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Thread: The Proto-Indo-European Homeland

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    Lightbulb The Proto-Indo-European Homeland

    The "Proto-Indo-European homeland" refers to the area where speakers of PIE lived just before they split into daughter branches.




    R-M420 (R1a) Slavs



    Phylogeny - The R-M420 family tree now has three major levels of branching, with the largest number of defined subclades within the dominant and best known branch, R1a1a (which will be found with various names; in particular, as "R1a1" in relatively recent but not the latest literature).

    Roots of R-M420 - R-M420, distinguished by several unique markers including the M420 mutation, is a subclade of Haplogroup R-M173 (previously called R1), which is defined by SNP mutation M173. Besides R-M420, R-M173 also has the subclades R-M343 (previously called R1b), defined by the M343 mutation, and the paragroup R-M173*. There is no simple consensus concerning the places in Eurasia where R-M173, R-M420 or R-M343 evolved.


    Tocharian R1b



    European R1b is dominated by R-M269. It has been found at generally low frequencies throughout central Eurasia, but with relatively high frequency among Bashkirs of the Perm Region (84.0%). This marker is also present in China and India at frequencies of less than one percent.

    The frequency is about 71% in Scotland, 70% in Spain and 60% in France. In south-eastern England the frequency of this clade is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal. 92.3% in Wales and in Ireland it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%!

    Haplogroup R (mtDNA) is a very extended mitochondrial DNA haplogroup and is the most common macro-haplogroup in West Eurasia.

    In 2009, DNA extracted from the femur bones of 6 skeletons in an early-medieval burial place in Ergolding (Bavaria, Germany) dated to around 670 AD yielded the following results: 4 were found to be haplogroup R1b with the closest matches in modern populations of Germany and Ireland while 2 were in Haplogroup G2a (Caucasus).


    Historically, Georgian highlander communities enjoyed a degree of autonomy. Khevsurs never accepted local lords; they elected their leaders or khevisberi (elder) and council of elders and submitted themselves only to the monarch.

    They were exceptional warriors with traditional Georgian qualities of courage, openness and honesty, fraternity, independence and love of freedom, who were often promoted as royal bodyguards. Kings regarded them as reliable guardians of the Caucasus Mountains and the northern border of the kingdom. In the battles Khevsurs wore flags adorned with crosses and considered themselves permanent members of the army of the sacred flags and guardians of Georgian Kings.

    There has been a hypothesis, coming from the locals and descriptions by Russian serviceman and ethnographer Arnold Zisserman who spent 25 years (1842–67) during Russian expansion in the Caucasus, that these Georgian highlanders were descendants of the last European Crusaders because their folk culture – the material, social, and religious practices – greatly resembled those of the Crusaders.

    Zisserman also writes that 'concerning their origin the Khevsurs have preserved a tradition: they consider a certain man by the name of Gudaneli as their first ancestor. He was a peasant vassal of a landlord in Kakhetia, and to escape punishment for some crime which he had committed, he found refuge in the Pshav village of Apsho. From his two sons, Arabuli and Chinchara, originated the family of Arabuli, consisting of 320 homes, and the family of Chincharauli, with 210 homes.'

    American traveler Richard Halliburton (1900–1939) saw and recorded the customs of the Khevsur tribe in 1935. Khevsurs are mentioned in Greek, Roman and Georgian sources before the formation of European crusades and the pure European origin of Khevsurs is not supported by most modern scholars. However, some form of settlement of Crusaders in these areas is possible, as they are mentioned in several manuscripts of the time as participants of several battles against the Muslims in Georgia (100 "Frankish" Crusaders participated in King David's army in the Battle of Didgori).


    The highest point in Europe - Kroy-Khasis (“ice-shining, white with snow”)

    Source: VNN
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    Caucasic people are geographically close to the IE urheimat, and later came under the control of the In-Irs, not to mention Greeks, Goths and Armenians. PIE was probably a contact language between the Uralics and southern nations speaking Caucasian languages. Then the Caucasus area entered the Iranian oikumene and it becomes hard to tell Proto-IE, from Iranian, from pre-IE in the Caucasus tradition.

    When did the Nart "sagas" arise? The content is ancient indeed, but the word Nart is absent from South Caucasus languages, and those of peoples that had traveled through the region such as Greeks, Armenians and the Alanian element among the Kurds. The word Nart must be late, therefore.

    Images are of Khevsurs. Though I can't see their faces properly without contacts they look Balkan-ish to me. One or two of them have deep jaws looking in a Nordic-type direction - Scythia was nearby after all. The womans nose is very prominent no? Maybe she has an Armenoid strain. The middle man stood up looks outright Chechen Caucasionic.




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    Photographs of Caucasian peoples: http://www.batsav.com/pages/costume.html

    The site intends to show women's dress but the racial types of the Caucasus by ethnicity are obvious.

    I'm surprised how strong discernable Cromagnid traits are there, as in this Caucasian Avar lady:


    Azerbaijanis are Kurds who underwent a language shift, this lady is a robust Iranian:


    A Mingrelian with the nose of the local Taurid/dinariform type, the Mtebid:


    Ossetians are East Iranians, originally racially Nordic, but became broader skulled through Caucasionic admixture:


    Noghai alone are Mongoloids:

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