episodes of
    intensive human occupation occurred in the Middle
    Aurignacian (layers IIIe, IIIe), and particularly at the
    boundary Upper/Uppermost Aurignacian (III, III)
    and in the Mesolithic (layer 5). The cultural hiatuses
    between the Uppermost Aurignacian and the Epigravettian
    (III/IIb) and between the Epigravettian and
    the Mesolithic (IIa/6, 5) are not marked by a drop in
    anthropogenic indices. These hiatuses are marked only
    by a slight increase in calcite crystallization and a
    greater importance of the sedimentation of quartz and
    clay minerals in relation to apatite. Because similar
    oscillations also exist during the Aurignacian, it is
    likely that they correspond to sedimentation breaks or
    erosional events.
    Radiocarbon and Stable Isotope Analysis
    Laboratory methods
    Radiocarbon age determinations were carried out in
    Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory (see Table 1 and
    Figure 5) using the total carbonate and organic matter
    present in samples. The 14C activity measurements
    were performed with proportional counters filled with
    CO2. Samples were treated with 8% HCl and evolving
    CO2 was trapped. The remainder–small fragments of
    organic matter in solution–was washed, dried, and
    combusted to CO2. Both CO2 products were purified
    and stored for at least four weeks to allow for complete
    Rn-222 decay. Measurements of stable carbon and
    oxygen isotope ratios (13C and 18O) were made at the
    UMCS Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Lublin. The
    results are listed in Table 2.
    Evaluation of radiocarbon data
    In only six samples was the amount of organic fraction
    sufficient to allow radiocarbon concentration measurements.
    In four organic fractions the weight of
    pure carbon was c. 1·5 g (see Table 1, dating results:
    Gd-10201 240110 , Gd-10562 32,400600 ,
    Gd-10714 >31,100 , Gd-10715 >30,800 ), and the
    range of the radiocarbon dates not too wide (two
    ‘‘open’’ data for c. 30,000 ). The weight of pure
    carbon in two samples was c. 0·3 g. Results of radiocarbon
    dating of these samples have relatively
    high margins of error (Gd-9688 22,5001000  and
    Gd-9889 28,9003,000 ).
    The conventional radiocarbon dates of carbonate
    fractions listed in Table 1 are ‘‘apparent ages’’,
    which obviously do not correspond to true ages.
    Theoretical considerations, based on the geochemical
    processes involved in the formation of secondary carbonate
    (Salomons & Mook, 1986), and numerous
    Table 1. Klisoura Cave 1—radiocarbon dates
    Layer Hearth
    Years 
    on carbonate
    Years 
    on organic
    fraction and
    Mesolithic (6) Gd-10685 9150220 17·0
    Interface IIa/IIb Epigravettian Gd-3872 14,280 90 17·0
    Interface 6/III Gd-3791 16,130 40 22·8
    III—Uppermost Aurignacian 10a Gd-3881 17,220 60 22·88
    III—Uppermost Aurignacian 5 Gd-7641 19,400100 22·88
    III—Uppermost Aurignacian 11 Gd-3877 21,720 90 20·0
    6a—Uppermost Aurignacian Gd-7994 *23,800 400 9·82
    Gd-7996 *27,200 500 10·07
    IIIb—Upper Aurignacian Gd-10701 15,490410 21·88
    IIIc—Upper Aurignacian Gd-12036 13,400140 22·88
    7a—Upper Aurignacian 5 Gd-11193 24,220190 22·88
    Gd-10258 20,060200 23·83
    IIIe top—Middle Aurignacian Gd-12035 26,230140 26·40
    IIIe—Middle Aurignacian 17 Gd-3878 25,770130 23·83
    IIIe—Middle Aurignacian 18 Gd-3879 26,770150 22·0
    IIIg—Lower Aurignacian 14a Gd-7882 28,270340 23·83
    Gd-11300 26,950220 21·92 Gd-7893 31,4001000 25·0
    Gd-7883 27,410290 21·92
    IIIg/IIIe—Lower Aurignacian 23 Gd-7880 25,480230 22·68 Gd-7892 34,7001600 25·0
    IV—Lower Aurignacian 27 Gd-10567 29,950460 22·68 Gd-10562 32,400 600 25
    IV—Lower Aurignacian 31 Gd-7879 21,330150 22·68
    Gd-12034 17,280190 14·66 Gd-9688 22,5001000 25
    V—Early Upper Palaeolithic Gd-7878 17,430100 21·87
    V—Early Upper Palaeolithic 42 Gd-12037 26,250310 18·71 Gd-10714 >31,100 25
    V—Early Upper Palaeolithic 53 Gd-12027 27,100600 16·64 Gd-10715 >30,800 25
    520 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    experimental data (Pazdur, 1988; Pazdur et al., 1995)
    lead to the conclusion that all carbonates are depleted
    in radiocarbon with respect to the contemporary biosphere
    at the moment of sedimentation. Because of
    this, the radiocarbon age of the carbonate fraction (TC)
    in the sample is older than its true age (T). The
    discrepancy between TC and T is the so-called reservoir
    age TR. The most frequently observed values of TR for
    fresh-water carbonates range from c. 500 years to
    c. 5500 years (Pazdur, 1988). The actual observed value
    of TR of a certain sediment is determined by the
    chemistry of the system, and within a well defined class
    14C age of carbonate fractions
    Stratigraphic unit
    IIIe, g
    IIb, c, 7a
    III, 6a
    6-IIa, IIb
    10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000
    Age in Radiocarbon Years BP
    14C age of organic fractions
    Figure 5. Radiocarbon dates on carbonate and organic fractions, by stratigraphic unit. See text for details of relevant units. Note: (S)=dates
    from landsnails.
    Table 2. Results of stable isotopes analysis in carbonate fraction of the samples from KLC1 . . ./97 series
    Sample Depth [m]
    [‰PDB] Layer
    KLC1/S1 1·230·03 23·210·03 12·230·09 IIIe, hearth 17a
    KLC1/S2 1·030·03 23·830·04 14·080·08 IIIe, hearth 14a
    KLC1/S3 1·230·03 21·920·03 11·750·09 IIIg, hearth 22
    KLC1/S4 1·380·03 21·990·05 11·720·07 IIIg bottom, hearth 23
    KLC1/S5 1·580·03 22·680·05 14·000·09 IIIg, hearth 27
    KLC1/S6 1·630·03 22·900·04 12·890·12 IV bottom, hearth 47
    KLC1/S7 1·730·03 21·870·05 12·200·09 V, hearth 43
    KLC1/S8 2·180·03 20·140·04 9·060·10 VIII, hearth 57
    KLC1/S9 2·230·03 19·790·06 9·290·07 IX, flowstone
    KLC1/S10 2·380·03 20·570·08 11·680·06 IXa, flowstone
    KLC1/SA 0·330·03 17·000·04 8·510·04 IIa
    KLC1/SB 0·830·03 21·880·03 11·440·06 IIIb
    KLC1/SC 0·780·03 22·880·02 12·880·06 IIIc
    KLC1/SD 0·930·03 26·400·03 15·990·08 IIIe top
    KLC1/1(S) 0·880·03 9·820·05 0·460·09 6a, sq.D1
    KLC1/2(S) 1·030·03 10·070·03 0·840·05 6a, sq. A1
    KLC1/3 1·580·03 14·660·02 4·540·05 IV, hearth 31
    KLC1/4 1·780·03 18·710·04 8·830·08 V, hearth 42
    KLC1/5 1·830·03 16·440·03 5·840·03 V, hearth 53
    (S)=Terrestrial shell.
