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Thread: Dutch Hair and Eye Color Distribution(The Genetic Overlap Between Hair and Eye Color)

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    Dutch Hair and Eye Color Distribution(The Genetic Overlap Between Hair and Eye Color)

    The Genetic Overlap Between Hair and Eye Color

    Abstract
    We identified the genetic variants for eye color by Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in a Dutch Caucasian family-based population sample and examined the genetic correlation between hair and eye color using data from unrelated participants from the Netherlands Twin Register. With the Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis software package, we found strong genetic correlations between various combinations of hair and eye colors.
    The strongest positive correlations were found for blue eyes with blond hair (0.87) and brown eyes with dark hair (0.71), whereas blue eyes with dark hair and brown eyes with blond hair showed the strongest negative correlations (-0.64 and -0.94, respectively). Red hair with green/hazel eyes showed the weakest correlation (-0.14).
    All analyses were corrected for age and sex, and we explored the effects of correcting for principal components (PCs) that represent ancestry and describe the genetic stratification of the Netherlands. When including the first three PCs as covariates, the genetic correlations between the phenotypes disappeared.
    This is not unexpected since hair and eye colors strongly indicate the ancestry of an individual. This makes it difficult to separate the effects of population stratification and the true genetic effects of variants on these particular phenotypes.
    [...]
    It is important to realize when studying eye and hair color that these phenotypes can be highly correlated with the genetic constitution of the population. Although the overall pigmentation prevalence has changed during the past 100 years (see Table 1: hyper-pigmentation traits are more prevalent in 2004), the distribution pattern of pigment traits following latitude is still the same. PCs representing Dutch ancestry and geographic location are likely to explain the largest part of the variability of human pigment traits. As shown here, the effect of population stratification and the true effects of genes on the two traits are closely linked, as PC1–PC3 also explained the genetic overlap between the traits. In our study, we only selected European Caucasian individuals based on the genetic PC projection and 1,000 genomes.



    Source (Researchgate)

    Nothing quite new here in itself, dark hair corresponds with dark eyes, light hair with light eyes, which has been known for ages.

    But the coloration charts for the Netherlands and its regions are interesting, especially because they directly compare the two samples from 1908 and 2004.
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