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Thread: The hushed-up tragedy of the SUDETEN ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia

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    The hushed-up tragedy of the SUDETEN ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia

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    The hushed-up tragedy of the ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia

    Ingomar Pust


    Original edition:

    Schreie aus der Hölle ungehört. Das totgeschwiegene Drama der Sudetendeutschen.
    Sersheim: Hartmann-Verlag, 1998.
    Translated by Victor Diodon.
    Permission for publication here kindly granted by the copyright owner.
    Translation © 2000 by The Scriptorium.


    Die deutsche Originalausgabe dieses Buches
    ist durch unseren Versandbuchhandel erhältlich!


    1. Foreword

    2. Prologue

    3. Preface

    4. Conspiracy of Silence

    5. Self-Determination Drowned in Blood

    6. The Dead of March 4, 1919

    7. The Karlsbad Program

    8. Munich Agreement - Protectorate

    9. No Czechs were expelled in 1938

    10. Establishment of the Protectorate

    11. Lidice

    12. Wenzel Jaksch's Appeal to Benes

    13. The Czech Victims of Resistance

    14. Because They Were German!

    15. Stigma "N" Even for Anti-Fascists

    16. Expulsion From the South Moravian Homeland

    17. The Mass Crimes Against the Sudeten Germans Took Place in Public

    18. The Holocaust of Prague

    19. The Death March of Brünn

    20. The Expulsion From Brünn

    21. Acts of Violence During the 1945 Expulsion

    22. Murder Gang Kokoff

    23. Hounded to Death!

    24. If You Make Yourself a Lamb,
    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/John/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.gif[/IMG]Don't Be Surprised When The Wolves Eat You

    25. Concentration Camp Inmate Sandor Kovac, Hungarian, on the Czechs in 1945

    26. Czech Clergymen Forget Their Christian Brotherly Love

    27. The Conduct of Czech and German Clergy
    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/John/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.gif[/IMG] During the Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans in 1945/46

    28. Wounded as Living Torches

    29. The Danse Macabre Began in Prague

    30. Russians Came in German Uniforms

    31. The "Crusaders" as Mass Murderers

    32. A Million Men Sent Into Hell

    33. Prague: Sea of Inhumanity

    34. We Kissed the Rotting Corpses

    35. Mass Murder By Women With Submachine Guns

    36. 50,000 Watched the Executions

    37. First Tortured, Then Shot in the Grave

    38. Gruesome "Czech Cocktail"

    39. The Mass Dying in the Elbe River

    40. The Baby's Head in the Latrine

    41. Crucified on the Barn Door

    42. "Cesarean Section", Czech-Style

    43. Father lay in the Pile of Corpses

    44. The Russians as Life-Savers

    45. Toddlers Buried Alive

    46. Theresienstadt: Living Corpses

    47. "Murder Factory" Theresienstadt

    48. Cucumber Salad With Glass Shards

    49. Line Up to be Shot

    50. Hydrochloric Acid on Sore Bodies

    51. Ears Cut Off, Tongue Torn Out

    52. Dismembered Alive

    53. Shot in the Neck - Survived Thanks to Urine Cure

    54. Amnesty For All Crimes

    55. The Cruel Order Came at Night

    56. The Flood of Degeneracy

    57. The Ominous "Yes" to Genocide

    58. Sudetenland: A Region of Decay

    59. The Crime of Potsdam

    60. Our Nameless Dead Call Out To Us

    61. Appendix: Comments on Contemporary History

    62. Appendix: Conventions on International Law

    63. Appendix: God Lives: His Day Will Come!

    64. Epilogue: Human Blood Dripped From the Knife of Hate

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    Die deutsche Originalausgabe dieses Buches
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    More from our Archive:

    Documents on the Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans
    Survivors speak out

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    Sudeten German Inferno
    The hushed-up tragedy of the ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia

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    Sudeten German Inferno

    The hushed-up tragedy of the ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia

    Ingomar Pust



    Foreword

    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/John/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image004.gif[/IMG]s we stand at the threshold of a new millennium, we look back on what is perhaps the most terrible century in the history of mankind.


    A chapter in its own right is the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans from their homeland. Theirs was ancestral German land which had been inhabited by their German forebears for at least 2,000 years1 and of which their centuries of hard work and diligence had wrought a paradise.


    In time, Czechs trickled into the region, and soon the invaders tyrannized and oppressed the good-natured Sudeten Germans, with the intent to eradicate them, as the following accounts clearly show:
    "The district physician of Graslitz, a district with a population of 25,000, reports officially and on his professional responsibility: black barley-malt coffee without milk or cream is the food that babies are given, and older children get coffee, bread and potatoes. The children are undernourished and anemic. They have no clothes. Entire families live in cramped holes where the floor is the only place to sleep.


