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Thread: Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development

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    Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development

    There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds.
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    Breeds or landraces? Only pristine populations and aDNA are useful here for inferring human migrations or the initial spread of domesticated dogs. The Asian spitz breeds have been used in recent crosses, while the Mediterranean breeds are currently more segregated from gene flow: the late artificial influence of Asia matches a recent paper of chicken DNA that only confirmed what we knew already from ie. melanistic silkies. The form of intensified selective breeding people take for granted is for the most part recent in origin and postdates Columbus by hundreds of years. It also happened with horses leaving landraces like the Mongolian, Icelandic and Norwegian Fjord horses as outside a confused clade including Thoroughbreds, Quarter Horses etc. Though the origins of modern purebreds might be of interest in itself for other purposes they must be scrubbed from the tree.

    Not surprisingly the dngo-like basenji is at the base despite past attempts to categorise it as a pinscher ("dog of the turberas"). This might be exaggerated because of its extensive jackal DNA: domestic dog relationships cannot be viewed without the context of wild relatives. The Xigou (a leineri type from Shanxi) is also more oddly at the root, away from similar Mediterranean dogs. Though the modern xigou is becoming mixed with C Asian sighthounds. Spitzes seem to form a grade at the base but Samoyeds and European spitzes are perhaps closer to European dogs because of admixture with western dogs.

    There is an early split or potentially seperate domestication, between primitive Mediterranean and Oriental spitz landraces.

    The chihuahua is a terrier of OW origins: this is big for Pre-Columbian contacts. And the "Chinese" crested is its sister, also big for transoceanic contacts and the origins of hairless breeds in the Americas and elsewhere. (Yes they crossed before Columbus.) The Peruvian hairless dog and the xoloitzcuintli are however in a different NW part of the tree. American terriers are descended from native dogs called feists (new to me but logical enough).

    It would be nice were more pariah types included such as Carolina and Canaan dogs.

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