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Thread: Distribution of Neanderthal Sunlight Adaptation Genes

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    Distribution of Neanderthal Sunlight Adaptation Genes

    http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2014/06...aplotypes.html

    Skin color is one of the most visible and important phenotypes of modern humans. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone and its receptor played an important role in regulating skin color. In this paper, we present evidence of Neanderthal introgression encompassing the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene MC1R. The haplotypes from Neanderthal introgression diverged with the Altai Neanderthal 103.3 KYA, which postdates the anatomically modern human – Neanderthal divergence. We further discovered that all of the putative Neanderthal introgressive haplotypes carry the Val92Met variant, a loss-of-function variant in MC1R that is associated with multiple dermatological traits including skin color and photoaging. Frequency of this Neanderthal introgression is low in Europeans (~5%), moderate in continental East Asians (~30%), and high in Taiwanese aborigines (60-70%). Since the putative Neanderthal introgressive haplotypes carry a loss-of-function variant that could alter the function of MC1R and is associated with multiple traits related to skin color, we speculate that the Neanderthal introgression may have played an important role in the local adaptation of Eurasians to sunlight intensity.

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    "Altai Neanderthal" is an Asian Neanderthal. Asian Neanderthals cannot be expected to have the same pigmentation alleles as Western European Neanderthals, for instance. Neanderthal were widespread and lasted a very long time and existed in diverse environments. One would suppose and even more diverse pigmentation difference than exists today.

    Remnants of the Neanderthal genome are not all divided up equally in today's hybrids. This varies by region and by individual. So some of us carry Neanderthal alleles for the bones of the arm, rib and shoulder bones. Others carry more genes for pigmentation and skin. With the HLA system, human lukocite system, there are four alleles from Neanderthals which are unequally spread across Europe and Asia. Denisovans contribute four more which neither we nor Africans have. So my point is Neanderthal inheritance is very spotty.

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    Where is neanderthal admixture strongest? In the past it was probably so in the Altai-Saiyan region and the Baraba forest-steppe. But the faces of (for example) Nordids and Iranids show neanderthaloid features of the midface, jaws and orbits.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Catterick
    the faces of (for example) Nordids and Iranids show neanderthaloid features of the midface, jaws and orbits.
    I do not agree with this statement. Neanderthal admixture is highest as a whole in East Asians. They consistently score the highest as a population. The absolute highest result was found in Chippewan Indians, with Eskimos not too far behind. Bougainville Islanders and Papuans had a lot of Neanderthal admixture on top of their Denisovan admixture. IMO there were Neanderthals in East Asia such as Maba 1 which was reclassified as a Neanderthal a few months ago. Admixture was probanly highest in Southeast Asia.




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    Quote Originally Posted by Catterick View Post
    Where is neanderthal admixture strongest? In the past it was probably so in the Altai-Saiyan region and the Baraba forest-steppe. But the faces of (for example) Nordids and Iranids show neanderthaloid features of the midface, jaws and orbits.
    Didn't John Hawks put it in the Tuscany region of Italy and spots in N. Africa?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Shadow View Post
    Didn't John Hawks put it in the Tuscany region of Italy and spots in N. Africa?
    Tuscans are hawk nosed - is this purely dinaricisation? Mechtoid skulls can display occipital buns like neanderthals and are supposedly similar to Epigravettian Italians - is it a coincidence both areas have more neanderthal genes today?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Catterick View Post
    Tuscans are hawk nosed - is this purely dinaricisation? Mechtoid skulls can display occipital buns like neanderthals and are supposedly similar to Epigravettian Italians - is it a coincidence both areas have more neanderthal genes today?
    He based this on amount of Neanderthal DNA.

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