    "In winter there is no coal with which to heat. Mother, give me some water, I'm so hungry, beg the children - and the physician (who clearly feels that this will perhaps be disbelieved) says that he can take it on his oath that this is a direct quote, and that there was cause for it. In one family of six - parents, three children and a mother-in-law - the family members literally go naked. They have neither stockings nor shoes, nor shirts. They live on black coffee for breakfast, soup for lunch, and there is no supper. They are slowly but surely dying out. In the Adlergebirge mountains the people supplement their bread with tree bark, while the government orders tons of grain dumped into the Moldau river to keep the prices from dropping. A large part of the population has been eating cats and dogs."2


    And what was the public response to this? "Embarrassed silence abroad, and at home, vile incitement against all those who allegedly sullied the Czech nation's reputation with their warnings.
    "Now it was clear that the Sudeten Germans were supposed to be wiped out, for economic impoverishment plus social ruination, plus political hopelessness, plus national chauvinism on the part of the Czechs, added up to the destruction of the essence of the Sudeten German ethnic group, despite all Sudeten German efforts to ward this off. The systematic displacement of the Germans from the employment scene resulted in a catastrophic drop in the birth rate." 3


    This is how matters stood in the Sudetenland when it was forced to become part of Czechoslovakia in 1918. And if Hitler had not restored the Sudetenland to the German Reich, the genocide of the Sudeten Germans would already have been a fait accompli even then. Yet despite all this, the two ethnic groups, the Czechs and the Sudeten Germans, lived peaceably together during the Third Reich. This fact casts a highly significant light on the character of the Sudeten Germans: after all, they could have taken revenge now.
    But after the end of this deplorable war, in 1945, the tables once again turned to the disadvantage of the unfortunate German population, and the Czechs in their godlessness were seized by a blood frenzy that could not possibly have been any more gruesome.


    They must have been possessed by the devil: who else could have guided their hands as they celebrated slaughter feasts and intoxicated themselves with orgies of murder? Whose voice was it that ranted from the lips of their 'men of God': "You can kill the Germans, that's no sin!" Were those God's words? Surely not. I myself heard such a call to mass murder as it was being preached from the pulpits of the German churches by the Czech 'servants of God' in those days.


    The Czech President Eduard Benes, back from exile in London, incited the already-crazed population via the radio: "Take everything from the Germans, leave them only a handkerchief to weep into!" In Prague Germans were hung head-down from the lamp posts and set on fire as living torches in Benes's honor. Ever since, the number of victims has been cited as 250,000. "Files from the SBZ/German Democratic Republic which were not accessible until 1990 showed that this figure was actually much higher and must now be set at no less than 460,000."4


    And now, half a century later, a "New Order" is to be established. Over the decades, the Sudeten Germans' suffering was mentioned less and less, until finally the topic was banished into the darkest corner of history's broom closet by the German government itself. This government now supports the Czech Republic's admission to NATO; it reassures the Czechs that the Sudeten German expellees make no claim for restitution, and the Czechs need not even renounce their Mr. Benes's disgraceful decrees. That is nothing less than legitimatized genocide, for in just one more generation there will be no more Sudeten Germans - the survivors have become assimilated by the rest of the German population. At the same time the Czechs grow ever more brazen and even demand "restitution" from the Germans! For what, is beyond me. As though it were not enough that they stole the land and the people's wealth - goods of inestimable value - they let this former gem of a region go to rack and ruin and even want to be paid for it!


    On this putrefaction, a "New Order" is now to be built; on a foundation of unatoned-for crimes, festering wounds, and the bitterness of the unfairly treated! And this is supposed to end well? I doubt it will.


    Herta Ruthard, eyewitness,September 1999

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    .

    Prologue

    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/John/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image005.gif[/IMG]Probably all civilized nations on earth agree on one point: man, the most intelligent being in Creation, bears sole responsibility for everything that happens on our planet - with the exception of such acts of nature, of course, as are beyond human influence.


    And so our incarnation - or anthropogenesis, if the reader prefers - brought with it an unconditional cosmic morality that progressed to cultural levels whose degree and promise varied with the races and tribes that sprang up in the course of mankind's development. While some pursued their genetic impetus to the pinnacle, others have remained in spiritual narrowness and intellectual inadequacy, at a stone-age level to this day. Others again, however - particularly tribes and peoples that developed in a tradition of warlike violence - have retained incomprehensible sadism, inhuman cruelty as indestructible and unfortunate characteristics.


