The Influence of Middle Low German
on the Scandinavian Languages

Definition of terms:

Middle Low German (MLG) : Means scholars are not certain about
whether a loan came from Middle Low Saxon (MLS) or Middle Dutch
(MDu). MLG can therefore be taken to mean from either, or both.
Middle Low Saxon (MLS): Means the Low German dialects spoken in
northern Germany and what is now the Netherlands by Hansa merchants
etc. which were based on Old Saxon dialects.
Middle Dutch (MDu): Means the Low German varieties based upon Old
Franconian forms spoken by traders from what is now the Netherlands.
Old Norse (ON): Is used here, rather than the Old- and Middle-
Danish/Swedish forms that were actually replaced (unless stated), as
instances of Old Norse are much easier to locate and state with

Background and history

The influence of Low Saxon and Dutch on the Scandinavian languages
during the late medieval and early modern period has been profound.
Some commentators have compared it to the huge influence, both at
the lexical and structural levels, that Norman French exerted on
late Old English following the Norman Conquest. During the course of
the medieval period, Danish for example borrowed more than 1500 new
words, some of which were loaned from Latin, but the great majority
came in from Middle Low German.
The influence of Middle Low German on the later development of
the Scandinavian languages was succinctly described by the Nordicist
Didrik Arup Seip when he remarked:
"Two Norwegians cannot in our day carry on a conversation of 2-3
minutes without using Low German loanwords.....of course without
knowing that they are doing so."
The changes effected by Middle Low German on the Mainland Nordic
languages were especially pronounced in the period c.1300-1550,
after which, High German became the primary language in Northern
Germany and began to influence the Mainland Nordic languages.
In the early and mid 1100s the Hansa trade town of Lübeck was
rising to prominence on the Baltic coast. Along with other Hansa
towns, Lübeck allowed the Hanseatic League to dominate trade across
Scandinavia and the Baltic for the next three centuries. Colonies of
Low German speaking merchants, craftsmen and officials settled in
many major Nordic towns, such as Oslo, Bergen, Visby, Stockholm,
Malmö and Copenhagen. In addition, many aristocratic families from
what is now Northern Germany settled in Denmark and elsewhere in
Scandinavia, and these often held prominent positions and hence had
the chance to influence the literary language of all three nations
to quite a degree. The polite and courtly speech of the Scandinavian
courts, as well as the terminology of merchants, craftsmen and
officials was for several centuries mainly Middle Low German, and
this language left a considerable and lasting lexical legacy in the
native languages before it expired as a spoken language in
Scandinavia. Legal and official documents from the Nordic trade
centres of the time are loaded with Middle Low German loans and
expressions, that is, when they are not written in Low German
itself. Germans in Scandinavian towns dominated on account of
special rights granted them and influenced political life to such an
extent that their presence was eventually decisive in bringing about
the pan-Nordic Union of Kalmar in 1397. Albrekt of Mecklenburg, a
German-born king, ascended to the Swedish throne in 1364.
Furthermore, the first mayor of Stockholm was from the area of
today's Northern Germany and during the period 1364–89, the stadslag
of Magnus Eriksson had to be passed in order to legislate against
not more than half of the town officials being of "German" birth!
The result of Low German domination of Nordic trade, economy,
handicrafts, and to some extent, local government and the court, was
an unparalleled influx of loanwords and productive morphological
elements from the high-prestige Low German varieties. Most
substantial among the areas for loans from Low German were shipping,
fishing and navigation, trade and economy, craftsmanship, and local
administration, but many terms pertaining to the court and polite
society were also borrowed, as well as military terminology and many
general and now everyday verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Literally
thousands of MLG loans and words derived from MLG loaned elements
entered into the Mainland Scandinavian languages, and many native
Scandinavian words were displaced. However, some MLG words developed
into competitive synonyms for words of North Germanic stock.
Generally speaking, where North Germanic (i.e. native Scandinavian)
and West Germanic (i.e. loaned or derived from MLG) synonyms exist
in the modern languages, the West Germanic-derived words tend to
have precedence. In other cases, they have marginalised the meanings
of the North Germanic synonyms. There are far too many examples to
list here.
MLG affected almost all spheres of the Mainland Scandinavian
lexicon, but the examples given below of words current in modern
Danish (unless stated otherwise) indicate the main spheres of
influence. Many of these words are loan-translations (i.e. Low
German elements are translated directly into their Scandinavian
etymological and semantic equivalents – often using word-forming
elements borrowed from MLG), for example MLG hantwerk becomes Dan.
håndværk "craft, trade" and MLG unwetenheit becomes Dan.
uvidenhed "ignorance". Many of these loans are now among the most
everyday words in the Mainland Scandinavian languages:

