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Thread: Genetic Diversity in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Post Genetic Diversity in the Iberian Peninsula

    Ann Hum Genet. 1991 Jan;55 ( Pt 1):51-67.
    Bertranpetit J, Cavalli-Sforza LL. Laboratori d'Antropologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.


    The genetic patterns detectable in human populations of the Iberian Peninsula are shown by means of 'synthetic genetic maps', i.e. geographic maps of the highest principal components (PC) of gene frequencies. This method of analysis separates independent patterns of the genetic landscape, which hopefully represents different, major evolutionary events of the past. Among these are clines established by ancient important migrations, and local differentiations of populations due to barriers responsible for relative isolation. Only events of some magnitude from a demographic point of view, involving populations having initially definite genetic differences are detectable by the method.

    For this to be true, the genetic consequences of these events must not have been entirely smoothed out by later, prolonged genetic exchange between neighbours; but simulations have shown that long clines produced by major migrations can be rather stable in time. The first synthetic map, corresponding to the first PC, shows that the major difference in the Iberian Peninsula is that between people originally of Basque and non-Basque descent. The recession in time of the boundaries of the Basque-speaking area seems correlated with the progressive genetic dilution of the Basque genotype in modern populations, as we move away from the centre of the Basque area.

    Clearly there must have been a close relationship in the progressive loss of the Basque language and increasing genetic admixture with neighbours. Most probably, Basques represent descendants of Paleolithic and/or Mesolithic populations and non-Basques later arrivals, beginning with the Neolithic. The second synthetic map is correlated with early Neolithic infiltrations from the eastern edge of the Pyrenees. It has been shown by archaeologists that, in some areas, early Neolithics lived side by side at overlapping dates with well developed Mesolithics. The demographic impact of Neolithic farmers versus Mesolithics, and therefore their genetic influence was thus less important in the Iberian Peninsula than in Central Europe. The third synthetic map shows a correlation with the linguistic and historical duality between the Atlantic and Mediterranean fringes, which developed in the first millennium B.C. and was probably determined, to some extent, by infiltrations through the Pyrenees of the Urnfield cultural elements as well as by several other later events.

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    Post Genetic Diversity in the Iberian Peninsula

    Genetic diversity in the Iberian Peninsula determined from mitochondrial sequence analysis.

    We have analysed 302 bp of the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial D-loop in 271 individuals from different regions of the Iberian Peninsula and 85 individuals from Algeria. The Basque population is significantly different from neighbouring populations in terms of overall levels of diversity. This is because the majority of sequences in the Basques are restricted to the lineage group defined by the CRS (Cambridge Reference Sequence) and its derivatives although, like other Iberian populations, they showed a unimodal distribution of pairwise sequence differences. The timing of divergence of populations within Iberia points to a shared ancestry of all populations in the Upper Palaeolithic. Further genetic subdivision is apparent in Catalonia and Andalusia, with increased genetic diversity in the latter. Lineage diversity comparisons of Iberian populations with European (Tuscan) and North African (Algerian) populations shows the Iberian Peninsula to be more similar to other European populations, although a small number of Iberian lineages can be traced to North Africa.

    Corte-Real HB, Macaulay VA, Richards MB, Hariti G, Issad MS, Cambon-Thomsen A, Papiha S, Bertranpetit J, Sykes BC.

    Department of Cellular Science, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, UK.

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    Lightbulb Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula

    Europe has been influenced by both intra- and intercontinental migrations. Since the Iberian peninsula was a refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum, demographic factors associated with contraction, isolation, subsequent expansion and gene flow episodes have contributed complexity to its population history. In this work, we analysed 26 Y-chromosome biallelic markers in 568 chromosomes from 11 different Iberian population groups and compared them to published data on the Basques and Catalans to gain insight into the paternal gene pool of these populations and find out to what extent major demographic processes account for their genetic structure. Our results reveal a reduced, although geographically correlated, Y-chromosomal interpopulation variance (1.2%), which points to a limited heterogeneity in the region. Coincidentally, spatial analysis of genetic distances points to a focal distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups in this area. These results indicate that neither old or recent Levantine expansions nor North African contacts have influenced the current Iberian Y-chromosome diversity so that geographical patterns can be identified.

    http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publication...4_v12_p855.pdf

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