    In the sixth century A.D. the Czechs advanced into Central Europe in the footsteps of the Awars, without at first forming a unified tribe or nation. Even today the physical appearance of many Czechs reveals their genetic mixing with the Awars. But the bestialities engaged in by their oppressors is another factor of which they were never able to rid themselves completely. Even once they had begun to develop their own ethnicity they continued to manifest these inherited vices. Particularly since the Hussite wars of the 15th century, and right to the present day, they have tended towards open or (more often) clandestine cloak-and-dagger activity. Yet they have their German neighbors alone to thank for anything and everything they can boast in the line of culture and civilization.


    Since achieving ethnic unity this nation has fluctuated between the extremes of obsequious servility and hate-filled presumptuousness. It may be that this nation, wedged as it was right into the living space of the Germans, found itself backed into a moral corner where its baser instincts gained the upper hand. Virtually paralyzed by the unequaled creative genius of their larger German neighbor, the ambitious Czechs developed those complexes which, when additionally fueled by envy and resentment, have resulted in their well-known explosive outbursts. And this soul-deep unease is the driving force behind their boundless chauvinism. Only in this way can their most regrettable characteristic - their occasional blood frenzy - be explained.


    Throughout the many centuries that the Germans coexisted with the Czechs in Bohemia and Moravia there was not one single case of a German having killed a Czech out of hatred or revenge. In contrast, what the following chapters describe can hardly be surpassed in its bestiality, or in its death toll of 241,000 German lives!


    This would truly be a subject fit for television - yet all the world's media have studiously ignored it for more than 50 years now, for indeed these mind-boggling atrocities were followed up with what may justly be called the crime of the century: the comprehensive expulsion of the entire Sudeten German ethnic group from their homeland which they had settled and made arable seven and even more centuries earlier. And this global crime was part and parcel of the Allied crusade for "Christianity and humanitarianism"!

    Alexander Hoyer, Eyewitness

    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/John/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG]
    .

    Preface
    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/John/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image006.gif[/IMG]his book documents the realization that the outburst of sadism in May 1945 in Czechoslovakia was an unparalleled world record of torture and murder that claimed the lives of half a million Germans (241,000 civilians and 250,000 soldiers).


    Sadism manifest itself both in individuals and in entire cultures. The German social psychologist Erich Fromm has concluded that collective sadism may often be found in frustrated social strata that suffer from a sense of powerlessness.


    The Hussites roasted their prisoners in pitch-covered barrels. Centuries later, the Czechs of May 1945 burned wounded Germans to death as living torches, hung upside down over blazing fires.


    A curious duplication.


    In the time of the witch-hunts, women were beheaded or burned for allegedly having slept with the Devil. The imaginary devil of those days has become reality in the form of the serial killers of our time; the victims of the witch hunts were paralleled in May 1945 in Czechoslovakia by innocent German women.


    It is understandable that posterity wants nothing to do with crimes it did not commit. But then it can also not presume to freeload off the murderers' blood-spattered loot. The Czechs of today have been made the receivers of goods gained through robbery and murder on a gigantic scale. The gift their forefathers left them is a two-edged sword. Anyone who cannot acknowledge their guilt will never be rid of it.


    In spring of 1994 the Neue Kronenzeitung, Austria's largest daily paper, brought a series of exposés titled "Schreie aus der Hölle ungehört" - Cries From Hell, Unheard. This book continues that series with further, detailed accounts. May it help to fill in the historical gap that has been so well hidden for more than half a century.


    The author is especially grateful to Alexander Hoyer, Herwig Griehsler and Maximilian Czesany for their invaluable help.


    Ingomar Pust
    Engineer

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    Notes

    1Alois Bernt, Die Germanen und Slawen in Böhmen und Mähren. Spuren früher Geschichte im Herzland Europas, Tübingen: Grabert, 1989, pp. 15-16, 21; Emil Franzel, Sudetendeutsche Geschichte, Augsburg: Bechtermünz, 1997, p. 16; Armin E. Hepp, Völker und Stämme in Deutschland. Von der Steinzeit zum Mittelalter, Tübingen: Grabert, 1979, p. 196; Hans Krebs and Emil Lehmann, Sudetendeutsche Landeskunde, Kiel: Arndt, 1992, maps p. 46; Erich Linnenkohl, Die Wenden und die "Slawen" genannten Völker. Sprachliche Widerlegung der These von den "slawischen Völkern", Frankfurt/M.: R. G. Fischer, 1995, p. 9, 12; Hans Riehl, Die Völkerwanderung. Der längste Marsch der Weltgeschichte, Munich: W. Ludwig, 1988, map pp. 160ff.; Malcolm Todd, The Early Germans, Oxford/Cambridge: Blackwell, 1992/95, p. 6 fig. 1. ...back...
    2Reinhard Pozorny, Wir suchten die Freiheit, Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1978, p. 179. ...back...
    3ibid., p. 174. ...back...
    4Fritz Peter Habel, Eine politische Legende, Munich: Langen Müller, 1996, p. 18. ...back...