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 521
    of carbonate sediments, such as calcareous tufas or
    lake sediments, there are relatively wide ranges of
    variation of TR.
    Information about the magnitude of reservoir age
    can sometimes be obtained through comparison of
    organic and carbonate fraction radiocarbon ages, if it
    is assumed that the age of the organic fraction (TO)
    determines the time of the carbonate deposition. In
    these cases, the age of the carbonate fraction must
    be older than the organic fraction age. For all radiocarbon
    data from Klisoura Cave 1, the relationship
    between TC and TO determined in the same samples is
    the opposite: the ages of the organic fraction are older
    than those of the carbonates deposited (see Table 1).
    We can explain this relationship if we assume that
    organic matter from different layers was cemented by
    carbonates some time later, after the deposition of the
    organic matter.
    An analysis of the stable isotopes 13C and 18O
    reveals information on the reservoir age of the carbonates
    under investigation. The sedimentological studies
    indicate that carbonate deposition took place in stagnant
    water reservoirs, using CO2 from the decomposition
    of the organic matter. The stable carbon isotope
    analysis produces the expected low in carbonate 13C
    values; in many cases they are lower than 22‰
    versus PDB (a standard). Correlation between 13C
    and the depth of the layers is not observed. The
    correlation coefficient of 13C for results listed in Table
    2 is r=0·06. Apart from this, we observe strong correlation
    between 13C and 18O (r=0·89), which indicates
    the kinetic fractionation of isotopes during sedimentation.
    As the result of the above observations, we
    can say that the secondary cementation processes of
    organic matter were carried out relatively fast, under
    similar geochemical conditions, throughout the sedimentation
    history. In conclusion, we can expect a
    constant value of reservoir age TR for all dated carbonate
    samples, with the value of TR probably no greater
    than 2000 years and probably no less than 500 years.
    These values are characteristic for the sedimentation of
    carbonates in stagnant water (Pazdur, 1988). This
    means that the results of the radiocarbon dating of
    carbonate fractions listed in Table 1 are too old by
    between 500 to 2000 years. Measurement results place
    the carbonate fraction radiocarbon ages TC in the
    range between 29,950460  (Gd-10567) and
    623030  (Gd-3790). After correcting this data for
    the reservoir effect TR=2000 years, we can say that
    secondary cementation processes took place between
    c. 28,000 and 4000  in radiocarbon time scale, i.e.
    several thousands years later than the period of organic
    matter deposition.
    The radiocarbon dating results for organic and
    carbonate matter are verified on the basis of the 14C
    dating of mollusc shells (Gd-7994, 23800400  and
    Gd-7996, 27,200500 ), but with the same limitation
    as for different carbonates. The reservoir effect
    for this sample from Klisoura Cave 1 is difficult to
    estimate. Recent AMS dating of freshwater shells from
    lakes, carried out by Zhou et al. (1999), gave TR values
    between c. 1000 and 1400 years, which is in agreement
    with the values observed previously. After correction,
    if we take 1300 years as the reservoir effect, the ages
    of the above samples are given as c. 22,500  and
    26,000 . However, other TR values for investigated
    shells should also be taken into account.
    The Archaeological Sequence
    The Mesolithic and Late Palaeolithic
    The Mesolithic layers (3 to 6) are characterized by the
    presence of flake industries with a relatively low ratio
    of geometric microliths. It is likely that Layers 5 to 3
    represent the late phase of the Mesolithic and correspond
    chronologically to phase VIII at Franchthi
    (Perle`s, 1987).
    Layers IIa and IIb, uncovered in 1995, yielded Late
    Palaeolithic blade industries, representing the Epigravettian
    tradition. The retouched pieces are predominantly
    uni- and bilateral thick and short blades with
    semi-steep retouch, often converging to a pointed tip.
    These specimens co-occur with fairly short blade and
    flake end-scrapers, frequently with lateral retouch. The
    diagnostic forms are the microgravettes and double
    backed micropoints, usually with flat ventral retouch at
    the proximal and distal ends (Figures 6 and 7).
    The industry of layers IIa and IIb is unquestionably
    Epigravettian and may be placed chronologically during
    the hiatus between phase III and phase IV at
    Franchthi Cave (Perle`s, 1987). This industry has no
    parallels in western Greece. It differs from both the
    shouldered point industries that may have persisted
    until about 13,400210 at Kastritsa Cave (Adam,
    1989; Bailey et al., 1983a), as well as from the industries
    with small backed blades and the microburin
    technique at sites such as Klithi (Adam, 1989; Bailey
    et al., 1983b, 1984, 1986). On the other hand, analogous
    elements such as microgravettes and double
    backed points with ventral retouch can be seen in
    the Epigravettian industries on the Italian coast of the
    Ionian and Adriatic Seas (Bisi et al., 1983).
    The Aurignacian units
    The Aurignacian occupational horizons exposed so far
    consist of obviously anthropogenic deposits, including
    basin-like hearths filled with ashes, shells, crushed
    bones, and artifacts. The Aurignacian levels have
    tentatively been sub-divided into four units:
    (1) the uppermost unit comprising layer III, III and
    6a, with some microlithic backed bladelets
    (2) the upper unit, comprising layers IIIb, IIIc, 7a
    (together with hearth 5), IIId, IIIe, and 7b;
    (3) the middle unit, comprising a series of hearths
    from the northern section of trench A (hearths 15
    to 18) and layers IIIe and IIIf; and
    522 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    (4) the lower unit, comprising layer IIIg and IV and
    hearths 19–29, 38–46.
    The uppermost Aurignacian unit
    In 1994, hearths were identified immediately below the
    Epigravettian blade industries in Layers 6a and III.
    Investigation of the lithic industry from these levels
    reveals a significant frequency of blade products in
    comparison with the Aurignacian levels below. Blades
    and bladelets, the majority of which range in size from
    1·5 to 2·8 cm, the largest being 4·6 cm, are narrower
    and thinner than the specimens in the Epigravettian
    layers. These blanks were transformed into fine backed
    bladelets, often with concave blunted backs, sometimes
    double-backed, occasionally with transversal retouch
    in the form of microlithic rectangles. Rarely, microgravettes
    and retouched pointed blades are also present
    (Figure 7).
    The particular character of the ‘‘transitional’’ levels
    is the co-occurrence of backed implements and nosed
    and carinated scrapers on flakes accompanied by
    ogival, and blade end-scrapers. The number of
    splintered pieces (pie`ces esquille´es) is considerable.
    Two bone points, one of which is fairly short and
    single-beveled, should also be mentioned. They resemble
    points occurring in the Aurignacian layers, but
    their cross-sections are more asymmetrical.
    The co-occurrence of Aurignacian scrapers and fine
    backed implements has previously been recorded in
    Kephalari Cave (upper part of layer E), situated on
    the western side of the Argos Bay. Unfortunately, the
    layers containing these finds are not dated (Hahn,
    Obviously, as always in the case of inventories
    containing elements from two different technocomplexes,
    the possibility must be considered that artifacts
    became intermixed due to trampling or the slow rate of
    Figure 6. Upper Epigravettian (layer IIa): 1, Gravette point; 2, retouched blade; 4, 5, 7, 8, pointed retouched blades; 3, 6, end-scrapers.