Trade and professions: bager "baker", bøssemager "gunsmith",
fisker "fisherman", fragt "freight", handle "to trade",
handskemager "glover", håndværk "handicraft",
isenkræmmer "ironmonger", klejnsmed "locksmith", kunstner "artist",
købe "to buy", købmand "merchant", pels "pelt, hide", pund "pound",
præst "priest", regne "calculate; consider", regning "calculation",
regningskab (now regnskab) "accounts", rente "interest, dividend",
sadelmager "saddler", skomager "cobbler", skrædder "tailor",
slagter "butcher", tømmermand "ship-wright", udgift "expenditure",
vare "product, article", værksted "workshop".

Court and nobility: eventyr "adventure, fairy tale", frøken "young
woman, Miss", fyrste "prince", greve "count, earl", herre "lord"
(now "gentleman"), hertug "duke", hof "court", hofmester "steward"
(now "waiter"), hovmod "pride", jomfru "noble young lady"
(now "virgin"), junker "nobleman", krone "crown", ridder "knight",
slot "castle, palace", væbner "squire", ærlighed "honour".

Government and Power: borger "citizen", borgmester "burgomaster",
domherre "judge" (now dommer), embedsmand "goverment offical" (cf.
English loan from Swedish ombudsman), fordel "advantage",
fuldmagt "authority", magt "power", oldermand "alderman",
regere "rule", rådmand "alderman", told "duty, customs".

Military: erobre "conquer", fane "banner, standard", fejde "feud;
war", fodgænger "infantryman" (now "pedestrian"), gevær "gun,
rifle", høvedsmand "captain", kamp "battle", krig "war",
nederlag "defeat", orlog "naval battle", panser "armour",
plyndre "plunder", rejse (with the meaning) "campaign".

Shipping, fishing and navigation*: agter "astern",
bådsmand "boatswain", fartøj "vessel", flag "flag", haj "shark",
kaj "quay", kyst "coast", malstrøm "whirlpool, maelstrom",
mandskab "crew", sælhund "seal", styrbord "starboard",
styrmand "first mate; helmsman".

Common and auxilary verbs: anvende "use", arbejde "work",
begribe "comprehend", begynde "begin", bestemme "decide",
betale "pay", betyde "mean", blive "become", bringe "bring",
bruge "use", digte "compose, write, write poetry",
erfare "experience", fatte "comprehend", forekomme "appear",
forklare "explain", foreslå "suggest", forstå "understand",
forsvinde "disappear", fortælle "tell, narrate", føle "feel",
håbe "hope", klage "complain", koge "boil, cook", købe "buy",
kæmpe "fight", lære "learn", mene "mean, intend", male "paint",
opdage "discover", ordne "arrange", oversætte "translate",
overveje "consider, comtemplate", pleje "be in the habit of",
prate "chat" (now only "talk nonsense"), prøve "try", redde "save,
rescue", rejse "travel", regne "estimate, reckon (on)",
samle "collect", skildre "describe", slute "finish", smage "taste",
snakke "talk, chat", spille "play", stille "put, place",
støtte "support", trække "draw, pull", undersøge "investigate",
undgå "avoid", undskylde "excuse", vare "last", øve "practise".