    Conspiracy of Silence



    The Federal Convention of Sudeten Germans has offered a prize for the best movie script written to portray the horrors of the expulsion. But will it be possible? The historical records exist: a grisly documentation, the mere reading of which is enough to cause nausea.


    But nevertheless it will hardly be possible to turn it into a movie true to life. It might be possible to reconstruct death marches and mass executions, to show bodies with their noses, ears and private parts cut off, wounded being thrown out of windows, people being roasted head-down over open fires. It might be possible to portray the naked women, on their knees being whipped through the streets of Prague strewn with glass shards. It might be possible to film the thousands of women that were thrown into the rivers Moldau and Elbe together with their children and baby carriages and then raked with machine gun fire. It might be possible to use dummy dolls to represent the heads of the dead mothers and babies still sticking out of the filth of the camp latrines where they had been thrown, until they were finally covered over by the excrement of their fellow-sufferers. It might even be possible to show bloody bundles of tortured people on the ground being forced to swallow human excrement, and gags covered in such excrement being forced into their mouths.


    But who would be able to recreate the screams of the Germans whose torn bodies were rubbed with hydrochloric acid, who were beaten until their private parts were reduced to bloody lumps? Who is to recreate the screams of the women, whipped bloody, who were shoved naked, rear down, onto SS daggers? Hundreds of thousands went through this hell of torture before they were beaten to death or shot. Specifically: 241,000. The number of soldiers who died in the course of this outburst of sadism is probably no less.


    And that was only part of the gigantic massacre in the East and Southeast.


    In his comprehensive and dispassionate work Deutscher Exodus (Seewald Verlag), Gerhard Ziemer writes:

    "According to a very painstaking calculation of the Federal Statistical Office in Wiesbaden, the German civilian population lost 2,280,000 members to flight, expulsion and deportation. These people were shot or beaten to death or died of hunger and exhaustion in the labor camps of the deportation process in the East."


    Ziemer states:

    "The number of victims of the expulsion never impacted on public awareness in the East or West. Even in Germany only a small minority is aware of it. It has not become a topic for journalism and the mass media like the victims of Fascism and the persecution of the Jews have."


    The statistics and documentation of these monstrosities have remained unknown. Official German authorities do not mention or publicize them even when Eastern or Southeastern countries make demands for restitution.


    It would be easy to say that the events in the East and Southeast were a just and fair response to the previous National Socialist misdeeds. But were the people in Prague, Warsaw and Belgrade called to avenge the Jewish fate on innocent Germans? Was it right to speak of "liberation" and then to eradicate entire population groups? To expel 15 million people from their homes?


    People utterly ignorant of history try to excuse that eruption of hatred with the suppression of Czech sovereignty. But if that were a viable argument, then the Sudeten Germans could well also have massacred the Czechs in 1938; they had been deprived of their own sovereignty and their right to self-determination for not seven, but 20 years. Nevertheless they did the Czechs no harm whatsoever in 1938.


    If suppression of sovereignty were really to justify bestial genocide, then the South Tyroleans as well would have the moral "right" to slit their Italian masters' throats. For some 60 years now they too have been deprived of their sovereignty and their right to self-determination.


    And thus it began...
    The Republic of Austria was born in the throes of political unrest. 6 million Czechs forced 3.3 million Sudeten Germans, 2 million Slovaks and 700,000 Hungarians into their ethnic dungeon.
    And thus it began...


    .

    Self-Determination Drowned in Blood



    The tragedy of the Sudeten Germans began 60 years ago, with the collapse of the multinational Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Millions of people were imbued with the desire for self-determination, which the American President had led them to believe was their right.


    When the Monarchy collapsed and the constituent parts were struggling for a new formation, the German local government officials and mayors of the Sudetenland already took their oaths of office in allegiance to the Republic of Austria. In the last days of October 1918 the Sudeten German parliamentary representatives had already constituted the provinces of "Sudetenland" and "German Bohemia" and had annexed these directly to Austria.


    In the days that followed, however, Czech troops in Austrian uniforms occupied the defenseless and totally demilitarized Sudetenland, despite vigorous protests by the entire German population. Local resistance - which sprung up despite the express wishes of the command posts of the People's Army, stationed in Vienna, and the newly formed Sudeten German provincial government - achieved only small-scale successes and could not prevent the course of things to come. The occupation was accompanied by hostage-taking and brutally violent measures; local resistance was even quashed with artillery fire, arbitrary censorship was inflicted on the press, district councils were dissolved, and the entire Austrian state property was "expropriated".


    On March 4, 1919, the Austrian National Assembly solemnly convened its first session in Vienna. Czech troops forcibly prevented the participation of Sudeten German representatives.