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 523
    deposition. Even when the excavation is undertaken
    extremely carefully, these potential explanations
    should not be ignored. However, in this case, the
    homogeneity of the ‘‘transitional phase’’ inventory is
    supported by the study of the technological features
    of the bladelets. Although clearly detached from
    carinated cores, some of the bladelets had steep
    retouch that is different from the Dufour or Krems
    type bladelets characteristic of Aurignacian assemblages.
    At the same time, these particular forms of
    backed bladelets do not occur in the Epigravettian
    layers (IIa and IIb) above. We therefore conclude that
    the origin of the industry is in the local Aurignacian
    In addition, viewing the assemblage of Kephalari
    Cave in the context of the undisturbed hearths in
    Klisoura Cave 1 suggests that the Klisoura industry
    is not simply a mixture of backed bladelets with
    Aurignacian flake implements, but rather a real
    ‘‘transitional phase’’.
    The upper Aurignacian unit
    The upper portion of the Aurignacian layers is an
    accumulation of alternating clay-loam sediments with
    a low frequency of limestone debris (e.g., IIIb), loamy
    sediments with a large anthropogenic component (IIIc,
    7a, 7b), and flat hearths that consist of a black ashy
    lens overlying burnt clay (e.g., hearth 5).
    Layer IIIc, corresponding to layer 7 in the excavations
    of 1994, yielded a round stone structure,
    measuring about 1·5 m in diameter, built from
    water-rounded limestone cobbles, several of which
    exhibited a surface weathering that indicates that
    they were brought from the river bank. A pavement of
    small limestone debris surrounded the structure.
    Numerous fragmented bones and a small quantity of
    flakes and lithic waste were found inside this feature.
    Although its exact function is unknown, the content of
    this structure suggests that bone marrow had been
    extracted within.
    Figure 7. Lower Epigravettian (layer IIb): 1, microgravette point; 2, backed blade; 4, 5, 6, retouched (and pointed) blades; 3, 6, 8, end-scrapers.
    524 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    The lithic industries of the upper Aurignacian unit
    are fairly homogeneous. The general structure of major
    technological groups is exemplified by the assemblages
    of layer 7a, hearth 5 and layer 7b. Core frequencies are
    0·5 to 1·7%, flakes 23·2 to 38·0%, blades and bladelets
    1·3 to 1·7%, chips 30·3 to 58·2%, and small shattered
    fragments are 13·2 to 25·2% (Table 3). These percentages
    demonstrate that the entire production process
    took place on the site. Furthermore, they show that the
    most important method of production was the manufacturing
    of flakes from flake cores and splintered
    pieces. Only a few blades and bladelets were produced
    and those were rarely retouched.
    As was emphasized in the first report (Koumouzelis
    et al., 1996), all the raw materials exploited were
    obtained from exposures and surfaces within a radius
    of 3–4 km of the site. These include radiolarites from
    limestone formations and flints in silicified sandstones.
    The best-represented type of radiolarite (R1) accounts
    for 29·3 to 44·8% of the raw material used in the
    assemblage, and the most popular flint (F2) accounts
    for 31·1 to 44·4% of the total. Geological formations in
    which the R6–R8 radiolarites or types of the F6–F9
    flint, which occur with a frequency not exceeding 0·5%,
    are found, have not been identified within the vicinity
    of the site. In addition, chalcedony, which forms 5·6%
    of layer 7a, is among the raw materials that cannot be
    considered strictly local.
    End-scrapers dominate in the Upper Aurignacian
    unit. In some levels, the number of splintered pieces
    equals (e.g., layer IIIb) or even exceeds (e.g., in layer
    7a) that of end-scrapers. In the end-scraper group, the
    predominant forms are steep scrapers on thick flakes,
    or plaquettes. There are also steep scrapers with lateral
    retouch and steep and carinated end-scrapers with two
    or more fronts. In layers IIIc and IIId there are steep
    flake scrapers that are almost discoidal (three specimens).
    In addition, there are end-scrapers (or cores?) of
    the rabot type, i.e., with either narrow flaking fronts or
    broad, fan-like fronts (Figure 8).
    Splintered pieces are particularly numerous, especially
    in layers IIIb, 7a, and 7b. The pieces are small in size
    (usually about 2·0 by 1·5–2·0 cm), made on plaquettes,
    flakes, or cores. In hearth 5, the splintered pieces represent
    the final phase of reduction of microlithic singleplatform
    cores with a narrow flaking surface. This may
    mean that some of the splintered pieces functioned as
    cores for the manufacture of microlithic flakes. There
    are also thin splintered pieces, in the shape of prisms,
    with fairly regular micro-blade scars. On the other hand,
    the presence of splintered pieces on flakes, with retouch
    extending over a small surface, suggests that this
    technique was connected to the use of flakes as chisels.
    Fragments of bone points include two specimens in
    layer 7, one in layer IIIb, three in layer IIIc, one
    specimen in layer 7b, and one in IIIe. The points with
    oval cross-sections, reaching 10 cm in length,
    have pointed, or less often, single-beveled bases. A
    perforated animal tooth was discovered in layer IIIb.
    Almost all the layers contained marine shells, frequently
    perforated. They are small in size (5 to 15 mm)
    and have been identified as Umbonium, Columbella,
    Cypraea, and Turitella shells. It is noteworthy that they
    frequently occur near the hearths.
    The middle Aurignacian unit
    The middle unit of the Aurignacian sequence encompasses
    a complex of hearths (numbered 15–18) in the
    northern part of the excavation. The hearths have a
    basin-like shape and intersect one another. The complex
    of hearths is covered by layer IIIe, essentially
    clayey deposits with a small component of limestone
    debris. Layer IIIf is darker in colour, possibly due to a
    higher content of organic material.
    The complex of hearths yielded carinated scrapers
    made on chunks and thick flakes, as well as several
    blades with marginal retouch, side-scrapers, and
    notched tools. Asymmetrical, nosed, double, and discoidal
    end-scrapers, mostly on flakes with steep fronts,
    occurred in the assemblage of layer IIIe. End-scrapers
    on microlithic cores for bladelets are also present. Tiny
    bladelets and single-platform cores for bladelets are
    numerous. The bladelets, as with those described in
    the former unit, have no retouch. The proportion of
    splintered pieces decreases, while single examples
    of burins and composite burin end-scraper specimens
    The dominance of end-scrapers persists. In the endscraper
    group, regular carinated items that could have
    also been used for bladelet production are most numerous.
    Individual subdiscoidal end-scrapers, notched
    tools, side-scrapers, retouched flakes and two bec-like
    tools also occur (Figure 9).
    The selection of raw materials present in the middle
    Aurignacian unit is similar to that in the upper unit.
    Type R1 radiolarite is the dominant nodule used for
    tool production.
    Two fragments of bone points, oval in cross-section,
    with missing bases, were found with the stone artifacts,
    in addition to small marine shells.