Common adjectives: alvorlig "serious", bange "afraid",
billig "cheap", dejlig "pleasant", dygtig "capable", egentlig "real;
proper", endelig "final", enkel "simple; single", falsk "false",
flink "clever", fri "free", frisk "fresh, healthy",
fremmed "foreign, strange", from "pious", færdig "ready",
forsigtig "cautious", gemen "public", hemmelig "secret",
hændig "practical", herlig "splendid", høvisk "courteous",
høflig "courteous", klog "wise", kort "short", krank "sick",
middelmådig "mediocre", mulig "possible", rar "nice, kind",
rask "quick", skøn "pretty", stolt "proud", svag "weak",
tapper "brave", tilfreds "satisfied", ægte "genuine",
åbenbar "public, manifest".

Common adverbs, prepositions and conjuctions: dog "however, yet",
emellertid "however" (Swed.), forbi "past", ganske "quite; very",
jo "yes indeed, certainly", likväl (Swed.), likevel (Nor.) "all the
same, nevertheless", men "but", nemlig "namely, that is",
overalt "everywhere", redan "already" (Swed.), samt "and also,
plus", sikker "certainly", straks "immediately", sådan "such",
temmelig "rather", tilsammen "in all, altogether", trods "despite",
ur "from, of" (Swed.), vældig "awfully, very", øvrig "the rest,
what's left".

(*note: there are many specialised loans for shipping and types of
fish which are not included in this article.)

Borrowed affixes
Scandinavian speakers were adept at resolving Middle Low German
forms into their own sound and inflexional systems, and many affixes
borrowed from Middle Low German later became productive in the
formation of Scandinavian words on home soil. Middle Low Saxon and
Middle Dutch thus had an effect at a morphological level, as well as
a lexical one. What follows is a list of the most important borrowed
affixes, illustrated with examples from all three modern languages
(many of these will be familiar to readers who know German):

an- (MLG an-): anbefale "recommend", anklage "accuse",
angrepp "attack".
be- (MLG be-, bi-): behandle "treat", betænke "consider",
beslut "decision".
bi - (Swed. from MLG bi-): bifalla "assent", bistå "support".
fore- (Dan./Nor. from MLG vor-): forekomst "occurence",
foretrække "prefer", foredrag "lecture, speech".
för - (Swed. from MLG vor-): försiktig "cautious, careful",
fördöma "condemn".
om- (MLG um-): omgive "surround", omstendighet "circumstance",
omkreds "circumference".
over- (Dan./Nor. from MLG over-): overbevise "convince",
overhøre "interrogate", oversætte "translate".
över- (Swed. from MLG over-): övermod "pride, arrogance",
översätta "translate".
und - (Dan./Swed.)/unn- (Nor.) from MLG unt-): undgå "escape,
evade", undskylde "excuse", unnvære "do/go/be without".
-aktig (Swed./Nor.)/-agtig (Dan. from MLG -achtich):
varaktig "enduring", byagtig "urban", livagtig "lifelike".
-ande (Swed.)/-ende (Dan./Nor. from MLG -ent):
inflytande "influence", forehavende "enterprise",
udseende "appearance".
-bar (MLG -bâr): brukbar "usable", kostbar "costly, precious",
holdbar "durable, tenable", strafbar "punishable".
-else (MLG -sel): skapelse "shape, creation",
overdrivelse "exaggeration", spøgelse "spectre".
-er ( Dan./Nor.)/-are (Swed. from MLG -êre): borgare "citizen",
jägare "hunter", maler "painter", lærer "teacher".
-eri (MLG -erîe): fiskeri "fishery", bedrageri "fraud",
tyveri "theft", slagteri "abattoir".
-hed (Dan.)/-het (Swed./Nor. from MLG -heit, -hêt): nyhed "novelty",
storhet "greatness", flertydighet "ambiguity",
rigtighed "correctness; truth".
-haftig (Dan.)/-heftig (Nor.)/-ha ftig (Swed. from MLG -heftich):
mandhaftig "mannish", standhaftig "firm".
-inna (Swed.)/-inde (Dan.)/-inne (Nor. from MLG -inne, -in):
furstinna "princess", hertuginde "duchess", grevinde "countess".
-isk (loaned from or influenced by MLG -isch): høvisk "courteous",
upprorisk "rebellious", jordisk "earthly, worldly".
-mager (Dan.)/-magare (Swed.)/-maker (Nor. from MLG -maker):
hattemager "hatter", skomager "cobbler", urmaker "watchmaker".
-ner (Dan./Nor.)/-näre (Swed. from MLG -(e)nêre): kunstner "artist",
gartner "gardener", väpnare "squire".
-ska (Dan./Nor.)/-(er)ska (Swed. from MLG -ersche):
tvätterska "laundress", syerske "seamstress",
husholderske "housekeeper".
-skab (Dan.)/-skap (Nor./Swed. from MLG -schap):
vennskap "friendship", landskab "landscape", ekteskap "marriage".