    In large-scale demonstrations the public now demanded freedom and democracy, and that right to self-determination which the Allies had declared to be one of their own aims of war. The Sudeten Germans congregated at these proclamations unarmed, informed by their faith in their right. But then the incomprehensible happened. On Czech orders, Czechs in uniform shot at those gathered together. The crashing of hand grenades accompanied the salvos of gunfire and the screams of those mortally wounded - 54 dead and hundreds of injured remained lying in the streets. Among the places where this happened were Arnau, Aussig, Eger, Kaaden, Mies, Karlsbad, Sternberg and Freudenthal. The 54 dead included 20 women and girls, an 80-year-old man, one youth of 16, one of 13 and one only eleven years old! This bloody event that ought to have shaken the world to its foundations remained without echo.


    Later, to justify the use of armed force, it was claimed that the Czech executive powers had acted in sudden, nervous panic. They had not; they had acted on an order given by the Prague Ministry of the Interior, instructing them to prevent the proclamations with force of arms. That explains the fact that the shooting of participants in these demonstrations took place everywhere at almost exactly the same time.


    In this way, demonstrations that might have attracted world attention were to be thwarted once and for all. Any attempt at exercising the right to self-determination drew immediate gunfire. After March 4, another 53 Germans fell victim to Czech bullets. More than 2,000 gravely wounded were taken to hospitals. That was the beginning of the sham democracy along the Moldau River ("Vltava"). The cries for self-determination had been drowned in blood.


    Monument to the right to self-determination.


    Monument to the right to self-determination, Gmunden (Austria), erected in 1931, destroyed in 1945; created by Prof. Ludwig Galasek. The inscription on the front reads: "For the right to self-determination. Erected in remembrance of our homeland, and dedicated to the city of Gmunden by the Sudeten German Heimatbund, Whitsun, 1931."


    .

    The Dead of March 4, 1919


    In the following we record the names of the Sudeten Germans murdered on March 4, 1919 - shot by Czech officers for their belief in their right to self-determination.

    Killed on March 4, 1919: Age Where
    Anna Sachs brewery master's wife 41 Arnau
    Aloisia Baudisch laborer 16 Arnau
    Franz Jarsch butcher 60 Aussig
    Josef Christl student 18 Eger
    Grete Reinl student 18 Eger
    Franz Schneider shoemaker 52 Kaaden
    Josef Wolf day laborer 51 Kaaden
    Erich Benesch master spinner 30 Kaaden
    Andreas Benedikt baker 46 Kaaden
    Franziska Passler tanner's wife 46 Kaaden
    Anna Rott plumber's wife 41 Kaaden
    Marie Ziener seamstress 18 Kaaden
    Arianne Sturm seamstress 24 Kaaden
    Karl Tauber student 14 Kaaden
    Ludmila Doleschal seamstress 26 Kaaden
    Leopoldine Meder dressmaker 28 Kaaden
    Karl Lochschmid student 11 Kaaden
    Paula Schmiedl student 15 Kaaden
    Wilhelm Figert room painter 22 Kaaden
    Oskar Meier apprentice 16 Kaaden
    Julie Schindler servant girl 17 Kaaden
    Berta Meier seamstress 40 Kaaden
    Aloisia Weber office assistant 20 Kaaden
    Marie Stöckl laborer 23 Kaaden
    Ferdinand Kumpe day laborer 15 Kaaden
    Hugo Nittner electrician 18 Kaaden
    Marie Loos housewife 54 Kaaden
    Kath. Tschammerhöhl laborer 49 Kaaden
    Theodor Romig student 17 Kaaden
    Paul Pessl student 18 Kaaden
    Johann Luft railwayman 28 Mies
    Rosa Heller private 24 Mies
    Alfred Hahn accountant 19 Karlsbad
    Ferdinand Schuhmann laborer 56 Karlsbad
    Josef Stöck laborer 44 Karlsbad
    Michael Fischer laborer 37 Karlsbad
    Wenzel Wagner bricklayer 30 Karlsbad
    Wilhelm Reingold merchant 52 Karlsbad
    Josefa Bolek laborer 37 Sternberg
    Hermine Kirsch laborer 37 Sternberg
    Amlia Neckel laborer 38 Sternberg
    Otto Faulhammer locksmith 18 Sternberg
    Matthias Kaindl apprentice 16 Sternberg
    Alois Länger coachman 42 Sternberg
    Rudolf Lehr roofer 16 Sternberg
    Franz Prosser turner's assistant 28 Sternberg
    Ferdinand Pudek laborer 56 Sternberg
    Ed. Sedlatschek civil servant 46 Sternberg
    Josef Simak laborer 48 Sternberg
    Emil Schreiber typesetter 18 Sternberg
    Richard Tschauner tailor 26 Sternberg
    Josef Laser retired 80 Sternberg
    Franz Meier baker 36 Sternberg
    Bruno Schindler laborer 68 Sternberg


    Among the dead of March 4 were 20 women and girls. There was one 80-year-old, but also 16 persons aged 19 or younger, two of them were only 14, one was 13 and one as young as 11!


