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Thread: From Racial Typology to DNA Sequencing

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    Lightbulb From Racial Typology to DNA Sequencing

    'Race' and 'ethnicity' and the science of human genetic variation 1945-2012

    Over the last decades genetic research has undergone a technological revolution and is now producing large amounts of data on human populations.

    This has opened up new avenues for scientific research, but has also raised a host of epistemological, historical, ethical and political questions about genetic science itself, as well as the role of genetic information in society.

    Among these debates are controversies involving the concepts of ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’ and human genetic variation, and the related scientific practices. How do social and cultural notions of 'ethnicity', 'race' and ancestry interact with the production of scientific knowledge about human genetic variation?

    And how, in turn, do scientific developments guide the conceptualisation of human variation both inside and outside the academia? Such questions figure prominently in ongoing international academic debates and research, but more than often transcend scholarly discussions to engage with the public.

    The overall aim of the project is to investigate the interactions between societal and scientific processes in the establishment of concepts of 'ethnicity' in physical anthropology and human population genetics from 1945 to 2012.

    In this project genetic data are neither understood as a simple representation of nature nor as a mere product of social and political interests. Instead, we will elucidate how society shapes the production of scientific knowledge in human genetics, and how scientific knowledge influences the social sphere.

    Our goal is to identify cultural and societal implications of human population genetics, and provide a knowledge base for normative discussions about these implications.

    The project is hosted at The Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology, it runs for four years and will conclude with an exhibition. It is funded by the Norwegian Research Council’s SAMKUL-program (Cultural conditions underlying social change). It is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Biosciences at the University of Oslo, the Institute of Health and Society at the University of Oslo and The Norwegian National Committees for Research Ethics. Jon Røyne Kyllingstad is the project leader.


    The project consists of the following four parts:


    Racial typology and genetic research, and constructions of biological difference between Sami and Non-Sami Scandinavians (1945-2012)

    This is a historical study of how biological differences between Sami and non-Sami Scandinavians have been construed within physical-anthropological and genomic research from the interwar years and until today. It explores how shifting scientific conceptualizations of ethnic groups have been influenced by – and have influenced – cultural and political discourses on ethnicity.

    It also explores the degree of continuity or discontinuity between the racial typologies of “old” physical anthropology and the conceptualizations of human biological difference in present day human genetic variation research. The study is undertaken by Jon Røyne Kyllingstad. He is a historian, senior curator at The Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology, and member of The National Committee for Research Ethics on Human Remains.


    From Calipers to Sequencers: Physical Anthropology in Greece and the Construction of Racial and National Identity, 1950s to present

    This study explores how physical anthropology and human genetic variation research have influenced the construction of racial and national identity in Greece from the 1950s and on.

    From its establishment in the late-19th century, Greek physical anthropology strove to answer the question of the origins of Greek populations in line with the dominant view of a lineal continuity between ancient and modern Greeks. During the following decades, and as the overarching questions and aims remained relatively unchanged, new research settings emerged.

    By discussing shifts in scientific narratives and methods, along with changing institutional settings, political ideologies and cultural understandings, the research emphasizes the close entanglement between science, the public and the state in the conceptualization of race and ethnicity in Greece. Ageliki Lefkaditou, who is a historian of science with a background in biological sciences, is responsible for the study.


    Human molecular genetics in forensic identification and human evolution, and its relation to identity (1990-2012)

    This study explores the implications of the transition from the so-called classical genetic markers (based on blood group and protein polymorphisms) to DNA-based markers, and how definitions of biological race or population are used by molecular biologists, medical researchers, evolutionary biologists, and forensic scientists.

    Of particular interest is the investigation of how scientists define human population groups for studies in population genetics and DNA forensics, and how the results of these studies are conveyed to the public and ultimately exploited commercially. The study is conducted by Erika Hagelberg. She is professor of evolutionary biology at the Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, and is trained as a biochemist and historian of science. She pioneered the analysis of DNA from bone and has been active in DNA typing, human molecular genetics and molecular evolution for 25 years.


    Ethical aspects of research on DNA and ethnicity

    This part of the project draws on the other studies and discusses ethical implications of applying various concepts of race or ethnicity to groups of people and to what degree researchers should be held responsible for the political, cultural and societal implications and consequences of the choices they make. Responsible for this study is Hallvard Fossheim is professor of ancient philosophy at the Department of Philosophy, University of Bergen.

    For more details about the project, please download the project outline:

    Project Outline: From Racial Typology to DNA Sequencing

    Source: Ethnicity and Race
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    This:


    -------------------------
    Human molecular genetics in forensic identification and human evolution, and its relation to identity (1990-2012)

    This study explores the implications of the transition from the so-called classical genetic markers (based on blood group and protein polymorphisms) to DNA-based markers, and how definitions of biological race or population are used by molecular biologists, medical researchers, evolutionary biologists, and forensic scientists.
    --------------------------------------------

    Typology took arbitrary characteristics which where thought to have a genetic basis and used these characters in a presence or absence or correlation basis to define race.

    Genetic markers, old and new, take arbitrary alleles, haplotypes and/or haplogroups, and use these in a presence or absence or correlation basis to define race.

    The problem in using genetic markers is they are composed of less genetic information that the characteristics used by typologists. The genetic inheritance is better understood with genetic markers but the total of genes in correlation to produce a type character is less, far, far less.

    The fact is both are doing the same thing using different materials, concept and methodology. Genetic markers is rendered into Genetic Typology.

    This is why whole genome is so important. Now we can compare every gene to those of others. We can correlate the probability of the presence of one gene to another. We can build pictures of real races using real, "whole", not arbitrary, genetic information. We can compare these whole genome races to each other. We can trace ancestry with precision. We can compare paleo-races and paleo-species to ours and to each other and determine the phylogenetic relationships between them and to us.

    You can not do this using typology or using genetic markers. You can only guess using them. Using whole genome, we know.

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