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Thread: Vocal Fold Control Beyond the Species-specific Repertoire in an Orang-utan

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    Senior Member Catterick's Avatar
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    Vocal Fold Control Beyond the Species-specific Repertoire in an Orang-utan

    Orang vocalisations and the origins of human speech.

    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep30315

    Vocal fold control was critical to the evolution of spoken language, much as it today allows us to learn vowel systems. It has, however, never been demonstrated directly in a non-human primate, leading to the suggestion that it evolved in the human lineage after divergence from great apes. Here, we provide the first evidence for real-time, dynamic and interactive vocal fold control in a great ape during an imitation “do-as-I-do” game with a human demonstrator. Notably, the orang-utan subject skilfully produced “wookies” – an idiosyncratic vocalization exhibiting a unique spectral profile among the orang-utan vocal repertoire. The subject instantaneously matched human-produced wookies as they were randomly modulated in pitch, adjusting his voice frequency up or down when the human demonstrator did so, readily generating distinct low vs. high frequency sub-variants. These sub-variants were significantly different from spontaneous ones (not produced in matching trials). Results indicate a latent capacity for vocal fold exercise in a great ape (i) in real-time, (ii) up and down the frequency spectrum, (iii) across a register range beyond the species-repertoire and, (iv) in a co-operative turn-taking social setup. Such ancestral capacity likely provided the neuro-behavioural basis of the more fine-tuned vocal fold control that is a human hallmark.

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    There has been s suspicion australopithecines had a laryngeal sack.

    http://johnhawks.net/weblog/reviews/...sacs_2006.html

    This may or may not be a big deal but it has also been said the extreme vocalization, the threatening noise, made by bigfoot contains so much volume it must be produced by a laryngeal sack.

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    Senior Member Catterick's Avatar
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    Remember African erectus/ergaster (Nariokotome) likely retained airsacs of the sort mutually exclusive with human vocalisations. Airsacs common in primates and other mammals.

    http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzool...ets-sacs-pt-i/



    Small hylobatids lack airsacs so as to avoid hyperventilation.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12207055

    Krantz suggested the "breasts" of bigfoot are airsacs. I saw this and I thought of you.

    http://www.cryptozoonews.com/bf-breasts/

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    From Catterick's reference:

    Abstract

    A possible function of laryngeal air sacs in apes and gibbons was investigated by examining the relationships between air sac distribution, call rate, call duration and body weight in a phylogenetic context. The results suggest that lack of sacs in the smaller gibbons and in humans is a derived feature. Call parameters in primates, such as rate and duration, scaled to resting breathing rate (and therefore to body weight) only in species without air sacs, which appear to modify these relationships. Apes and larger gibbons may be able to produce fast extended call sequences without the risk of hyperventilating because they can re-breathe exhaled air from their air sacs. Humans may have lost air sacs during their evolutionary history because they are able to modify their speech breathing patterns and so reduce any tendency to hyperventilate.


    I am just not going for breasts as air sacs. The breasts on bigfoot according to reports I have heard are unmistakably breasts as in humans. I think the description of bigfoot as having no neck reflects the presence of the air sack hiding the neck.

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    Senior Member Catterick's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Shadow View Post
    From Catterick's reference:

    Abstract

    A possible function of laryngeal air sacs in apes and gibbons was investigated by examining the relationships between air sac distribution, call rate, call duration and body weight in a phylogenetic context. The results suggest that lack of sacs in the smaller gibbons and in humans is a derived feature. Call parameters in primates, such as rate and duration, scaled to resting breathing rate (and therefore to body weight) only in species without air sacs, which appear to modify these relationships. Apes and larger gibbons may be able to produce fast extended call sequences without the risk of hyperventilating because they can re-breathe exhaled air from their air sacs. Humans may have lost air sacs during their evolutionary history because they are able to modify their speech breathing patterns and so reduce any tendency to hyperventilate.


    I am just not going for breasts as air sacs. The breasts on bigfoot according to reports I have heard are unmistakably breasts as in humans. I think the description of bigfoot as having no neck reflects the presence of the air sack hiding the neck.
    I'm troubled by the fact the P-G creature's breasts are hairy which, as you know, is not primate-like. Krantz realised this and so considered other explanations. Laryngeal sacs are expected in large-bodied non-speaking primates but to be the "breasts" they would need to hang low..

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    Quote Originally Posted by Catterick View Post
    I'm troubled by the fact the P-G creature's breasts are hairy which, as you know, is not primate-like. Krantz realised this and so considered other explanations. Laryngeal sacs are expected in large-bodied non-speaking primates but to be the "breasts" they would need to hang low..
    With bigfoot and some other types of mystery apes these breasts are described by some witnesses as thrown over their shoulders as they run away. This could not be done with air sacs. Another thing is that with bigfoot the breasts are not high and firm but low, ponderous and hanging like they need a push-up bra. This sounds very human to me.

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    Senior Member Catterick's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Shadow View Post
    With bigfoot and some other types of mystery apes these breasts are described by some witnesses as thrown over their shoulders as they run away. This could not be done with air sacs.
    No primate does this with its breasts, and it can probably be done only with pathological human breasts. Given the motif is also associated with witches and demons I'm sure its one of those folklore motifs. Not at all something to expect from a real animal.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Catterick View Post
    No primate does this with its breasts, and it can probably be done only with pathological human breasts. Given the motif is also associated with witches and demons I'm sure its one of those folklore motifs. Not at all something to expect from a real animal.
    I don't dispute this at all and agree with it but this is reported as fact. A recent sighting in the South was reported on TV where a man and woman saw two bigfoots on their property. The wife described them as male and female. When asked how she knew this she said because the female had breasts.

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