    In the time from 1918 to 1924 another 63 Sudeten Germans lost their lives in this way. They came from Wiesa-Oberleutensdorf, Gastdorf near Leitmeritz, Brüx, Moravian Trübau, Kaplitz, Znaim, Pressburg, Freudenthal, Arnau, Oblas near Znaim, Pilsen, Pohrlitz in South Moravia, Leitmeritz, Iglau, Zuckmantel, Asch, Aussig and Graslitz.


    Sudeten German Inferno: The hushed-up tragedy of the ... 09 XII 2019.




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    Nemesis at Potsdam The Expulsion of the Germans from the East, by Alfred M. de Zayas



    Nemesis at Potsdam is a 1977 book whose title is drawn from Greek mythology; Nemesis is the Greek goddess of revenge. The implication is that at the Potsdam Conference (17 July to 2 August 1945) the victorious Allies of World War II took revenge on the Germans, entailing significant territorial losses in Eastern Europe and the forced transfer of some 15 million Germans from their homelands in East Prussia, Pomerania, Silesia, East Brandenburg, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia.


    The book is the first scholarly study in the English concerning the expulsion of Germans after World War II.[1] It effectively broke a taboo in the English-speaking world, and also in Germany and Austria, thus facilitating subsequent research in the subject by other scholars. The book was dedicated to Victor Gollancz, whose seminal book Our Threatened Values had inspired the author when he was a student at Harvard. In chapter VI of the book de Zayas cites Gollancz' clear condemnation of the expulsions: "If the conscience of mankind ever again becomes sensitive, these expulsions will be remembered to the undying shame of all who committed or connived at them…The Germans were expelled, not just with an absence of over-nice consideration, but with the very maximum of brutality. (Our Threatened Values, p. 96). On the basis of US and British archival documents, de Zayas shows that the Western Allies were genuinely appalled at the manner in which the Germans were being expelled and that they lodged diplomatic protest notes in Warsaw and Prague—to no avail.


    The theses of Nemesis at Potsdam have been condensed into a new book, 50 theses on the expulsion of the Germans from Central and Eastern Europe, published in 2012 in Verlag Inspiration, London and Berlin, ISBN978-3-9812110-4-7...Raymond Lohne, Ph.D., Columbia College Chicago.




    Contents



    • Chapter I. The Principle of Populations Transfers



    • Chapter II. The Germans of Czechoslovakia



    • Chapter III. The Genesis of the Oder-Neisse Line: The Conferences of Tehran and Yalta



    • Chapter IV. The Flight: Prelude to the Expulsions



    • Chapter V. Anglo-American Plan of Limited Transfers



    • Chapter VI. "Orderly and Humane" Transfers



    • Chapter VII. From Morgenthau-Plan to Marshall-Plan



    • Chapter VIII. Peace without a Peace Treaty



    • Chapter IX. Recognition or Revision of the Oder-Neisse Line



    • Chapter X. Towards The Future: The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe—The Berlin question and détente—The German expellees today—Anglo-American attitudes


    Reviews


    Academic




    • Henry Lane Hull in the Ukrainian Quarterly, Vol. XXXVII, No. 2, p. 181 : "The basic thrust of Professor de Zayas' analysis centers on the ineptitude of the Allied leaders before the demands of Marshal Stalin and his successors. As the late Robert Murphy noted in the Foreword, Stalin's unsympathetic disregard of the rights of the individual Germans affected by population transfers is understandable in the context of Soviet hatred of the Nazi war machine. What is not understandable, however, is why Britain and the United States failed to see the injustice visited upon millions .... the bibliography is excellent and four folios of photographs graphically supplement the text. Substantially, organizationally and stylistically, this book is an outstanding historiographical achievement".



    • LaVern Rippley in Die Unterrichtspraxis Vol. 11, No. 2, 1978, pp. 132–13 : "Profusely illustrated with photographs, documents and excellent maps, this book analyzes the origin and the effects of article XIII of the Potsdam Protocol which provided that ethnic Germans living in the eastern countries would be transferred to the truncated remains of the Reich 'in an orderly and humane manner'. As the 16 million Germans were driven westward, some two million died, but the world remained silent. Outraged by the crimes Nazis had perpetrated ...the whole world, with a few exceptions, like Bertrand Russell and Albert Schweizer, remained mum.... de Zayas is perhaps best when delineating the legal aspects of the Potsdam action, although his historical facts are equally impeccable....Due to the willingness of the press and the scholarly community in the West to ignore these facts of the Potsdam accord, few Americans or Britons know there ever was an expulsion, let alone authorization of the compulsory transfer. Questioning rhetorically whether the wrong could ever be righted, de Zayas maintains that the West could affirm its regard for individual guilt or innocence and reject the concept of collective guilt."