    The lower Aurignacian unit
    The lower unit of the sequence consists of hearth 14a,
    located in layer IIIg, hearth 19, located at the interface
    of layer IIIf and IV, and hearth 23 between layers
    IIIg/IIIe. As mentioned above, layer IV is a clayey,
    dark brown sediment containing fine and mediumsized
    limestone fragments, with strongly weathered
    surfaces and rounded edges. Hearths 25–29 and 38–46
    are located in layer IV. The sedimentological characteristics
    suggest that warmer and wetter climatic
    conditions prevailed. This assertion needs supportive
    End-scrapers, dihedral burins, retouched flakes and
    splintered pieces were found; carenoid or steep endscrapers,
    sometimes with broad fronts, predominate.
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 525
    Table 3. Major technological groups in Upper Aurignacian layers
    Depth Layer Hearth
    bladelets Flakes Tools
    pieces Chips
    Total No % No % No % No % No % No % No % No %
    60–80 7a 5 0·5 16 1·7 218 23·2 6 0·6 23 2·5 546 58·2 124 13·2 — — 938
    65–90 7b 9 1·7 7 1·3 197 38·0 6 1·2 19 3·7 157 30·3 121 23·3 2 0·4 518
    90–105 5 12 1·3 14 1·6 284 31·7 11 1·2 17 1·9 333 37·1 226 25·2 — — 897
    Table 4. Raw material structure in Upper Aurignacian layers
    Layer Depth
    Radiolarites Flints Others
    Total R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R9 RB F1a F1b F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FB S Ch Q O Z Sl
    7a 60–80 335 1 2 5 2 — — — 58 144 292 3 2 2 — — — 2 27 1 53 9 — — — 938
    7b 65–90 151 4 1 3 — 3 2 3 54 34 229 9 — 5 2 2 2 3 5 — — 4 — — — 516
    h. 5 90–105 399 6 15 1 3 1 — 1 35 62 257 9 1 14 11 6 — — 58 — 5 3 1 1 1 890
    S—serpentinite; Ch—chalcedony; Q—quartz; O—obsidian; Z—metamorphic rock; Sl—silicified limestone.
    526 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    Table 5. Number of Identified Specimens and Minimal Numbers of Individuals (NISP/MNI) of mammals from Pleistocene layers of Klisoura Cave
    Dama dama
    Fallow deer
    Red deer
    cf. ibex
    Chamois Bos/Bison
    Sus scrofa
    Wild boar
    Equus hydruntinus
    European wild ass
    Cave hyena
    Wild cat
    (leo spelaea)
    Cave lion
    cf. martes
    Pine marten
    Hedgehog Total
    II a 6/1 6
    II b 1 6/1 2/1 8/1 63/5 2/1 82
    III 2/1 2/1 1 1 6/1 12
    III‘ 36/2 36
    6a 30/2 4/1 1 1 177/10 3/2 6/3 4/1 227
    III a 5/1 3/1 8
    III b 172/3 1 1 47/3 5/1 1 7/6 1 235
    III c 280 2/1 1 6 83 2/1 2 491
    Struct. 95/9 2/1 17/5 1/1
    III d 1 1
    III e 248/5 1 5/1 2/1 1 1 53/7 6/3 1 2/1 1 1 7/2 5/1 334
    III e 92/3 1 1 2/1 33/2 4/1 9/1 1 1 6/2 150
    III f 1 1
    III g 79/5 8/1 1 1 17/5 1 1 3/2 111
    III g/IV 4/1 1 5
    IV 6/1 1 4/2 8/1 16/2 30/2 1 2/1 1 69
    V 1 1 4/1 6
    Total 1011/32 2 29/8 9/4 11/3 7/6 41/12 575/45 1 13/6 1 19/5 4/3 2/1 3/3 1 31/16 14/6 1774
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 527
    The specimens are made on flakes or chunks,
    accompanied by increasing numbers of blades and
    In general, changes throughout the Aurignacian
    sequence are minor. A higher frequency of blades and
    bladelets is noted in the lower part of the sequence, and
    a considerable increase of the splintered pieces in the
    upper part. Throughout the sequence, steep, carinated,
    and nosed end-scrapers from which bladelets were
    removed occur together with special cores for bladelets.
    The overall frequency of bladelets is generally
    low (in the upper part of the sequence it accounts for
    1·3 to 1·7% of the inventory, and when calculated
    without the shattered fragments they amount to 2·1%).
    Bladelets with marginal or abrupt retouch, present in
    the ‘‘transitional’’ layers (III), were not found in the
    Aurignacian levels.
    Aurignacian structured hearths
    Several of the hearths uncovered in the Aurignacian
    layers merit particular description and comment. These
    basin-like features were discovered in the middle
    and lower part of the Aurignacian sequence, within
    lithostratigraphic units IIIe, IIIe, IIIg and IV. Some
    formed reddish rings surrounding a filling of ashes,
    charcoal, bones, and carbonates. The basin-like
    hearths were sunk in the ground to a depth of 10 to
    20 cm into the cave sediments. Some of the hearths (for
    example, numbers 18, 22, 22a, 23, 25, 26, 29, 38 and 41)
    are interstratified, frequently intersecting one another;
    this indicates a low sedimentation rate.
    Mineralogical analysis of the reddish clay lining the
    hearths has shown that this material is not the same
    as the cave sediments, but is burnt clay with a rich
    mineralogical composition. Besides components such
    as thermally transformed clay minerals (mainly potassium
    aluminosilicate—illite), quartz and carbonate fragments,
    there are also small quantities of dolomite.
    Microscopic examinations of the structure of these
    clays have shown that the walls of the basin-like
    depressions were lined with specially prepared daub,
    containing clay brought from outside, tempered bone
    and plant tissue (chaff). An X-ray examination of the
    thermally altered clay minerals indicates that this daub
    was fired at about 600–650C. The EDX method has
    established that some of the clays used for lining the
    structure in the floor contain rock fragments with
    aluminosilicates originating from quartzfeldspar gneiss
    with a higher content of titanium, iron and manganese.
    These sorts of rocks do not occur in the immediate
    vicinity of the cave, but were identified at a distance of
    about 1–3 km.
    The possibility should not be excluded that the
    hearths are not the only instances in which basin-like,
    clay-lined structures were lined with daub, but that
    they may have served as a prototype for ceramic
    containers. It is worth mentioning that hearth 18
    yielded starches typical of seed grasses found in phytoliths,
    which suggests that the structures were used for
    roasting grains of wild grasses.
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic with arched backed blades
    Below the Aurignacian, in layer V, an industry occurs
    that contrasts with the Aurignacian in layer IV in terms
    of technology, as it shows a much higher frequency of
    blades. This can be seen in the general inventory
    structure where, of the total of approximately 2800
    artifacts, around 130 (4·6%) are blades and 370 flakes
    (12·8%). Thus, the ratio of blades to flakes is
    1:2·7—much higher even than in the Uppermost
    Aurignacian units. The most numerous groups are
    chips and small flakes (about 1500 specimens, i.e. 52%).
    There are 132 tools (4·6%) represented by splintered
    pieces which make up the largest group (41 specimens),
    followed by arched backed blades (21 specimens;
    Figure 12: 1–12) and an equal number of sidescrapers—
    often small—(10 specimens) and retouched
    blades (10 specimens). Burins and perforators are
    extremely rare (one specimen of each). The presence of
    microlithic shapes such as a trapeze (Figure 12: 13–15),
    a microlithic truncation resembling Zonhoven (Taute
    1968: 182–185: fig. 45) points (Figure 12: 14, 16) and a
    Krukowski microburin is of particular interest.