Not all of these affixes are productive in the modern languages.
Some like an-, be-/bi-, fore-/för-, -ska and und-/unn- are no longer
productive as word forming elements, while om- and over-/över- are
active elements. The following suffixes used to form adjectives,
agent nouns and abstract nouns are still very productive: -aktig/-
agtig, -bar, -else, -er, -hed/-het.
Mention also needs to be made of MLG influence on the use of the
native adjective and adverbial ending, -lig. Although this element
is common Germanic (cf. ON -ligr, -legr, ODan. -likær, OSwed. -
lîker), its present popularity and very widespread usage in
Scandinavian word-formation has a great deal to owe to MLG
influence, through the suffix -lîk. Similar observations regarding
the dominance of adjective forming suffix -ig in Swedish are made by
Bertil Molde (p.78 - see booklist below) e.g. blodig "bloody",
stenig "stony".
Worth repeating here are comments made by Bertil Molde concerning
the relative ease with which MLG loans could be assimilated into the
native Scandinavian phonological, morphological and lexical systems:
"This Low German language had certain features significantly in
common with Swedish (and Danish). For example, it lacked the
diphthongs of High German and had not undergone the High German
soundshift…This meant that Low German had word forms such as sten,
hûs, ôge, tunge, dragen, gripen (cf. High German Stein, Haus, Auge,
Zunge, tragen, greifen) which in terms of pronunciation and spelling
were very close to Swedish. Such similarities between Low German and
medieval Swedish were of crucial importance for the possibilities of
Swedish to loan words from Low German. (P.77; translation mine)
And further:
"Their general structure (in terms of sound, spelling,
inflection) were from the beginning so close to the structure of
native words that the process of assimilation was rapid." (P.79;
translation mine)
To those listed by Molde, we might add such MLG forms as bok, open,
tam, eten and riden. Compare these with the rather more distant High
German Buch, offen, zahm, essen and reiten.
Middle Low German had a slighter effect on syntax and such
morphological aspects as nominal inflexional endings, although most
scholars do agree that that MLG influence is behind the general
levelling of the Scandinavian inflexional system and the more
analytic (relying on word order to convey meaning), rather than
synthetic (case-endings bear the grammatical information) structure
of Scandinavian syntax which developed over the period in question.
That having been said, inflexional levelling and increasingly
analytical syntax has occurred in all the Germanic languages to a
greater (e.g. English) or lesser (e.g. German) extent, regardless of
the nature of language contacts. Some commentators have argued that
these features were the result of Low German users being unable to
speak Scandinavian correctly - which is a defensible viewpoint.
Whatever the cause, however, it seems likely, as argued above, that
MLG contact accelerated these processes in the Mainland Scandinavian
Gradually as the power of the Hanseatic League declined in the
1400s and early 1500s, so did the influence of Middle Low German on
the Nordic tongues. At the same time, the advent of printing, and
later the Luther Bible, brought a new High German influence to bear.
The Lutheran Reformation in particular, opened the way for a flood
of High German lexical items and syntactical influence.