    • Craig Whitney in the New York Times, 13 February 1977, and in the International Herald Tribune 17 February 1977 : "A young legal scholar from New York, Alfred de Zayas, has written a book on a subject long taboo and ignored by German writers —the brutal expulsion of 16 million Germans from their homelands in Central and Eastern Europe after the Red Army moved in... Mr. de Zayas, who is 29 years old and has a fellowship at the University of Göttingen emphasized: ... 'I had taken a number of courses in history at Fordham and Harvard and this was just never mentioned. I don't think people outside Germany know much about it.' Truman, Churchill and Stalin agreed at Potsdam in 1945 that the German populations of Eastern Europe should undergo 'transfer to Germany' but 'in an orderly and humane manner'. The de Zayas book makes clear that the last provision was not fulfilled."




    • Christoph Kimmich in Foreign Affairs, July 1977, Vol. 55, No. 4 : "An account of British and American acquiescence in the brutal expulsion of millions of Germans from their homes in East-Central Europe at the end of World War II. The author ... makes much of the legal (and moral) implications of the issue while understating its historical complexities." .



    • David Steeds in British Book News: "Mr. de Zayas... is surely right to dwell on their miseries and on the double standards of the victors. Some of them, after all, professed to believe in the principles of the Atlantic Charter. The book should cause argument and controversy; it deserves a wide readership."




    • David Mutch in the Christian Science Monitor, 25 March 1977, p. 17 : "Mr. de Zayas is a lawyer, and is clearly opposed to mass population transfers on moral, legal and historical grounds...He argues that overreaction to the evils of the Nazis led to the principle of collective German guilt, a theory that does not protect the innocent and which ruled the thoughts and actions of many responsible British and American officials when they agreed to the expulsion demands of Stalin. Only later did they realize the inherent inhumanity of the results of their lack of perception...his short but heavily documented book (with 40 pages of notes, a long bibliography, interviews with persons involved, and a long research into unpublished U.S., British and German Documents) fills a gap."



    • Norman Lederer in Worldview July/August 1978, pp. 54–55 : "De Zayas painstakingly details the manner in which Eastern European émigré governments during World War II prepared the way for Allied approval of the mass expulsion of Germans following the conflict. Their distortions of fact had a decided effect on the thinking of many Western leaders. Ironically, it was Winston Churchill, the nemesis depicted in Goebbels' propaganda to the German people, who foresaw most clearly the immense human tragedy that would result from the mass expulsions and who tried to curb the Eastern European countries' desire for territorial expansion at the expense of the German state. The Russian invasion of East Prussia aided the Eastern European leaders in getting their way. Hundreds of thousands of German civilians hurried west before the terrifying apparition of the shockingly undisciplined soviet army. Eastern leaders stated that this exodus had cleared out all the Germans, conveniently ignoring the fact that millions remained. These millions were abruptly ousted once formal conflict had ended ... [The book] is an important work on an enormously important but little known aspect of World War II."



    • William Guttmann in the Observer: "The author traces the genesis of the relevant territorial arrangements and ensuing population transfers and then gives a well-documented and horrifying account of the exodus, the sufferings and deaths of millions, the ruthlessness of the new masters—a travesty of the 'orderly and humane' fashion in which the measures were supposed to be carried out."




    Nemesis at Potsdam – Wikipedia 14 XII 2019.






    We need to starve the bullies, the deniers, the ‘terrorists’, of the oxygen of publicity. Margaret Thatcher.



    Remarkable how we were led to believe that only in the Soviet Union was ‘information’ limited and controlled.



    SUDETEN GERMAN INFERNO Paperback – 2005

    by INGOMAR PUST


    • ISBN-10: 3927498335
    • ISBN-13: 978-3927498334


    Not available.

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    Massacre in Czechoslovakia


    Newly Discovered Film Shows Post-War Executions



    It has long been known that German civilians fell victim to Czech excesses immediately following the Nazi surrender at the end of World War II. But a newly discovered video shows one such massacre in brutal detail. And it has come as a shock to the Czech Republic.



    Photos




    For decades, the images lay forgotten in an aluminum canister -- almost seven minutes of original black and white film, shot with an 8 mm camera on May 10, 1945, in the Prague district of Borislavka during the confusing days of the German surrender.