    In comparison with the Aurignacian layers, the
    distinct quantitative ascendancy of R1 radiolarite
    (58%) and the radiolarite group in general (10 types)
    over flints (14 types) is characteristic. Types of radiolarites
    and flints occur that are not known from
    younger layers. The deposit areas of these types have
    not so far been identified. Again, a tendency towards
    using higher quality raw materials (including R1 radiolarite,
    represented by types with better cleavage than
    radiolarite categories in the Aurignacian layers) which
    lend themselves more readily to blade production is
    also typical. Bone artifacts do not occur, but more than
    a dozen Dentalium shells were found. A flat hearth with
    a larger diameter than those in the Aurignacian levels
    was uncovered in layer V.
    Mousterian layers
    Below layer V, several Mousterian occupations were
    excavated during the 1997 season. Mousterian artifacts
    occurred in layers VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI, with a
    total thickness of c. 0·7 m. Due to the limited area
    excavated in 1997, it is yet premature to provide
    detailed information on the lithic assemblages of these
    layers. The common reduction sequences are discoidal
    and multi-directional; only in the lowermost layer is
    there evidence for the use of the Levallois recurrent
    reduction method, as witnessed by the scar pattern on
    the flakes. These assemblages are rich in side-scrapers,
    generally small in size, made on relatively thick flakes
    showing analogies to the ‘‘Micromousterian’’ layers of
    Asprochaliko Cave in Epirus (Papaconstantinou, 1988;
    Papaconstantinou & Vassilopoulou, 1997). The overall
    528 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    Figure 8. Uppermost Aurignacian unit (layer III): 1–11, end-scrapers; 12–14, retouched and pointed blades; 15, 16, backed blades; 17–21,
    backed bladelets; 22, 23, microretouched bladelets.
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 529
    Figure 9. Upper Aurignacian: 1–10, end-scrapers; 11, denticulated blade; 12, 13, splintered pieces; 14, 15, cores; 16, perforated tooth; 17, 18,
    bone points.
    530 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    Figure 10. Middle Aurignacian: 1–14, 16, 17, 19, end-scrapers; 15, burin; 18, burin plus end-scraper; 20, 21, pointed retouched blades; 22, bone
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 531
    thickness of the Mousterian layers in Cave 1, as
    indicated by drillings, surpasses 3·0 m and is therefore
    thicker than the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic
    Plant Macroremains and Phytoliths
    The upper part of the Aurignacian sequence contained
    fruit and seeds that had been burned or mineralized.
    The preserved, burnt macroremains are classified as
    follows: Caryopsis grass, Graminae indet.; the fruit of
    Polygonum sp., of the Polygonaceae family; several
    seeds of Goose-foot, Chenopodium sp., members of the
    Chenopodiaceae family; Spurrey, Spergula sp.; and
    Melandrium sp., Silene sp. from the Caryophyllacea
    family. The fruits include Echium sp. and Lithospermum
    sp., family Boraginaceae, and Traxacum sp.,
    family Compositae. These plants indicate the prevailing
    dry and open habitats. Fruits of Lithospermum
    were identified at Franchthi Cave, in the levels dated to
    21–22 ka  (Perle`s, 1995).
    The charcoals have not yet been identified. In the
    upper part of the Aurignacian layers, calcium oxalate
    phytoliths, usually derived from trees and shrubs, have
    been identified in the hearth sediments. Most of these
    phytoliths belong to the Fagaceae family. However, the
    limits of the taxa, as defined by the phytolith identifi-
    cations, are not identical to those of the detailed species
    list of macroremains or pollen grains. Hence, conclusions
    concerning the arboreal species that grew around
    Cave 1 can be drawn only after the anthracological
    analysis is completed.
    The presence of silica phytoliths in the hearths
    confirms that roots or stems and grass leaves were used
    to start the fire. Only hearth 13 contained more inflorescence
    parts, the presence of which indicates that the
    fire was constructed in the spring or autumn. Taxonomic
    identification using phytoliths has established
    the presence of grasses belonging to the Festucoid
    subfamily, thereby adding to the list of grasses that
    grew around Cave 1.
    The important presence of starches, characteristic of
    seed grasses and suggesting the use of this family as
    part of the diet are found only in hearth 18. Hence, the
    results of the phytolith analysis indicate that this
    hearth may have served a function different from that
    of the others.
    Faunal Remains
    Bird remains
    A total of 121 avian bones, belonging to at least five
    taxa, all represented in the present day Greek avifauna
    (Lambert, 1957), were found in the Aurignacian as
    follows: layer III, 13 bones; layer 6a, 95 bones; layer
    IIIc, five bones; layer IIIe, five bones; layer IV, two
    bones; layer V, one bone. Most of the bones (72) were
    remnants of Rock Partridges (Alectoris graeca).
    Twenty-two other, badly damaged, fragments determined
    as ‘‘Galliformes’’ probably also belonged to
    Rock Partridges. Twenty fragments were attributed to
    Great Bustards (Otis tarda). The other three taxa,
    including an owl from the genus Asio, the Jackdaw
    (Corvus monedula)—both from layer III, and the
    Crow (Corvus corone)—layer 6a, were represented by
    single bones. The four remaining fragments were
    Although the composition of species is probably
    incomplete, it indicates a mosaic habitat including
    open areas (O. tarda) with rocky ground and low scrub
    (A. graeca), adjoining sparse woods or at least clumps
    of trees and rocks (C. monedula, C. corone).
    Some of the bones of the Rock Partridges and Great
    Bustards show distinct traces of burning, which, together
    with the absence of signs of digestion particular
    to animal predators (Andrews, 1990; Bochenski &
    Tomek, 1997), allow the remains to be attributed to
    human activities. This is not surprising, as Great
    Bustards and Rock Partridges—relatively large and
    slow-flying birds—were hunted for meat in historical
    times and the latter species is eaten today. It is more
    surprising that the two fragments of an owl and a
    Jackdaw also show traces of burning.
    Despite the preliminary nature of this report, we
    note that Rock Partridge bones predominated amongst
    avian finds in at least one Pleistocene site in Greece
    (Reisch, 1976), and that all the taxa found in Klisoura
    Cave have also been reported from other Greek sites of
    similar age (Bachmayer et al., 1989; Mourer-Chauvire´,
    1981; Weesie, 1988).
    The 1239 gastropod shells (or their identifiable fragments)
    found, belong to four or five species of terrestrial
    snails and to several marine species. A few
    unidentifiable fragments of bivalves, most likely representing
    marine species and over a dozen fragments of
    two species of Dentalium (Scaphopoda), have also been
    The Holocene and Late Glacial molluscan assemblage
    from layers I through IIb is relatively sparse,
    although it contains fragments of several terrestrial
    species. Rumina decollata, Lindholmiola cf. spectabilis
    and some Zonitidae have been found, as well as the
    marine species Cypraea sp. and Turitella sp., which
    were not found in the older deposits.
    Most of the collected specimens come from the
    Aurignacian layers and 919 shells belong to the
    landsnail Helix figulina, which was not found in
    the Holocene layers. The other terrestrial species—
    Lindholmiola cf. Spectabilis, found in the upper part of
    layer III, is represented by a single specimen.