MLG influence on Icelandic and Faroese
Icelandic and Faroese received fewer direct loans from Middle Low
German mainly owing to their remote location and trade agreements
with Norway, and later, Denmark. Most loans into these North
Atlantic languages therefore were taken up indirectly, with
Norwegian or Danish (especially the latter) acting as an
intermediary. There were fewer loans into Icelandic compared to the
mainland, but those that existed were used with vigour in the
learned written language until the 1600s when the tide began to turn
against them. Such loans (as well as those that were entirely
Mainland Scandinavian in origin) were increasingly frowned upon as
corruptive and unnecessary. This feeling gradually increased and
culminated last century in the hreintungustefna (policy of
linguistic purism) which still defines the criteria concerning the
adoption of foreign words into Icelandic. Many Low German loans
through Danish as well as pure Danish words have been ejected in
favour of native constructs and most of the productive word-forming
elements loaned from the original imports have been cleansed from
the written language. The result is a purer but rather different
Icelandic from that of the 1600s and before. A similar principle
guides some of the more ardent adherents of Norwegian Nynorsk, who
want to see Low German "interference" minimised. The situation with
Faroese is rather more complicated, as the language is still
subjected to considerable Danish influence. There has been a
movement for a less mixed language there too, but the impetus has
been weaker. Consequently the Low German lexical influence in
Faroese (mostly through Danish) is more noticeable, but still not
nearly so important as the corresponding influence on the Mainland
Scandinavian languages.
Icelanders were reading Middle Low German books before the
Reformation in the late 1400s and the Hanseatic commercial power was
first making its presence felt in Iceland around this time. Examples
of MLG loans, most of which are still viable today, are:
greifi "earl", hertogi "duke", jungherra "master, nobleman",
jungfrú "lady", fursti "prince", riddari "knight", lén "fife",
kurteis "courtesy", handla "act; trade", smakka "taste",
sykur "sugar", kokkur "cook", kokka "cook, boil", diktur "poem",
forma "form", klókur "clever, cunning" and mekt "might, power".
Middle Low German words mediated through Danish are also in great
evidence in learned written documents from the Icelandic renaissance
and later Reformation period. A great number of the loans taken in
by the Icelandic scholars of the Reformation never progressed
further than the ecclesiastical register, including most of the
verbs formed in their hundreds with various affixes and suffixes
(for-, bí-, ofur-), agent nouns formed with -arí (e.g.
kettarí "heresy"), -erí (e.g. hórerí "prostitution") and the
abstract noun suffix from MLG -sel (e.g. bískermelsi "protection").
Many other common MLG via Danish words such as brúka, blífa, and
makt remained in Icelandic but have since been purged by the fierce
policy of lexical purism that has operated for over 100 years. Some
of the these still remain however, e.g. glas "glass",
fordæma "condemn", pakki "packet, pack", spegill "mirror",
slæmur "bad, poor", spaug "joke, jest" and orsök "cause". Although
almost all Danish (and hence MLG) has been purged from the formal
written language, many Danish loanwords are used in everyday speech.
Middle Low German and Danish-mediated MLG had a similar influence
on the Faroese lexicon as they had on the Icelandic. From Middle Low
German we can assign handil "trade; shop", bakari "baker",
blíva "become", mekt "power", and arbeiði "work" (only bakari is
still in Icelandic), as well as many others which have been loaned
in via Danish. In this latter category we can place betala "pay"
(from betale; obsolete in Icelandic), toy "cloth" (Danish tøj) and
vitskapur "science" (Danish videnskab), as well as begynna "begin"
(begynde), bevara "preserve" (bevare), forderva "spoil, corrupt"
(fordærve), forráða "betray" (forråde) and gemeinur "public, common"
(gemen is now not especially favoured in Danish). Danish is also the
source of some Faroese abstract nouns terminating in -heit and -ilsi
(the Danish endings are themselves derived from Middle Low German)
e.g. in words like sannheit "truth" (sandhed) and følilsi "feeling,
sensation" (følelse).
However, in more recent times Faroese has developed its own
alternatives to the words listed above, either from its own
resources or in imitation of Icelandic or Old Norse (or
occassionally Norwegian). Thus begynna "begin" > byrja, betala "pay"
> gjalda, bevara "preserve" > varðveita, forderva "spoil" > spilla,
forráða "betray" > svíkja, gemeinur "common, public" > vanligur,
sannheit "truth" > sannleiki, følilsi "feeling" > kensla,
fortapilsi "damnation" > glatan, herligheit "glory, splendour" >
dýrd, kerligheit "love" > kærleiki and trefoldigheit "trinity" >
tríeind (Poulsen, 1983, p.133).
In general though, Faroese is much more tolerant of this foreign
element in its midst than Icelandic.