    The man who shot the film was Jirí Chmelnicek, a civil engineer and amateur filmmaker who lived in the Borislavka district and wanted to document the city's liberation from the brutal Nazi occupation. Chmelnicek filmed tanks rolling through the streets, soldiers and refugees. Then, at some point, his camera also caught groups of Germans, who had been driven out of their houses and into Kladenska Street by Red Army soldiers and Czech militiamen.


    Chmelnicek's film shows how the Germans were rounded up in a nearby movie theater, also called the Borislavka. The camera then pans to the side of the street, where 40 men and at least one woman stand with their backs to the lens. A meadow can be seen in the background. Shots ring out and, one after another, each person in the line slumps and falls forward over a low embankment. The injured lying on the ground beg for mercy. Then a Red Army truck rolls up, its tires crushing dead and wounded alike. Later other Germans can be seen, forced to dig a mass grave in the meadow.


    A Shock to Czechs

    The shaky images show an event that has been described again and again by eyewitnesses and historians: the systematic killing of German civilians. Yet the film comes as a shock to Czechs. "Until now, there was no footage whatsoever of such executions," says Czech documentary filmmaker David Vondracek, who showed the historical images on television. "When I watched this for the first time, it was like seeing a live broadcast from the past."


    The only such images known before were taken by a US Air Force camera team. That footage showed injured Germans lying on the ground in Plzen, in what was then Czechoslovakia, in early May 1945. The images included some dead bodies, but they didn't show a liquidation, from beginning to end, like this one.


    Vondracek's documentary about Czech atrocities, called "Killings, Czech Style," aired during primetime on Czech state television just two days before May 8, the anniversary of Nazi Germany's surrender. The broadcast marks yet another milestone on the Czech road toward confronting a not-always-comfortable World War II past -- a path the country has been working its way down for years.


    Even organizations representing "Sudeten Germans" -- ethnic Germans expelled from Czechoslovak territory after the war -- took notice. Horst Seehofer, governor of Bavaria, plans to pay an official visit to Prague soon, making him the first holder of his office to do so since World War II. "A great deal has come into the open where the Sudeten Germans are concerned," Seehofer commented recently.


    Victim to Acts of Revenge


    Following Nazi Germany's defeat, the Czechs and the Red Army expelled around 3 million ethnic Germans from the Sudetenland and the rest of Czechoslovakia. In the process, up to 30,000 civilians fell victim to acts of revenge. Only a small minority of them had been Nazi perpetrators. Germans and Czechs had lived side by side for decades before Hitler's 1938 annexation of Bohemia and Moravia, the two regions that make up the majority of the Czech Republic today.


    No one knows who singled out the Germans in Borislavka, nor what crimes they were accused of committing. They were most likely killed by Red Army soldiers, perhaps also by "Revolutionary Guards" -- members of Czech militias. Those firing the shots may also have included former Czech collaborators, who had previously worked with the Germans and who wanted to clear their names with a show of anti-German brutality.


    Helena Dvoracková, amateur filmmaker Jirí Chmelnicek's daughter, was one of the first to see the images of these executions. She doesn't remember how old she was when her father set up his projection screen and ran the film. "I don't remember either whether he said anything about it -- and really, there wasn't much to be said," she says.


    'Under the Meadow'

    Her father kept the film hidden at home for decades. Communist police even came calling -- someone had figured out that the footage existed. The police asked about the film and threatened Chmelnicek. But the filmmaker didn't turn over his reel. He wanted the world eventually to learn what had been done to defenseless people that day in May in Borislavka.


    Ten years ago, long after her father's death, Helena Dvoracková offered the historical footage to a well-known Czech television historian, but the historian kept the film under wraps. "People will stone me to death if I show this," he supposedly said, and placed the reel in the state television station's archives. Documentary maker Vondracek found it there, after a cameraman who knew the amateur filmmaker's family told him about it.


    Today Borislavka is one of Prague's nicer districts, and tall grass has grown over the meadow where the executions took place. Vondracek now wants to start a search for the Germans' mass grave. "It must be somewhere under the meadow," he says.


    Likely not all that far away from a memorial plaque for two Czechs who fell in the battle against the Nazis on May 6, 1945.


    Translated from the German by Ella Ornstein





    http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/0,1518,698060,00.html June 02, 2010

    The Germany of Goethe, Luther, Beethoven, Nietzsche, Spengler, Werner Heisenberg, and countless other truly great Germans like them. These were men who built civilization. This was the Germany the "Allies" destroyed. Not Hitler.

    Understanding World War 2 is crucial to understanding what is happening all around us today.

    World War 2 German actions must be viewed in a vacuum for the New World Order to advance its covert objective of Jewish supremacy and total dominance. Look at it in context and immediately you see it for the propaganda it is.


    15 XII 2019.

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