    Helix figulina is most numerous (572 specimens) in
    layer 6a. This species has been found mostly in SE
    Europe, living on grassy slopes with strong insolation,
    up to 1000 m a.s.l. The shells of adult specimens make
    532 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    up a considerably minor fraction. Such a great accumulation
    of H. figulina shells may suggest that the
    snails were eaten for food (as is still the case today in
    some regions of Greece), however, the dominance of
    juvenile specimens, less useful for food, is remarkable.
    Moreover, the majority of H. figulina shells, in
    particular the aperture, is well preserved.
    Marine shells of relatively small size, 5–15 mm,
    occasionally up to 20 mm, are particularly numerous in
    layer IV. In this layer, apart from the 23 specimens of
    H. figulina, 242 shells, belonging to 9 genera of marine
    species were found. Unfortunately, their poor preservation
    precludes specific assignment. The following
    genera are represented: Columbella, Cerithium, Nassarius,
    Cyclope, Clanculus, Calliostoma, Cancellaria,
    Naticarius, and Neritina.
    It is noteworthy that almost all the marine specimens
    have an irregular hole on the body whorl, near the edge
    of the aperture. In several specimens, there is also a
    very regular hole of smaller size, probably made by a
    predatory marine snail of genus Natica. The presence
    of marine shells in prehistoric archaeological deposits
    is often connected with their use as adornments or
    amulets. In this light, the holes suggest that the shells
    were pierced so that they could be strung into
    necklaces or bracelets.
    Layer V contains over a dozen fragments of two
    species of Dentalium and some fragments of H. figulina
    Mammalian fauna
    In total, 1774 complete and partial bones, belonging to
    18 species of mammal, were recovered during the
    1994–1997 excavations. The majority of the bones and
    teeth belong to herbivores, including hares. Carnivores,
    other rodents, and insectivores are represented
    rarely. Most of the identified bones belong to fallow
    deer (56%) and hare (Lepus europaeus 32%), and were
    found in nearly every layer. The majority of the
    remains of many of the species were discovered in layer
    6a (dated to about 24,500 ) and layers IIIb to IIIg
    (Upper Aurignacian). In these layers, the remains of
    fallow deer and hare clearly predominate.
    Layer IIIc produced the largest number of fallow
    deer bones and teeth (NISP=95) (Table 1), many of
    which, along with those of hare (NISP=17) were
    uncovered in the rounded structure described above.
    The most frequently occurring bones were the fragments
    of mandibles, phalanxes, metacarpals, metatarsals,
    isolated teeth, carpal and tarsal bones. Limb
    bones were represented mainly by proximal or distal
    epiphyses. The breakage of phalanxes and limb bone
    shafts suggests the process of marrow extraction. Ribs
    and vertebrae were found only sporadically.
    The Klisoura herbivore bones show none of the
    gnawing marks typical of carnivores. Instead, 25% of
    the identifiable bones bear traces of burning. Some
    bones, which were still covered by flesh when they were
    burned, have brown patches, others were calcined. The
    white colour of the bones suggests that they were
    subjected to intense heat at the temperature of a
    campfire, about 600C (Lyman, 1994). The surfaces of
    the bones show no cut marks.
    The traces of burning, the presence of a complete but
    not intact skeleton of a fallow deer, and the type of
    damage on the bones all suggest that the remains are
    those of animals that had been hunted. In addition, it is
    possible that squirrels were also hunted for their skins.
    A small number of bone tools, including a polished
    antler fragment (layer III) and a perforator made from
    the right ulna of a fallow deer (layer IIIe) were found.
    Franchthi cave is the nearest Upper Palaeolithic site
    to Klisoura, situated approximately 30 km to the
    southeast. No fallow deer remains have been discovered
    in the Late Gravettian layers (c. 22 ka ) at this
    site (Payne, 1975). However, in 1995, Hubbard (Payne,
    pers. comm.) recorded the presence of fallow deer
    remains in the Franchthi basal (interstadial) deposits.
    The apparent absence of this species at Franchthi
    might be attributable to the very small number of
    mammal remains, which includes only 49 bones in
    faunal phase A (Payne, 1975). It may also, however,
    reflect environmental changes on the Peloponnese
    about 20 ka . It is unfortunate that a hiatus in the
    stratigraphical record at Klisoura Cave between 22·5
    and 26 ka  makes it impossible to confirm the
    absence of fallow deer on the Peloponnese during this
    period. It should be noted that the remains of fallow
    deer have been recorded (Bailey et al., 1984) at
    Asprochaliko in Epirus in the Upper Palaeolithic
    layers, which correspond to layers 6a-IIIe at Klisoura.
    The presence of fallow deer at Klisoura could be
    explained by the milder climatic conditions enjoyed by
    a coastal region, in addition to a wider variety of plants
    and shrubs than can be found near Franchthi. Fallow
    deer tend to inhabit plains and slightly rugged or hilly
    areas where grassy clearings and undergrowth give way
    to deciduous woods. A more detailed reconstruction of
    the immediate environment of Klisoura Cave 1 could
    be carried out based on the microvertebrates. Unfortunately,
    with the exception of squirrels, no rodent
    remains were found in the water-sieved samples from
    the excavation.
    All the species found at the Klisoura cave site have
    previously been recorded in the Upper Pleistocene of
    the Balkans (Bachmayer et al., 1989; Kowalski, 1982;
    Malez, 1986; Melentis, 1965, 1966; Symeonidis,
    Bachmayer & Zapfe, 1980; Tsoukala, 1991).
    Cave 1 Industries in Regional Context
    The sequence in Cave 1 at Klisoura Gorge ends with
    Mesolithic assemblages that show analogies to those of
    Franchthi Cave. Unfortunately, the single date from
    the carbonates in the lowest Mesolithic layer (6):
    9150220, precludes us from establishing a more
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 533
    precise chronology. Unquestionably, an erosional
    phase separates the Mesolithic from the Epigravettian
    in layers IIa–IIb. Occupations filling this gap were
    found in neighbouring caves 4 and 7.
    The Epigravettian layers correspond to the post-
    LGM period, but the date of 14,28090 obtained on
    the carbonates should be treated as the minimum age
    of the Epigravettian. The true temporal range of this
    Epigravettian corresponds to the stratigraphical gap
    between lithic phases III and IV in Franchthi Cave, the
    period dated from 21,4801270 to 12,540180 years
     (Perle`s, 1987).
    As the top of the Aurignacian sequence yielded the
    dates obtained from snails (Gd-7994 and Gd-7996)
    which, after correcting for the reservoir effect, correspond
    to the period between c. 22·5 and 26·0 ka , it
    may be possible to assume that the second stratigraphical
    gap corresponds to the LGM in this region (22·5–
    16–18 ka ).
    The dating of the Aurignacian sequence is based on
    land snails for the top of the sequence (Gd-7994 and
    Gd-7996), and on organic fractions for the lower
    portion of the sequence (Gd-7892, Gd-7893 and Gd-
    10342), and places its range from 22·5 to 32·4 ka 
    (Table 1).