Recommended reading:
Much has been written on this subject but almost nothing in English.
The interested reader will need to be able to read a Mainland
Scandinavian language (and preferably German) to research it in any
The best general specific introduction to the subject is probably
Wessén (1956). Useful general accounts are also given in Haugen
(1984), Karker (1996), Skard (1977), and rather fully, in Skautrup
(1970). Törnqvist (1977) offers a useful companion to Wessén, but is
not without omissions.
There are several more academic anthologies dealing with this
subject (Braunmüller, Hyldgaard-Jensen, Jahr) and while excellent,
these tend to address specific technical issues.

General language histories that contain chapters or sections on this
subject or period:

Barðdal, J., et al: Nordiska: Våra Språk förr och nu, Lund:
Studentlitteratur, 1997;
Bergman, Gösta: Kortfattad Svensk Språkhistoria, Stockholm: Primsa
Förlaget, 1991;
Haugen, Einar: Die skandinavischen Sprachen. Eine Einführung in ihre
Geschichte. Hamburg: Helmut Buscke Verlag, 1984;
Hutterer, Claus Jürgen: Die germanischen Sprachen: Ihre Geschichte
in Grundzügen Akademiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1998;
Karker, Allan: Politikens Sproghistorie. Udviklingslinjer før
nudansk, Politikens Forlag, Århus, 1996;
Karker, Allan: Dansk i tusind år. Et omrids af sprogets historie,
Virum: Modersmål-Selskabet/C.A. Reitzels Forlag A/S, 1995;
Moberg, Lena & Westman, Margareta (eds.): Svensk i tusen år. Glimtar
ur svenska språkets utveckling, Norstedts Förlag AB, 1998;
Ottósson, K.: Íslensk málhreinsun: sögulegt yfirlitt. Íslenskrar
málnefndar no.6, Reykjavík, 1990;
Pettersson, Gertrud: Svenska språket under sjuhundra år. En historia
om svenskan och dess utforskande, Studentlitteratur, Lund, 1997;
Skard, Vemund: Norsk Språkhistorie, Oslo, 1977;
Skautrup, Peter: Det danske sprogs historie. København: Gyldendal,
1944-1970. 5 vols;
Sveinsson, Sölvi: Íslensk málsaga. Iðunn, Reykjavík, 1992;
Walshe, M.O'C.: Introduction to the Scandinavian Languages, London:
Andre Deutsch, 1965.

Specific books and articles:

