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Thread: Genetic Overlap: Refuting Race Denial

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    Genetic Overlap: Refuting Race Denial

    Don't let them abuse genetics as a smoke screen.

    Thus, the genetic overlap between dog breeds also appears between many natural species. In the deer family, genetic variability is greater within some species than between some genera (Cronin, 1991). Some masked shrew populations are genetically closer to prairie shrews than they are to other masked shrews (Stewart et al., 1993). Only a minority of mallards cluster together on an mtDNA tree, the rest being scattered among black ducks (Avise et al., 1990).

    All six species of Darwin's ground finches form a genetically homogeneous genus with very little concordance between mtDNA, nuclear DNA, and morphology (Freeland and Boag, 1999). In terms of genetic distance, redpoll finches from the same species are not significantly closer to each other than they are to redpolls from different species (Seutin et al., 1995). The haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria are extremely difficult to identify as species when one looks at their nuclear or mitochondrial genes, despite being well differentiated anatomically and behaviorally (Klein et al., 1998). Neither mtDNA nor allozyme alleles can distinguish the various species of Lycaedis butterflies, despite clear differences in morphology (Nice and Shapiro, 1999).
    That different species share the same two A/B alleles could be the result of convergent evolution in many lineages or of an ancestral polymorphism stably maintained for millions of years and inherited across (at least a subset of) species. The two possibilities have been debated for decades, with a consensus emerging that A is ancestral and the B allele has evolved independently at least six times in primates (in human, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon/siamang, macaque, and baboon), in particular, that the human A/B polymorphism arose more recently than the split with chimpanzee. We show instead that the remarkable distribution of ABO alleles across species reflects the persistence of an old ancestral polymorphism that originated at least 20 million years (My) ago and is shared identical by descent by humans and gibbons as well as among distantly related Old World monkeys.
    http://evoandproud.blogspot.co.uk/20...dern-myth.html

    Who wants to create a v2 of Goodrum's old Race FAQ? Does it need updating?

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    There are many definitions of species and many ways to look at a species and its sister species, races and so on. The sapiens-Neanderthal relationship is an example. Many thought they were the same species with each being a race or subspecies. But by looking into the rules of introgression, cracks began to appear in this analysis. Then non-metric, diagnostic characters were found and some of these represented abilities outside the capacity of the other group. Finally, the preponderance of evidence and the genetic patterning pretty much requires separate species even though the two could and did interbreed.

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