    Runnels (1995: 714) stated that ‘‘the Aurignacian is
    extremely rare in Greece’’. Aurignacian carinated endscrapers
    were recorded at around or before 30 ka  in
    the lower layers of Franchthi Cave, phase lithique I
    (Perle`s, 1987). Unfortunately, information on the
    Aurignacian from Kephalari Cave is less precise,
    though a short report by J. Hahn (1984) suggests that
    Aurignacian end-scrapers in that cave occur together
    with backed implements. Even less is known about the
    site of Arvenitsa, near Nafplion, which has been
    quoted by Perle`s (1995) as being Aurignacian. However,
    the finds displayed in the Museum at Nafplion
    cast doubt on the accuracy of such an attribution.
    The best published open-air site with Aurignacian
    finds is Elaiochori 2, located near Patras in the western
    Peloponnese, known from the excavations by Darlas
    (1989). Unfortunately, as it is a surface site, it neither
    assures the homogeneity of the assemblage nor
    indicates its date. Typologically, the artifacts from
    Elaiochori 2 resemble the Aurignacian from Klisoura
    Cave 1. End-scrapers dominate (27·2%) the inventory
    of retouched elements, followed by denticulated and
    notched pieces (19·1%). Among the former are nosed
    and atypical nucle´iforme specimens on flakes (Darlas,
    1989, fig. 7: 7–15), as well as carinated-nosed items
    (Darlas, 1989, fig. 8: 1–6). Moreover, core scrapers of
    the rabot type are present (Darlas, 1989, fig. 8: 8, 9).
    Unfortunately, the Aurignacian finds are mixed with
    Mousterian artifacts (Darlas, 1989, fig. 10) as well as a
    few backed pieces (Darlas, 1989, fig. 9: 11–12).
    In addition, a few thick scrapers were retrieved from
    the red sand layers in the region of Amalias, Kastron,
    and Retunia in the western Peloponnese (Leroi-
    Gourhan, 1964). Mousterian artifacts also occur in the
    same levels. However, at Amalias and Retuni, in the
    boundary zone between the red sands and the overlying
    grey sands, carinated end-scrapers occur together
    with backed implements. The backed pieces have been
    attributed to the Mesolithic with no sound geological
    basis (Chavaillon et al., 1967). In light of the above
    review, we may surmize that Klisoura Cave 1 is the first
    multi-layer Aurignacian sequence, radiometrically
    dated, to be discovered in Greece.
    Placing the Klisoura Cave 1 Aurignacian in the
    wider context of the Balkan Upper Palaeolithic is
    difficult, as the region reveals a geographic complexity
    in the distribution of the various types of assemblage.
    Industries with backed pieces developed as early as
    30 to 26 ka in much of this region. In the north, they
    are affiliated with typical Gravettian, similar to the
    industries of the Danube basin, whereas in northwest
    Greece they are simple backed bladelet industries.
    Thus, it seems that the Aurignacian vanished from
    most of the Balkans between 30 to 28 ka . The latest
    Aurignacian level (perhaps with some intrusions of
    backed elements) was discovered in the well-explored
    sequence of Temnata Cave in Bulgaria (Ginter &
    Kozlowski, 1992). It dates to the period 31 to 29 ka .
    In Bacho Kiro Cave, the Aurignacian assemblages
    were excavated from level 6a/7 (Kozlowski, 1982),
    dated to 29,150950 (Ly-1102) and followed by levels
    4b and 4a. Level 4b is attributed to the same, warmer
    episode (Krinides II), whereas level 4a is placed at
    the next cold episode, i.e. after about 27/25 ka . A
    characteristic feature of the youngest Aurignacian
    assemblages at Bacho Kiro Cave (allowing for the
    very small series of artifacts), is a decrease in the
    frequency of blades and blade tools and a preponderance
    of simple end-scrapers with lateral retouch and
    high scrapers on flakes and chunks. The tendencies
    observed in Bacho Kiro Cave, although on a small
    sample, exhibit a change towards an increase in the
    frequencies of end-scrapers and a shift in the flaking
    The only Aurignacian assemblages in the Balkans
    dated later than 25 ka  and possibly contemporaneous
    with those of Klisoura Cave 1, were uncovered
    in Sandalia Cave II near Pula in Croatia (Malez, 1978:
    258–260). Layer e at this site is particularly interesting,
    as its date of 23,540180 (GrN-5013) fits very well
    between the date of 21,740450 (GrN-4877) for the
    Gravettian layer c and a date of 25,340170 (GrN-
    5015) for the Aurignacian layer f. Malez (1978, pl.
    26:8–13) published only a small selection of finds from
    layer e, including short flake end-scrapers with lateral
    retouch, carinated and nosed end-scrapers on chunks,
    and a few side-scrapers. When these artifacts are
    compared with the finds from layer f, the inference may
    be drawn that blade tools decrease in number,
    especially Aurignacian retouched blades. Taking into
    consideration, however, that there is a lack of
    availability of all the necessary information, it is
    difficult to determine the tendencies in the Aurignacian
    534 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    technological and morphological changes in
    Sandalia II.
    The beginning of the Aurignacian sequence in
    Klisoura Cave 1 is contemporaneous with the classical
    phase of the Balkan Aurignacian, represented by the
    industries with Mladec type split-base points. In Bacho
    Kiro and Temnata caves, long sequences of the
    Early Aurignacian occur below the classical Balkan
    Aurignacian, which so far have no parallels in Greece.
    Much of the Italian Aurignacian differs from the
    Aurignacian in Greece described here. In cave
    sequences, the layers dated at from 36 to 32 ka revealed
    the so-called Proto-Aurignacian, with its characteristic
    large proportion of bladelets with marginal retouches
    of Dufour or Krems type. This proportion could
    sometimes be as much as 50% of the tool inventory.
    Such bladelets were not only the product of shaping
    carinated end-scrapers; they were accompanied by few
    end-scrapers and burins but relatively numerous sidescrapers
    and denticulates. In the Castelcivita Cave
    (Gambassini, 1997) the Proto-Aurignacian shows
    internal variability: lower level 8 (31/32 ka) contained
    slender Dufour type bladelets whereas in upper level 6
    (also about 31 ka ) they were replaced by Muralovka
    type ‘‘micropoints’’, the proportion of which is also
    very high (44%). Only after the Proto-Aurignacian
    with micro-retouched bladelets does the typical
    Aurignacian appear—the earliest on the Ligurian
    coast (Riparo Mochi layer F—c. 32 ka), and later in
    southern Italy (e.g. Cala Cave layers 13–10 dated at
    29·8–26·8 ka —Benini, Boscato & Gambassini,
    1997). It is the industries from southern Italy that the
    Aurignacian from Cave 1 at Klisoura resembles most
    closely. These southern Italian industries contained
    only a few micro-retouched bladelets (0·3 to 0·8%), but
    the proportion of end-scrapers and splintered pieces
    Figure 11. Lower Aurignacian: 1–8, 10–12, end-scrapers; 9, core.
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 535
    (up to 40% combined) were high. The similarity of the
    general quantitative structure is further emphasized by
    the similarity of tool morphology, especially of endscrapers
    (e.g. from the Cala Cave—Benini, Boscata &
    Gambassini, 1997, fig. 8).
    The sequence in Klisoura Cave 1, in conjunction with
    the sequences from Franchthi and Kephalari Caves
    enable us to obtain a more complete picture of cultural
    evolution in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene
    of the eastern Peloponnese. The picture would be more
    complete if the data on the chronology and the industries
    from Kephalari Cave were more precise. The
    sequences in Cave 1 at Klisoura (layers 3–6) and at
    Franchthi (Lithic phases VII–IX) end with Mesolithic
    layers. Below these, the Late Glacial Epigravettian
    occurs at Franchthi (Lithic phases IV–VI) and at
    Kephalari (layers C1–C3, D1) corresponding to a
    hiatus in Cave 1 at Klisoura. At Franchthi, the hiatus
    between lithic phases III and IV (i.e. between 21 and
    12 ka) is filled by the Epigravettian layers in Cave 1
    (layers IIa, IIb) and perhaps the Epigravettian layers in
    Kephalari Cave (D2, D3). On the other hand, in Cave
    Figure 12. EUP with arched backed blades: 1–12, arched backed blades; 13–16, microlithic truncations (13–15 double).
    536 M. Koumouzelis et al.
    1 there are no layers that correspond to the LGM and
    the period directly preceding the LGM. Such layers
    are recorded in Franchthi Cave (Lithic phases II
    and III—22–21 ka ) and possibly also in Kephalari
    Cave (layer D4), where the Mediterranean Gravettian
    is present. The later Interpleniglacial and the transition
    to the LGM (32·4–22·5 ka) are best represented
    in Cave 1, where a sequence of Aurignacian levels
    occurs; our knowledge of this period is much poorer
    at Franchthi (Lithic phase I is the only possible
    Aurignacian occupational episode) and at Kephalari
    (where layers E, F1, F2 contain mixed elements of both
    the Aurignacian and the EUP arched backed blades
    industries). Finally, below the Aurignacian sequence at
    Cave 1 there is a well-marked level with an EUP arched
    backed blades industry (layer V) and a several metre
    thick series of unexcavated Middle Palaeolithic layers.
    The Middle Palaeolithic is also present at Kephalari
    (layer G) but it is not present in Franchthi Cave.
    In comparison with the caves at Franchthi and
    Kephalari, Cave 1 displays a different composition of
    fauna dominated by fallow deer and hare, but with a
    smaller proportion of Equus hydruntinus and ibex. At
    Franchthi, on the other hand, the layers that directly
    precede the LGM demonstrate an increase in the
    frequency of horse and cervids, while the Late Glacial
    layers are dominated by bovids, caprids and fewer
    cervids and horses. In Kephalari Cave, hare and birds
    constitute a fairly large proportion throughout the
    whole sequence, whereas Equus hydruntinus, wild boar
    and caprids are dominant in the Gravettian and Epigravettian
    layers. The differences we have described
    could be the effect of the particular paleogeographical
    conditions in every region. It is more likely however,
    that they are caused by the fact that sediments corresponding
    to the LGM are absent in Cave 1. At
    Franchthi, on the other hand, there are no data on
    faunal remains from the end of the Interpleniglacial,
    while at Kephalari the layers with the EUP industries
    do not contain fauna. In Cave 1, the upper portion of
    the Aurignacian sequence contains an accumulation
    of shells, mainly Helix figulina, which at Franchthi
    is abundant only in lithic phase V (about 11 ka ;
    Perle`s, 1995), and at Kephalari in the Late Glacial
    (layer C3).
    A special feature of the Aurignacian sequence in
    Cave 1 is the presence of plant macroremains in the
    Upper Aurignacian. Among these are several species
    that could have been used for food (for example
    Chenopodium, Polygonum) and/or for production of
    dyes (Lithospermum). In addition, in the middle portion
    of the Aurignacian sequence, some hearths could
    have served for roasting grains of certain Graminae, as
    they contained phytoliths of starches of seed grasses.
    The basin-like, clay-lined hearths are the oldest
    example of clay preparation and firing; the occurrence
    of such hearths in the Lower and Middle Aurignacian
    (32·4–28 ka ) places their chronology before
    the central European Gravettian with its ceramic
    technology, dated at about 28 to 26 ka  (Vandiver
    et al., 1990).
    The most important result of the excavation was the
    discovery of Early Upper Palaeolithic layer V, with an
    arched backed blade industry and microliths sandwiched
    between the Aurignacian (layer IV) and the
    Mousterian (layer VI). This industry shows some analogies
    to the Italian Uluzzian, mostly in the morphology
    of arched backed blades, as well as in the relative
    frequency of splintered pieces, which in some Uluzzian
    sites constitute more than half of the retouched pieces
    (e.g., Castelcivita` layers rsa and rpi; Cavallo EII–I; La
    Fabricca 2; Gambassini, 1997). The differences are
    particularly expressed in the reduction sequences and
    the role of microliths in the Klisoura assemblage.
    Noteworthy is the presence of Dentalium shells used
    as personal adornments in Klisoura layer V and the
    dominant blade production in this Early Upper
    Palaeolithic unit. The latter played a minor role in
    subsequent Aurignacian assemblages. If we take into
    account only the open-ended dates from layer V,
    they could be considered as similar to the 34–33 Ka
     established for the Uluzzian in Castelcivita`
    (Gambassini, 1997) and Cavallo caves (Palma di
    Cesnola, 1993). However, the new AMS measurement
    for layer V (H. Valladas, pers. comm.) of 40·2 ka years
    , if supported by the TL dates of burnt flint, would
    indicate that this Early Upper Palaeolithic arched
    backed blade industry is much older than all of
    the dated Uluzzian sites in Italy, and will be contemporary
    with many Mousterian occupations in Italy,
    Montenegro (Crvena Stijena layer XII; Basler, 1975),
    Bulgaria (Samuilitsa, unit 5; Sirakov, 1983), and
    Thessaly (Theopetra 3·6–4·2 m; Kyparissi-Apostolika,
    1999; Peneios layer IV; Runnels & Van Andel, 1993,
    etc.). At the same time, layer V would be roughly
    synchronous with the ‘‘Pre-Aurignacian Bachokirian’’
    (Bacho-Kiro layer 11/IV–I; Temnata layer 4C–A) in
    the Bulgarian caves (Kozlowski, 1999). Such an early
    chronological position for the Early Upper Palaeolithic
    from Klisoura raises the possibility of the spread of
    the ‘‘Upper Palaeolithic package’’ independent of the
    Aurignacian, through the northern Mediterranean
    We express gratitude to the Polish Committee for
    Scientific Research for the support of grant 0914, and
    to the American Schools of Prehistoric Research at the
    Peabody Museum, Harvard University for financial
    support for the, 1996 season. We would like to thank
    Prof. K Kowalski who examined the squirrel material,
    Prof. B. Rzebik-Kowalska for examining insectivora
    remains and Prof. A. Forsten who looked at the equid
    material. Particular thanks must go to Mrs Barbara
    Kazior, and Dr Krzysztof Sobczyk of the Institute of
    Archaeology, Jagellonian University, Krako´w, Poland
    The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece 537
    and Dr. Malgorzata Kaczanowska of the Archaeological
    Museum, Krako´w-Nowa Huta, Poland, who participated
    in the excavations and worked on the analysis
    of the finds. In addition, we would like to thank
    three anonymous reviewers for their comments. We
    would like to thank J. Dickinson for editorial
    assistance. Finally, all shortcomings of this paper are
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