Braunmüller, Kurt & Dierecks, Willy (eds.): Niederdeutsch und die
skandinavischen Sprachen. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1993;
Braunmüller, Kurt (ed.): Niederdeutsch und die skandinavischen
Sprachen II. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1995;
Gregersen, H. V.: Plattysk i Sønderjylland: en undersøgelse af
fortyskningens historie indtil 1600-årene. (Odense University
studies in history and social sciences, v. 19). Odense: Odense
University Press, 1974;
Hansen, Erik & Lund, Jørn: Kulturens Gesandter. Fremmedordene i
dansk. København: Munksgaards Sprogserie, 1994;
Hyldgaard-Jensen, Karl et al. (eds.): Niederdeutsch in Skandinavien.
Akten des 1. nordischen Symposiums `Niederdeutsch in Skandinavien'
in Oslo 27.2.-1.3.1985 (= Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für deutsche
Philologie, vol. 4), Berlin: E. Schmidt Verlag, 1987;
Hyldgaard-Jensen, Karl et al. (eds.) Niederdeutsch in Skandinavien
II. Akten des 2. nordischen Symposiums `Niederdeutsch in
Skandinavien' in Kopenhagen 18.–20. Mai 1987. Berlin: E. Schmidt
Verlag, 1987;
Jahr, Ernst Håkon, (ed.): Nordisk og nedertysk: språkkontakt og
språkutvikling i Norden i seinmellomalderen, Oslo: Novus Forlag,
Jónsson, Baldur: "Isländska språket". In Nordens språk, ed. Karker,
A. et al., Oslo: Novus, 1997. pp. 161-76;
Kvaran, Guðrún: "Þættir úr sögu orðaforðans" pp. 35-48 of Erindi um
Íslenskt Mál, ed. and pub. Íslenska Málfræðifélagið, Reykjavík, 1996;
Moberg, Lena: Lagtyskt och svenskt i Stockholms medeltida
tankebocker. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1989;
Moberg, Lena: "Svenskt och tyskt" pp. 39-50 of Allén, Sture (ed.):
Arv och lån i svenskan. Sju uppsatser om ordförrådet i
kulturströmmarnas perspektiv, Nordsteds Förlag AB, 1994;
Molde, Bertil: "Svenska språket". In Nordens språk, ed. Karker, A.
et al, Oslo: Novus, 1997. pp. 73-94;
Nesse, Agnete: Språkkontakt mellom norsk og tysk i hansatidens
Bergen. Oslo: Novus Forlag, 2002;
Poulsen, Jóhan Hendrik: "Færøsk sprog". In Språkene i Norden, ed.
Karker, A. & Molde, B. et al., 1983. pp.124-136;
Poulsen, Jóhan Hendrik: "Det færøske sprog". In Nordens språk, ed.
Karker, A. et al., Oslo: Novus, 1997. pp. 177-92;
Törnqvist, Nils: Das niederdeutsche und niederländische Lehngut im
schwedischen Wortschatz, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 1977;
Wessén, Elias: Om det tyska inflytandet på svenskt språk under
medeltiden (Skrifter utgivna av Nämnden för Svensk Språkvård, 12),
Norstedts Svenska Bokförlaget, Stockholm, 1956;
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København: Einar Munksgaard, 1946;
Winge, Vibeke: Dänische Deutsche - deutsche Dänen. Geschichte der
deutschen Sprache in Dänemark 1300 - 1800 mit einem Ausblick auf das
19. Jahrhundert, (Sprachgeschichte Band 1), Heidelberg: Carl Winter
Universitätsverlag, 1992.

Etymological and other dictionaries:

Bjorvand, Harald & Lindemann, Fredrik Otto (eds.): Våre arveord:
etymologisk ordbok. Oslo: Novus Forlag, 2000;
Falk & Torp: Norwegisches-dänisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Carl
Winter Verlag, Heidelberg, 1910-11. 2 vols;
Heggstad, Leiv, Hødnebø, Finn & Simensen, Erik: Norrøn Ordbok, Det
Norske Samlaget, Oslo, 1997;
Katlev, Jan: Politikens Etymologisk Ordbog, Politikens Forlag,
København, 2000;
Landrø, Marit Ingebjørg og Wangensteen, Boye (eds.): Bokmålsordboka.
Definisjons- og rettskrivningsordbok, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo,
Lindow, Wolfgang: Plattdeutsches Wörterbuch, Institut für
Niederdeutsche Sprache, Bremen. Leer: Schuster, 1984;
Nielsen, Niels Åge: Dansk Etymologisk Ordbog, København: Gyldendal,
Politikens Nudansk Ordbog med etymologi (electronic edition: 17.
udgave, 1. oplag). Århus: Politikens Forlag A/S, 1999;
de Vries, Jan: Altnordisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Zweite
verbesserte Auflage. Leiden: Brill, 2000;
Wessén, Elias: Våra ord, deras uttal och ursprung, Esselte Studium,
Uppsala, 1985;
Zoëga, G.T.: Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford U.P., 1961.

Author: Edward Sproston, 2002 (adapted from two much larger articles
currently under preparation by him)

Further information: